Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Fecundity

  • absolute fecundity
  • adult fecundity
  • annual fecundity
  • aphid fecundity
  • density-dependent fecundity
  • female fecundity
  • greater fecundity
  • high fecundity
  • increased fecundity
  • individual fecundity
  • lifetime fecundity
  • low fecundity
  • lower fecundity
  • mean fecundity
  • potential fecundity
  • reduced fecundity
  • relative fecundity

  • Terms modified by Fecundity

  • fecundity advantage
  • fecundity decreased
  • fecundity rate
  • fecundity reduction
  • fecundity selection

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2008
    Jenni E. Pettay
    A population's potential for evolutionary change depends on the amount of genetic variability expressed in traits under selection. Studies attempting to measure this variability typically do so over the life span of individuals, but theory suggests that the amount of additive genetic variance can change during the course of individuals' lives. Here we use pedigree data from historical Finns and a quantitative genetic framework to investigate how female fecundity, throughout an individual's reproductive life, is influenced by "maternal" versus additive genetic effects. We show that although maternal effects explain variation in female fecundity early in life, these effects wane with female age. Moreover, this decline in maternal effects is associated with a concomitant increase in additive genetic variance with age. Our results thus highlight that single over-lifetime estimates of trait heritability may give a misleading view of a trait's potential to respond to changing selection pressures. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2004
    Mats Olsson
    Abstract We demonstrate that extending copulation enhances probability of paternity in sand lizards and that determinants of copulation duration depend on a males' mating order (first or second). First males, with no information on presence of rivals, extend copulation when mating with a more fecund female. Second males, however, adjust copula duration in relation to a first male's relatedness with his female, which there is reason to believe can be deduced from the MHC-related odor of the copulatory plug. Male-female relatedness negatively influences a male's probability of paternity, and when second males are in a favored role (i.e., the first male is the one more closely related to the female), second males transfer larger ejaculates, resulting in higher probability of paternity. This result corroborates predictions from recent theoretical models on sperm expenditure theory incorporating cryptic female choice and sexual conflict. More specifically, the results conform to a "random roles" model, which depicts males as being favored by some females and disfavored by others, but not to a "constant-type" model, in which a male is either favored or disfavored uniformly by all females in a population. [source]

    Reproductive interference determines persistence and exclusion in species interactions

    Shigeki Kishi
    Summary 1.,Reproductive interference is a negative interspecific sexual interaction that adversely affects the fitness of males and females during reproductive process. Theoretical studies suggest that because reproductive interference is characterized by positive frequency dependence it is far more likely to cause species exclusion than the density dependence of resource competition. However, the respective contributions of resource competition and reproductive interference to species exclusion, which have been frequently observed in many competition studies, remain unclear. 2.,We show that reproductive interference is a far more critical cause of species exclusion than resource competition in the competition between Callosobruchus bean weevil species. In competition experiments over several generations, we manipulated the initial relative abundance of the adzuki bean beetle, Callosobruchus chinensis, and the southern cowpea beetle, Callosobruchus maculatus. When the initial adult ratio of C. chinensis : C. maculatus were 6 : 2 and 4 : 4, C. chinensis excluded C. maculatus. However, when C. maculatus was four times more abundant than C. chinensis at the start, we observed the opposite outcome. 3.,A behavioural experiment using adults of the two species revealed asymmetric reproductive interference. The fecundity and longevity of C. maculatus females, but not those of C. chinensis females, decreased when the females were kept with heterospecific males. Fecundities of females of both species decreased as the number of heterospecific males increased. In contrast, resource competition at the larval stage resulted in higher survival of C. maculatus than of C. chinensis. 4.,These results suggest that the positive frequency-dependent effect of reproductive interference resulted in species exclusion, depending on the initial population ratio of the two species, and the asymmetry of the interference resulted in C. chinensis being dominant in this study, as in previous studies. Classical competition studies should be reviewed in light of this evidence for reproductive interference. [source]

    Maternal size and age affect offspring sex ratio in the solitary egg parasitoid Anaphes nitens

    Serena Santolamazza-Carbone
    Abstract In this study, the effects of maternal age, diet, and size on offspring sex ratio were investigated for the solitary egg parasitoid, Anaphes nitens Girault (Hymenoptera: Mymaridae), both outdoors, during the winter, and inside a climatic chamber under favourable constant conditions. During the winter of 2005,2006, each of seven groups containing 40 1-day-old females was mated and randomly distributed among two treatments: (treatment 1) a droplet of undiluted honey ad libitum + one fresh egg capsule of the snout beetle Gonipterus scutellatus Gyllenhal (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) as host; (treatment 2) drops of water + one fresh egg capsule of G. scutellatus. We recorded the lifetime fecundity, the daily sex allocation, and the lifetime offspring sex ratio to study the existence of a relationship with maternal characteristics. Moreover, we assessed the effect of location (outdoors vs. indoors) and group (groups are representative of early, mid, and late winter) on sex ratio. The most important factor that biased the sex ratio was maternal body size: larger females of both treatments produced more female offspring. As females of A. nitens could gain more advantage than males from body size, larger mothers have a higher fitness return if they produce more daughters. The effect of the treatment was significant: starved females produced more females. Location and group were not significant. Fecundity and sex ratio were age dependent. Old mothers that received honey (treatment 1) had fewer offspring and a more male-biased offspring sex ratio, probably due to reproductive senescence and sperm depletion. Starved females (treatment 2) experienced reproductive decline earlier, perhaps because they invested more energy in maintenance rather than in reproduction. [source]

