Fe Oxides (fe + oxide)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn coprecipitates in Fe oxide formed at different pH: Aging effects on metal solubility and extractability by citrate

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2001
Carmen Enid Martínez
Abstract Coprecipitates of heavy metals with Fe oxides may form in contaminated soil, water, and sediment systems, particularly when oxidation-reduction processes are occurring. Once formed, coprecipitates with ferrihydrite could limit heavy metal mobility, solubility, toxicity, and bioavailability in geochemical systems. In this study, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were coprecipitated with Fe by titration to pHs 6 and 7. Metal solubility was monitored during the coprecipitation process to pH 7 and after aging of the product. In the coprecipitate formed at pH 6, metal solubility was determined after the system reached pH 6 and at subsequent time intervals. We also reacted the coprecipitates with citrate and evaluated potential metal availability at increased aging times. The pH of coprecipitate formation had little effect on the long-term solubility of Cu and Zn, whereas soluble Cd was greater in the coprecipitate formed at pH 6. Soluble percentages of metals were low at both pH 6 and 7 for Cu and Pb but averaged 1.5 to 3% for Zn and greater than 40% for Cd. Hysteresis was observed in the coprecipitation curves for Zn and Cd, revealing reduced solubility after adsorption or coprecipitation. Lead and Cu failed to show hysteresis, with strong retention in the solid phase at pH greater than 6. The citrate-extractable fraction was greatest for Cd and Zn, less for Cu, and least for Pb. Citrate-extractable metal was higher for the coprecipitate formed at pH 7 than at pH 6, suggesting increased potential availability from coprecipitates formed at higher pH. [source]


Arsenic in Glacial Aquifers: Sources and Geochemical Controls

GROUND WATER, Issue 4 2005
Walton R. Kelly
A total of 176 wells in sand-and-gravel glacial aquifers in central Illinois were sampled for arsenic (As) and other chemical parameters. The results were combined with archived and published data from several hundred well samples to determine potential sources of As and the potential geochemical controls on its solubility and mobility. There was considerable spatial variability in the As concentrations. High concentrations were confined to areas smaller than 1 km in diameter. Arsenic and well depth were uncorrelated. Arsenic solubility appeared to be controlled by oxidation-reduction (redox) conditions, especially the presence of organic matter. Geochemical conditions in the aquifers are typically reducing, but only in the most reducing water does As accumulate in solution. In wells in which total organic carbon (TOC) was below 2 mg/L and sulfate (SO42,) was present, As concentrations were low or below the detection limit (0.5 ,g/L). Arsenic concentrations >10 ,g/L were almost always found in wells where TOC was >2 mg/L and SO42, was absent or at low concentrations, indicating post,SO42,reducing conditions. Iron (Fe) is common in the aquifer sediments, and Fe oxide reduction appears to be occurring throughout the aquifers. Arsenic is likely released from the solid phase as Fe oxide is reduced. [source]


Textural and compositional controls on modern beach and dune sands, New Zealand

EARTH SURFACE PROCESSES AND LANDFORMS, Issue 3 2007
J. J. Kasper-Zubillaga
Abstract Textural, compositional, physical and geophysical determinations were carried out on 111 beach and dune sand samples from two areas in New Zealand: the Kapiti,Foxton coast sourced by terranes of andesite and greywackes and the Farewell Spit,Wharariki coast sourced by a wide variety of Paleozoic terranes. Our aim is to understand how long-shore drift, beach width and source rock control the sedimentological and petrographic characteristics of beach and dune sands. Furthermore, this study shows the usefulness of specific minerals (quartz, plagioclase with magnetite inclusions, monomineralic opaque grains) to interpret the physical processes (fluvial discharges, long-shore currents, winds) that distribute beach and dune sands in narrow and wide coastal plains. This was done by means of direct (grain size and modal analyses) and indirect (specific gravity, magnetic/non-magnetic separations M/NM, magnetic susceptibility measurements, hysteresis loops) methods. Results are compared with beach sands from Hawaii, Oregon, the Spanish Mediterranean, Elba Island and Southern California. Compositionally, the Kapiti,Foxton sands are similar to first-order immature sands, which retain their fluvial signature. This results from the high discharge of rivers and the narrow beaches that control the composition of the Kapiti,Foxton sands. The abundance of feldspar with magnetite inclusions controls the specific gravity of the Kapiti,Foxton sands due to their low content of opaque minerals and coarse grain size. Magnetic susceptibility of the sands is related mainly to the abundance of feldspars with Fe oxides, volcanic lithics and free-opaque minerals. The Farewell Spit,Wharariki sands are slightly more mature than the Kapiti,Foxton sands. The composition of the Farewell Spit,Wharariki sands does not reflect accurately their provenance due to the prevalence of long-shore drift, waves, little river input and a wide beach. Low abundance of feldspar with magnetite inclusions and free opaque grains produces poor correlations between specific gravity (Sg) and Fe oxide bearing minerals. The small correlation between opaque grains and M/NM may be related to grain size. The magnetic susceptibility of Farewell Spit,Wharariki sands is low due to the low content of grains with magnetite inclusions. Hysteresis and isothermal remnant magnetization (IRM) agree with the magnetic susceptibility values. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn coprecipitates in Fe oxide formed at different pH: Aging effects on metal solubility and extractability by citrate

ENVIRONMENTAL TOXICOLOGY & CHEMISTRY, Issue 1 2001
Carmen Enid Martínez
Abstract Coprecipitates of heavy metals with Fe oxides may form in contaminated soil, water, and sediment systems, particularly when oxidation-reduction processes are occurring. Once formed, coprecipitates with ferrihydrite could limit heavy metal mobility, solubility, toxicity, and bioavailability in geochemical systems. In this study, Cd, Cu, Pb, and Zn were coprecipitated with Fe by titration to pHs 6 and 7. Metal solubility was monitored during the coprecipitation process to pH 7 and after aging of the product. In the coprecipitate formed at pH 6, metal solubility was determined after the system reached pH 6 and at subsequent time intervals. We also reacted the coprecipitates with citrate and evaluated potential metal availability at increased aging times. The pH of coprecipitate formation had little effect on the long-term solubility of Cu and Zn, whereas soluble Cd was greater in the coprecipitate formed at pH 6. Soluble percentages of metals were low at both pH 6 and 7 for Cu and Pb but averaged 1.5 to 3% for Zn and greater than 40% for