    Susceptibility of Megalurothrips sjostedti developmental stages to Metarhizium anisopliae and the effects of infection on feeding, adult fecundity, egg fertility and longevity

    S. Ekesi
    Abstract The susceptibility of immature stages of the legume flower thrips, Megalurothrips sjostedti, to the entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium anisopliae, was investigated under laboratory conditions. The adult stage was found to be more susceptible to infection than the larval and pupal stages. Mortality at all stages was dose-dependent, with the highest concentration of 1×108 conidia ml,1 producing the highest mortality (26, 46 and 100% for larvae, pupae and adults, respectively) at 8 days post-inoculation. At the same concentration, daily pollen consumption was significantly reduced at 2 days after treatment in infected adults but more slowly in infected larvae. Fecundity, egg fertility and longevity in adults surviving infection as larvae were significantly reduced compared to the control. [source]

    Relationship between diet composition and the fecundity of Musca domestica

    Ran WON
    Abstract A study of the relationship between diet compositions of housefly Musca domestica and the fecundity of the insect was carried out. Fecundity was increased more than 30% by adding a protein source and inorganic salts into the larval and adult diets. Also, adding a protein source into the adult diet prolonged the oviposition period of adult houseflies. [source]

    Effects of the androgenic growth promoter 17-,-trenbolone on fecundity and reproductive endocrinology of the fathead minnow,

    Gerald T. Ankley
    Abstract Trenbolone acetate is a synthetic steroid that is extensively used in the United States as a growth promoter in beef cattle. The acetate is administered to livestock via slow-release implants; some is converted by the animal to 17-,-trenbolone, a relatively potent androgen receptor agonist in mammalian systems. Recent studies indicate that excreted 17-,-trenbolone is comparatively stable in animal waste, suggesting the potential for exposure to aquatic animals via direct discharge, runoff, or both. However, little is known concerning the toxicity of trenbolone to fish. Our goal was to assess the effects of 17-,-trenbolone on reproductive endocrinology of the fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas). An in vitro competitive binding study with the fathead minnow androgen receptor demonstrated that 17-,-trenbolone had a higher affinity for the receptor than that of the endogenous ligand, testosterone. Male and female fish were exposed for 21 d to nominal (target) concentrations of 17-,-trenbolone ranging from 0.005 to 50 ,g/L. Fecundity of the fish was significantly reduced by exposure to measured test concentrations , 0.027 ,g/ L. The 17-,-trenbolone was clearly androgenic in vivo at these concentrations, as evidenced by the de novo production in females of dorsal (nuptial) tubercles, structures normally present only on the heads of mature males. Plasma steroid (testosterone and ,-estradiol) and vitellogenin concentrations in the females all were significantly reduced by exposure to 17-,-trenbolone. The 17-,-trenbolone also altered reproductive physiology of male fathead minnows, albeit at concentrations much higher than those producing effects in females. Males exposed to 17-,-trenbolone at 41 ,g/L (measured) exhibited decreased plasma concentrations of 11-ketotestosterone and increased concentrations of ,-estradiol and vitellogenin. Overall, our studies indicate that 17-,-trenbolone is a potent androgen and reproductive toxicant in fish. Given the widespread use of trenbolone acetate as a growth promoter, and relative stability of its metabolites in animal wastes, further studies are warranted to assess potential ecological risk. [source]

    Assessing the Semelparity Hypothesis: Egg-guarding and Fecundity in the Malaysian Treehopper Pyrgauchenia tristaniopsis

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 10 2002
    Ulrich E. Stegmann
    According to the semelparity hypothesis, iteroparous insects should provide either no maternal care or less care than related semelparous species. We present field data on reproductive output and maternal care in the Southeast Asian treehopper Pyrgauchenia tristaniopsis (Mt. Kinabalu, Borneo) relevant to a preliminary assessment of the hypothesis. In a mark-recapture experiment, more females than expected under semelparity were found to have oviposited a second clutch (37%). Female longevity was a of 75 d. Both these estimates were highly conservative. Oviposition was successive resulting in a of 46 eggs per clutch. Females provided care for eggs only, occasionally scraping their legs along the sides of the clutch apparently attempting to deter Brachygrammatella sp. egg parasitoids (Trichogrammatidae). Females straddled their clutch for a of 27 d, i.e. until 8 d after the beginning of first instar hatching. First instars hatched successively over a period of 11 d. When a female deserted her clutch, it contained about 37% yet unhatched eggs. Egg-guarding effectively reduced egg mortality: the earlier a female was experimentally removed from her clutch the higher the egg mortality. Displacement experiments demonstrated that egg-guarding is a behaviour actively maintained despite disturbances and specifically directed towards the egg clutch but not to the feeding site. We interpret our findings as being in accordance with the weaker claim of the semelparity hypothesis, i.e. the iteroparous P. tristaniopsis provided less maternal care than semelparous membracid species. Continued female feeding is discussed as a mechanism to display some level of care despite iteroparity. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2006
    Magdalena Tilszer
    Abstract The experimental evolution under different levels of sexual conflict have been used to demonstrate antagonistic coevolution in muscids, but among other taxa a similar approach has not been employed. Here, we describe the results of 37 generations of evolution under either experimentally enforced monogamy or polygamy in the bulb mite Rhizoglyphus robini. Three replicates were maintained for each treatment. Monogamy makes male and female interests congruent; thus selection is expected to decrease harmfulness of males to their partners. Our results were consistent with this prediction in that females from monogamous lines achieved lower fecundity when housed with males from polygamous lines. Fecundity of polygamous females was not affected by mating system under which their partners evolved, which suggests that they were more resistant to male-induced harm. As predicted by the antagonistic coevolution hypothesis, the decrease in harmfulness of monogamous males was accompanied by a decline in reproductive competitiveness. In contrast, female fecundity and embryonic viability, which were not expected to be correlated with male harmfulness, did not differ between monogamous and polygamous lines. None of the fitness components assayed differed between individuals obtained from crosses between parents from the same line and those obtained from crosses between parents from different lines within the same mating system. This indicates that inbreeding depression did not confound our results. However, interpretation of our results is complicated by the fact that both males and females from monogamous lines evolved smaller body size compared to individuals from polygamous lines. Although a decrease in reproductive performance of males from monogamous lines was still significant when body size was taken into account, we were not able to separate the effects of male body size and mating system in their influence on fecundity of their female partners. [source]

    Effect of Temperature on Fecundity, Life Span and Morphology of Long- and Short-Spined Clones of Brachionus caudatus f. apsteini (Rotifera)

    Sujiporn Athibai
    Abstract We investigated the effect of temperature (20, 25 and 30 °C) on fecundity, life span and morphology of the rotifer Brachionus caudatus f. apsteini. For each temperature, short posterior-spined and long posterior-spined clones of B. caudatus f. apsteini were individually cultured for up to six generations. The rotifers were fed Chlorella sp. at a density of 1 × 106 cells ml,1. Morphometric data (body size and spine length) were collected. Total number of offspring producing by a single female per life cycle at high temperature was higher than at low temperature. The duration of juvenile period, reproductive period, post-reproductive period and life span of both clones of B. caudatus f. apsteini decreased with increasing temperature. All offspring of short posterior-spined clone produce posterior spines at 20 and 25 °C, with an average length of 19.8 ± 6.6 and 11.9 ± 2.6 ,m, respectively. In contrast, they cannot develop posterior spines at 30 °C, at which the average length of the posterior spine remnant was 6.4 ± 1.3 ,m. On the other hand, all offspring of long posterior-spined clone have long posterior spines with average lengths of 36.8 ± 6.1, 36.3 ± 5.2 and 36.6 ± 6.2 ,m at 20, 25 and 30 °C, respectively. This study indicated that the production of posterior spines can be induced by low temperature and that short posterior-spined and long posterior-spined clones are genetically different. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Sexual reproduction in the tropical corallimorpharian Rhodactis rhodostoma

    Nanette E. Chadwick-Furman
    Abstract. Polyps of the tropical corallimorpharian Rhodactis rhodostoma segregate sexes between center and edge positions within aggregations produced by clonal replication. On a reef flat at Eilat, northern Red Sea, infertile polyps and males occur mainly along the edges of clonal aggregations, while females mostly occupy central positions within each aggregation. In addition, on the inner to middle reef flat where polyps of this species are abundant, aggregations consist mostly of females. On the outer reef flat, where polyps are rare, a sampled aggregation consisted mostly of males and infertile polyps. Male polyps are significantly smaller than females, and the smallest polyps are infertile. Fecundity increases significantly with polyp size in females, but testis size and number do not vary with body size in males. Oocytes are present in polyps during most of the year and gradually increase in size until annual spawning in June-July during the period of maximum day length. Testes do not vary significantly in size during the year and remain a small proportion of body mass (>8%). In contrast, females invest up to 30% of their body mass into gonads during the months immediately before spawning. The annual spawning of gametes coincides with a temporary drop in the frequency of clonal replication by polyps. We estimate that each female polyp of R. rhodostoma may release up to 3000 large eggs (500 ,m in maximum diameter) each summer. The high investment of this corallimorpharian in sexual production of planktonic propagules may allow rapid dispersal to reef habitats distant from parent populations. [source]

    Habitat heterogeneity affects population growth in goshawk Accipiter gentilis

    Oliver Krüger
    Summary 1The concept of site-dependent population regulation combines the ideas of Ideal Free Distribution-type of habitat settlement and density dependence in a vital rate mediated by habitat heterogeneity. The latter is also known as habitat heterogeneity hypothesis. Site-dependent population regulation hypothesis predicts that increasing population density should lead to inhabitation of increasingly poor territories and decreasing per capita population growth rate. An alternative mechanism for population regulation in a territorial breeding system is interference competition. However, this would be expected to cause a more even decrease in individual success with increasing density than site-dependent regulation. 2We tested these ideas using long-term (1975,99) population data from a goshawk Accipiter gentilis population in Eastern Westphalia, Germany. 3Goshawk territory occupancy patterns and reproduction parameters support predictions of site-dependent population regulation: territories that were occupied more often and earlier had a higher mean brood size. Fecundity did not decrease with increasing density in best territories. 4Using time-series modelling, we also showed that the most parsimonious model explaining per capita population growth rate included annual mean habitat quality, weather during the chick rearing and autumn period and density as variables. This model explained 63% of the variation in per capita growth rate. The need for including habitat quality in the time-series model provides further support for the idea of site-dependent population regulation in goshawk. [source]

    Effect of phenylalanine and tyrosine analogues on Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Dipt., Tephritidae) reproduction

    E. N. Zografou
    The effect of nine phenylalanine and tyrosine analogues at various concentrations upon the reproduction of adult olive fruit fly Bactrocera oleae Gmelin (Diptera, Tephritidae), was tested. Fecundity (eggs/female/day) and percentage egg hatchability was significantly reduced by the following anti-amino acids (in parentheses are indicated the antagonized amino acid): p-fluoro- DL -phenylalanine (phe), p-amino- DL - and - L -phenylalanine (tyr), 3-amino- L -tyrosine (tyr) and L -mimosine (tyr), at concentrations of 0.1, 0.25, 0.05 and 0.5% in the diet, respectively. Hatchability was also affected by two other analogues of phenylalanine and tyrosine, p-bromo- DL -phenylalanine at a concentration of 10% and m-fluoro- DL -tyrosine at a concentration of 1.5%. Insect survival was affected only by p-fluorophenylalanine and 3-amino- L -tyrosine at concentrations 0.25 and 6%, respectively. No significant differences were observed between the survival of the two sexes. Finally, ,-2-thienyl- DL -alanine (phe) and ,-methyl- DL -p-tyrosine (tyr) did not affect any of the parameters tested. Electron microscopy examination of the follicles and the egg-shell structure of eggs laid by females fed with diets containing p-amino- L -phenylalanine and 3-amino- L -tyrosine, revealed abnormalities related to the egg-shell fine structure. [source]

    Reproductive biology of the silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen), in Kuwait waters

    S. Dadzie
    Summary The reproductive activities of the silver pomfret, Pampus argenteus (Euphrasen), in Kuwait waters were investigated from March 1996 to February 1998. Observations on the seasonal distribution of maturity stages and variations in seasonal fluctuations in the gonadosomatic index (GSI) confirmed recent findings that the spawning period begins in May. The species has a prolonged spawning period in the females extending from May to August, whereas the males mature in April and ripe specimens were encountered in monthly samples until September. The recruitment pattern confirmed the one breeding season. There are two spawning peaks, the first in May and the second in August. Variations in GSI relative to fish length indicated that females and males are most fecund at about 24.5,26.4 cm and 20.5,22.4 cm length classes, respectively. The males mature earlier than females, at a minimum size of 12.5,14.4 cm, while the females mature at 20.5,22.4 cm. The oocyte diameter-frequency distribution suggests a serial rhythm of spawning. Fecundity ranged from 28 965 to 455 661 and correlated positively with: (a) standard length (P < 0.006); (b) ovary weight (P < 0.001); and (c) body weight (P < 0.001), and negatively with egg size (P < 0.003). [source]

    Demography and population dynamics of Drosera anglica and D. rotundifolia

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
    J.-F. Nordbakken
    Summary 1We studied demography and population dynamics of the sympatric perennial herbs Drosera anglica and D. rotundifolia on a boreal bog in SE Norway. Dry mass of 2872 D. anglica plants and 2467 D. rotundifolia plants (estimated from field morphological measurements) was used to classify plants into five species-specific size classes. Demographic changes within these two populations were followed from 1995 to 1999, and within segments (quartiles) along the water table gradient and the peat productivity gradient. 2Mortality was strongly size dependent, and varied between years, for both species; it was high for seedlings, low for the smallest mature rosettes and increased again for the largest mature rosettes. The proportion of fertile rosettes increased with increasing rosette size. Fecundity varied considerably between years, but little relative to gradient position. 3Growth rate (,) was > 1, except in the second year, when it fell to 0.572 for D. anglica and 0.627 for D. rotundifolia . For D. anglica small, but significant, differences were found between the two extremities of the water table gradient, and for D. rotundifolia between the second and the uppermost quartile. There was a tendency for D. anglica populations to have a lower growth rate in the most productive sites, whereas D. rotundifolia grew less on both low and high peat productivity. Elasticity analysis showed that stasis and size increase (primarily within mature stages) made major contributions to , for D. anglica in all years. 4The variance in population growth rate (var ,) was high between years, and higher for D. anglica than for D. rotundifolia , while the variance between quartiles along the two main gradients was low. Life-table response experiment (LTRE) analyses revealed that for both species, differences in probabilities of transitions within mature stages, and in growth to larger stages, contributed most to var ,. 5The effects of global warming are uncertain: drier growing seasons would affect Drosera populations negatively, while initially positive responses to a wetter climate may be balanced by competition from increased Sphagnum growth. [source]

    A spatial model of coexistence among three Banksia species along a topographic gradient in fire-prone shrublands

    JOURNAL OF ECOLOGY, Issue 5 2002
    J. Groeneveld
    Summary 1A spatially explicit, rule-based model for three co-occurring Banksia species was developed to investigate coexistence mediating processes in a fire-prone shrubland in western Australia. Fecundity, recruitment, mortality and other biological data for two non-sprouting (B. hookeriana, B. prionotes) and one resprouting (B. attenuata) species were available from 15 years of empirical field studies. 2Without interspecific competition, each species could persist for a wide range of fire intervals (10 to > 20 years). The resprouting species performed better under shorter fire intervals (10,13 years), while both non-sprouting species were favoured by longer (15 to > 20 years) fire intervals. These results conform with those obtained from single-species, non-spatial population models. 3When interspecific competition for space was included in the model, all three species exhibited optima at shorter fire intervals and with a narrower range than in isolation. The three species did not co-occur under any fire regime. At intermediate fire frequencies (11,13 years), B. hookeriana excluded the other species, while for longer intervals between fires B. prionotes became dominant. 4The introduction of temporal (stochastic) variability in fire intervals (drawn from a normal distribution) failed to produce coexistence, unless spatial variability as a spatial ignition gradient was also included. The spatial arrangement of the non-sprouters observed in the field was then reproduced. 5Observed patterns of coexistence and spatial distributions of all species occurred when a spatial establishment gradient for the resprouter species was included in the model (individuals of B. attenuata are known to produce more seeds in swales than on dune crests and recruit seedlings here more frequently). 6Coexistence appears to be highly dependent upon the mean interfire period in combination with subtle gradients associated with fire propagation and recruitment conditions. Variation around the mean fire interval is less critical. When the system is modelled over a long time period (1500 years) coexistence is most strongly favoured for a narrow window of mean fire intervals (12,14 years). [source]

    Reproductive performance of clonal and sexual bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) in the field

    In Ips acuminatus (Gyll.) parthenogenetic females occur together with sexual females and with sexual males upon which they depend for sperm. In a reciprocal-transplant experiment, I studied fecundity differences among parthenogenetic and sexual females from two populations that differ dramatically in the proportion of clonal females. In a second experiment, I studied competition between larvae from different mothers and between females from the two source populations. Fecundity measured by the number of eggs per egg tunnel was influenced by the ambient environment at the sites of the experiment as well as the origin of the female, and was generally higher for clonal than for sexual females at both sites. In experimental groups where larvae competed with larvae from their own population (pure treatments), the number of surviving pupae was significantly lower than in groups where females from the two source populations were mixed. The high fecundity of clonal females makes coexistence of the two types of females difficult to explain. It makes the reproductive advantage associated with clonality in I. acuminatus even higher than the two-fold difference due to asexuality per sé. The significant differences in the number of pupae in mixed vs. pure groups suggest ecological divergence between sexual and clonal females. This would make the mortality of larvae not only density dependent, but also frequency dependent, which could explain the coexistence of sexual and clonal females. [source]

    Prey resources before spawning influence gonadal investment of female, but not male, white crappie

    D. B. Bunnell
    In this study, an outdoor pool experiment was used to evaluate the effect of prey resources during 4 months before spawning on the gonadal investments of male and female white crappie Pomoxis annularis, a popular freshwater sportfish that exhibits erratic recruitment. Fish were assigned one of three feeding treatments: starved, fed once every 5 days (intermediate) or fed daily (high). All measurements of male testes (i.e. wet mass, energy density and spermatocrit) were similar across treatments. Conversely, high-fed females produced larger ovaries than those of intermediate-fed and starved fish, and invested more energy in their ovaries than starved fish. Compared to pre-experiment fish, starved and intermediate-fed females appeared to increase their ovary size by relying on liver energy stores (,capital' spawning). Conversely, high-fed females increased liver and gonad mass, implying an ,income'-spawning strategy (where gonads are built from recently acquired energy). Fecundity did not differ among treatments, but high-fed fish built larger eggs than those starved. Females rarely ,skipped' spawning opportunities when prey resources were low, as only 8% of starved females and 8% of intermediate-fed females lacked vitellogenic eggs. These results suggest that limited prey resources during the months before spawning can limit ovary production, which, in turn, can limit reproductive success of white crappies. [source]

    Growth, maturity and fecundity of wolffish Anarhichas lupus L. in Icelandic waters

    Á. Gunnarsson
    Fecundity, maturity and the relationship between growth and maturity of common wolffish Anarhichas lupus were studied in Icelandic waters. A total of 788 female common wolffish were sampled in two areas: one in the relatively warm sea west of Iceland and the other in the colder sea east of Iceland. No difference was detected in fecundity of common wolffish between areas. The time from the onset of the cortical alveolus stage until spawning, was on average, 10 years in the east and 8 years in the west area. Common wolffish in the east area reached cortical alveolus stage, on average, at a greater age but similar size compared to common wolffish in the west area. Similarly, common wolffish started spawning, on average, at greater age and larger size in the east than in the west area. Common wolffish grew faster in the west than in the east area. Spawning common wolffish grew faster than common wolffish at the cortical alveolus stage in both areas. The relationship between growth and maturity for common wolffish in Icelandic waters appeared to be related to temperature, characterized by fast growth and early maturation in the west and slower growth and delayed maturation in the east. [source]

    Spatial patterns of the biological traits of freshwater fish communities in south-west France

    F. Santoul
    Spatial patterns in the combinations of biological traits of fish communities were studied in the Garonne River system (57 000 km2, south-west France). Fish species assemblages were recorded at 554 sampling sites, and the biological traits of species were described using a fuzzy-coding method. A co-inertia analysis of species distributions and biological traits identified some spatial patterns of species trait combinations. Fish species richness progressively increased from up- to downstream sections, and the longitudinal patterns of fish assemblages partitioned the river into clear biogeographic areas, such as the brown trout Salmo trutta(headwater streams), the grayling Thymallus thymallus, the barbel Barbus barbus and the bream Abramis brama zones (most downstream sections), which fitted with Huet's well-known zonation for western European rivers. Only a few biological traits, chiefly related to life-history attributes, significantly influenced the observed fish distributions. Fecundity, potential size, maximum age and reproductive factor increased from headwater to plain reaches. As a theoretical framework for assessing and predicting the functional organization of stream fish communities, spatial variations in species traits can be related to habitat conditions, thus providing explicit spatial schemes that may be useful to the design of both scientific studies and river management. [source]

    The biology of Roule's goby in the Kvarner area, northern Adriatic Sea

    M. Kova
    Roule's goby Gobius roulei in the Kvarner area of the northern Adriatic Sea attained , 87.5 mm LT and an age of 7 years. In both sexes gonad development began in their second year. All males were mature by 3 years, and females by 4 years. Fecundity was related to LT and varied between 1200 and 8000 eggs. The breeding season lasted from April to August. Nests were built under empty shells of Pitaria chione or stones. Roule's goby was a predator and picker, feeding mostly on mobile benthic fauna, including bivalves, gastropods, polychaets, pagurids, mysids, gammarids and fishes. Larger specimens ate mainly macrofauna, while smaller specimens ate both meiofauna and macrofauna. [source]

    Fecundity, nymphal development and longevity of field-collected tropical bedbugs, Cimex hemipterus

    Y.-F. HOW
    This study examined the fecundity, oviposition, nymphal development and longevity of field-collected samples of the tropical bedbug, Cimex hemipterus (Fabricius) (Hemiptera: Cimicidae). Under environmental conditions of 26±2°C, 70 ± 5% relative humidity and a 12-h photoperiod, with bloodmeals provided by a human host, six strains of tropical bedbug had a fecundity of up to 50 eggs per lifetime, over 11,14 oviposition cycles. Increased feeding frequency improved fecundity. After feeding and mating, adult females normally took 2,3 days to produce a first batch of eggs. The oviposition period lasted 2,7 days before cessation of the oviposition cycle. The egg incubation period usually lasted 5,7 days before the emergence of first instars. The nymphs underwent five stadia (the first four of which each took 3,4 days, whereas the last took 4,5 days) before becoming adults at a sex ratio of 1 : 1. More than five bloodmeals were required by the nymphs to ensure a successful moult. Unmated adults lived significantly longer than mated adults (P < 0.05). Unmated females lived up to almost 7 months, but the longevity of mated males and females did not differ significantly (P > 0.05). [source]

    Characterization of Oestrous Induction Response, Oestrous Duration, Fecundity and Fertility in Awassi Ewes During the Non-breeding Season Utilizing both CIDR and Intravaginal Sponge Treatments

    N Ozyurtlu
    Contents The aim of this study was to investigate characterization of oestrous response, onset of induced oestrus, oestrous duration, fecundity and fertility in Awassi ewes treatment with intravaginal sponges and Controlled Intravaginal Drug Release (CIDR) devices in combination with pregnant mare serum gonadotropin (PMSG) under local environmental conditions during the non-breeding season. A total of 62 ewes were divided into three groups. Group CIDR (n = 20) was treated with CIDR devices for 12 days and 400 IU PMSG was injected upon removal of the CIDR. For ewes in Group Sponge (SP) (n = 24), 30 mg fluorogestone acetate was administered to the sheep for 12 days and 400 IU PMSG was injected upon withdrawal of the sponge. Group Control (CON) (n = 18) served as a control group and received no treatment. Adult, intact and sexually experienced Awassi rams were introduced to all groups at the time when the intravaginal devices were removed. There were no significant differences in terms of oestrous response (CIDR: 90%, SP: 87.5%), time to onset of oestrus and duration of induced oestrus between the CIDR and SP groups. The oestrous response of treatment groups was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than in the control ewes. There were no significant differences in pregnancy (CIDR: 70%, SP: 70.8%), lambing (CIDR: 85%, SP: 79.2%) and fecundity rates between ewes treated with CIDR and those treated with sponges. However, pregnancy and lambing rates were significantly (p < 0.05) higher in ewes treated with CIDR or sponges when compared with those in the control group. It was concluded that it is possible to induce fertile oestrus, successful pregnancy and lambing with the treatment of either CIDR or intravaginal sponge in combination with PMSG in Awassi ewes during the non-breeding season. [source]

    Life-cycle toxicity of dibutyltin to the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus) and implications of the ubiquitous tributyltin impurity in test material

    Thomas F. Lytle
    Abstract Dibutyltin (DBT) is used in the plastics polymerization process as a catalyst in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) products and is the primary degradation product of tributyltin (TBT), an antifoulant in marine paint. DBT and other organotin compounds make their way into the environment through antifoulants, PVC processing plants, and PVC products maintained in water and water-handling systems. A flow-through saltwater life-cycle toxicity test was conducted to determine the chronic effect of DBT to the sheepshead minnow (Cyprinodon variegatus Lacepede), an estuarine species. Embryos were monitored through hatch, maturation, growth, and reproduction in DBT concentrations of 158, 286, 453, 887, and 1510 µg l,1. Progeny were monitored for survival as embryos and fry/juveniles, and growth for 30 days post-isolation. Mean length of parental generation fish was significantly reduced on day 30 at DBT concentrations ,887 µg l,1, setting the lowest observable effect concentration (LOEC) at 887 µg l,1 and the no observable effect concentration (NOEC) at 453 µg l,1. Fecundity, as egg viability, was significantly reduced at the LOEC. Survival of parental and progeny generation embryos and mean length, wet weight and dry weight of progeny generation juveniles were not significantly affected at concentrations ,LOEC. TBT, a toxic impurity in DBT reversibly produced in DBT by the process of comproportionation, was also monitored throughout this study. Comparing measured levels of TBT in this study with levels exerting toxic effects in an earlier TBT life-cycle study with C. variegatus suggests biological responses in this study were likely due to the TBT impurity and not to DBT alone. Results indicate that TBT impurity as low as 0.1% may have a significant influence on the perceived toxicity of DBT and that spontaneous production of TBT in DBT may be the major source of biological toxicity of DBT. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Algal diets for broodstock maintenance of the doughboy scallop Mimachlamys asperrima (Lamarck)

    AQUACULTURE RESEARCH, Issue 8-9 2000
    W A O'connor
    The effect of monospecific algal diets on filtration rate (algal cells h,1) and fecundity of Mimachlamys asperrima was investigated. Filtration rates of seven algal species were monitored to indicate species preferences and to estimate maximum daily filtration rates. Cells of Chaetoceros calcitrans and Pavlova lutheri were filtered most rapidly; however, on a cell weight (mg h,1) and cell volume (,L h,1) basis, scallops filtered more Rhodomonas salina and Tetraselmis chui from the water column. Filtration rates when fed the diatom Chaetoceros muelleri were the lowest of the tested species, with a relatively low weight and volume of the algae filtered. Maximum filtration rates of the tested species were estimated to vary between 2.25 × 109 and 7.68 × 109 cells scallop,1 day,1. Filtration of algal species by M. asperrima varied in accordance with both scallop size and water temperature. Five of the seven algal species previously tested were then selected for use as monoalgal diets for female M. asperrima and fed for 4 weeks. Fecundity of scallops after this treatment did not necessarily reflect filtration rates, being greatest for scallops fed C. muelleri, which was significantly greater than that of the scallops fed C. calcitrans. Percentage development of eggs to D-veliger larvae did not differ in accordance with the maternal diet. A combined diet of C. muelleri, P. lutheri and Tahitian Isochrysis aff. galbana averaging ,,2.5 × 109 cells scallop,1 day,1 was found to be suitable for the maintenance and conditioning of M. asperrima broodstock in recirculating systems. [source]

    Fecundity, egg development and growth of juvenile crayfish Procambarus (Austrocambarus) llamasi (Villalobos 1955) under laboratory conditions

    M. Rodríguez-Serna
    Procambarus (Austrocambarus) llamasi (Villalobos 1955) is a crayfish endemic to south-eastern Mexico with aquaculture potential. This study intends to enhance knowledge of the reproductive biology of this species under laboratory conditions, including fecundity, egg development and juvenile growth. Mean fecundity was 311 eggs/female, and egg development occurred in seven stages over a 27- to 30-day time range. The best growth results were obtained at a density of 50 organisms m,2.Procambarus llamasi is considered to perform well in aquaculture contexts. [source]

    Spatial distribution and prediction of seed production by Eucalyptus microcarpa in a fragmented landscape

    AUSTRAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2010
    Abstract Woodlands worldwide have been greatly modified by clearing for agriculture, and their conservation and restoration requires understanding of tree recruitment processes. Seed production is one possible point of recruitment failure, and one that the spatial arrangement of trees may affect. We sampled 118 Eucalyptus microcarpa (Myrtaceae) trees to compare and analyse the determinants of seed production in this dominant tree of modified, fragmented temperate grassy woodlands, which extend over much of southeastern Australia. Fecundity was estimated as the seed crop measured on leaf mass and whole tree bases and was compared between categories of tree configuration. We also modelled fecundity using boosted regression trees, a new and flexible tool. Fecundity on a leaf mass basis was predominantly influenced by environmental factors (topographic ,wetness', slope, soil type), rather than by local tree density and configuration. Fewer seed per unit leaf mass were produced on flat and topographically wet sites, reflecting poor tolerance of waterlogging by E. microcarpa. By contrast, whole tree fecundity was little influenced by environmental factors. Local tree density and configuration did influence whole tree fecundity, which was high in solitary and woodland-spaced trees and reduced under high local density. We found little evidence for reduced fecundity of E. microcarpa in solitary trees. This points to the importance of scattered trees as sources of seed for tree recruitment and for natural regeneration of landscape level tree cover. Considerable uncertainty remains in modelled seed supply, and may be reduced with sampling across multiple years and greater environmental and spatial domains. [source]

    Reproduction in Wild Populations of the Threatened Tree Macadamia tetraphylla: Interpopulation Pollen Enriches Fecundity in a Declining Species

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 3 2009
    Philip C. Pisanu
    ABSTRACT Macadamia tetraphylla is a subtropical rain forest tree from fragmented lowlands in eastern Australia. Owing to habitat loss and fragmentation, this commercially important species is vulnerable to extinction. Breeding system and fecundity were investigated in nine populations incorporating three habitat types (moderately disturbed, highly disturbed, and intact) to determine if seed set, seed weight, and genetic diversity are compromised by disturbance. Breeding success was also tested using pollen donors from distant (30,100 km), local (2,3 km), neighbor (10,20 m), and near-neighbor (< 10 m) sources. Macadamia tetraphylla is weakly self-compatible but incapable of automatic self-pollination. Across populations, seed to flower ratios were always < 0.1 percent in open-pollinated trees and trees from moderately disturbed habitats had the highest fruit production. Outcross pollen produced more seed per raceme than open-pollinated or self-pollination treatments. Seed set and seed weights were positively influenced by pollen source with local pollen and distant pollen effecting more or heavier seeds. Germination rates and genetic diversity did not vary significantly in seedlings from different pollen sources. Results suggest a pollen source from at least a 2 km distance is an optimal outbreeding distance; however, many wild populations do not have conspecifics at optimal distances owing to habitat fragmentation. Highly disturbed populations are producing seed but the longevity of these sites is threatened by weed invasions. We conclude that small populations in degraded habitats that are at risk of being overlooked should not be ignored but should be a focus for restoration efforts as they are a valuable asset for the conservation of M. tetraphylla. [source]

    Management and Recovery Options for Ural River Beluga Sturgeon

    caviar; CITES; criadero; Mar Caspio; puntos de referencia; sobrepesca Abstract:,Management of declining fisheries of anadromous species sometimes relies heavily on supplementation of populations with captive breeding, despite evidence that captive breeding can have negative consequences and may not address the root cause of decline. The beluga sturgeon (Huso huso), a species threatened by the market for black caviar and reductions in habitat quality, is managed through harvest control and hatchery supplementation, with an emphasis on the latter. We used yield per recruit and elasticity analyses to evaluate the population status and current levels of fishing and to identify the life-history stages that are the best targets for conservation of beluga of the Ural River. Harvest rates in recent years were four to five times higher than rates that would sustain population abundance. Sustainable rates of fishing mortality are similar to those for other long-lived marine species such as sharks and mammals. Yield per recruit, which is maximized if fish are first harvested at age 31 years, would be greatly enhanced by raising minimum size limits or reducing illegal take of subadults. Improving the survival of subadult and adult females would increase population productivity by 10 times that achieved by improving fecundity and survival from egg to age 1 year (i.e., hatchery supplementation). These results suggest that reducing mortality of subadults and adult wild fish is a more effective conservation strategy than hatchery supplementation. Because genetics is not factored into hatchery management practices, supplementation may even reduce the viability of the beluga sturgeon. Resumen:,El manejo de pesquerías de peces anádromos en declinación a veces depende estrechamente de la suplementación de poblaciones mediante la reproducción en cautiverio, no obstante la evidencia de que la reproducción en cautiverio puede tener consecuencias negativas y no abordar la causa principal de la declinación. El esturión beluga (Huso huso), una especie amenazada por el mercado de caviar negro y por reducciones en la calidad del hábitat, es manejado mediante el control de la cosecha y suplementación de poblaciones, con énfasis en esta. Utilizamos análisis de producción por recluta y de elasticidad para evaluar el estatus de la población y los niveles de pesca actuales y para identificar las etapas de la historia de vida que son los mejores blancos para la conservación del beluga en el Río Ural. Las tasas de cosecha en años recientes fueron cuatro a cinco veces mayores que las tasas que sustentarían la abundancia de la población. Las tasas sustentables de mortalidad por pesca son similares a las de otras especies marinas longevas como tiburones y mamíferos. La producción por recluta, que es maximizada si los peces son cosechados a la edad de 31 años, podría incrementar significativamente elevando los límites de talla mínima o reduciendo la captura ilegal de subadultos. La mejora de la supervivencia de hembras subadultas y adultas incrementaría la productividad de la población 10 veces más que la mejora obtenida incrementando la fecundidad y supervivencia de huevo a 1 año de edad (i. e., suplementación de poblaciones mediante reproducción en cautiverio). Estos resultados sugieren que la reducción de la mortalidad de peces silvestres subadultos y adultos es una mejor estrategia de conservación que la suplementación. Debido a que la genética no es considerada en las prácticas de manejo en los criaderos, la suplementación incluso puede reducir la viabilidad del esturión beluga. [source]

    Reproductive Investment of a Lacertid Lizard in Fragmented Habitat

    calidad de hábitat; fragmentación de bosque; Psammodromus; tamaño de puesta; tamaño de huevo Abstract:,We studied the effect of habitat fragmentation on female reproductive investment in a widespread lacertid lizard ( Psammodromus algirus) in a mixed-forest archipelago of deciduous and evergreen oak woods in northern Spain. We captured gravid females in fragments (,10 ha) and forests (, 200 ha) and brought them to the laboratory, where they laid their eggs. We incubated the eggs and released the first cohort of juveniles into the wild to monitor their survival. Females from fragments produced a smaller clutch mass and laid fewer eggs (relative to mean egg mass) than females of similar body size from forests. Lizards did not trade larger clutches for larger offspring, however, because females from fragments did not lay larger eggs (relative to their number) than females from forests. Among the first cohort of juveniles, larger egg mass and body size increased the probability of recapture the next year. Thus, fragmentation decreased the relative fecundity of lizards without increasing the quality of their offspring. Reduced energy availability, increased predation risk, and demographic stochasticity could decrease the fitness of lizards in fragmented habitats, which could contribute to the regional scarcity of this species in agricultural areas sprinkled with small patches of otherwise suitable forest. Our results show that predictable reduction of reproductive output with decreasing size of habitat patches can be added to the already known processes that cause inverse density dependence at low population numbers. Resumen:,Estudiamos el efecto de la fragmentación sobre la inversión reproductiva de hembras en una lagartija lacértida ( Psammodromus algirus) ampliamente distribuida en un archipiélago mixto de bosques deciduos y siempre verdes de roble en el norte de España. Capturamos hembras grávidas en fragmentos (, 10 ha) y en bosques (, 200 ha) y las trasladamos al laboratorio, donde pusieron sus huevos. Incubamos los huevos y liberamos a la primera cohorte de juveniles para monitorear su supervivencia. Las hembras de fragmentos produjeron una puesta de menor masa y pusieron menos huevos (en relación con la masa promedio de los huevos) que hembras con talla corporal similar provenientes de bosques. Sin embargo, las lagartijas no cambiaron puestas mayores por crías más grandes porque las hembras de fragmentos no pusieron huevos más grandes (en relación con su número) que las hembras de bosques. Entre las primeras cohortes de juveniles, la mayor masa de los huevos incrementó la probabilidad de recaptura en el siguiente año. Por lo tanto, la fragmentación redujo la fecundidad relativa de las lagartijas sin aumentar la calidad de sus crías. La disponibilidad reducida de energía, el incremento en el riesgo de depredación y la estocasticidad demográfica podrían disminuir la adaptabilidad de lagartijas en hábitats fragmentados, lo que podría contribuir a la escasez regional de esta especie en áreas agrícolas salpicadas de pequeños parches de bosque por lo demás adecuado. Nuestros resultados muestran que la reducción predecible en la reproducción al disminuir el tamaño de los parches de hábitat se puede agregar a los procesos ya conocidos que causan la inversión de la denso dependencia en tamaños poblacionales pequeños. [source]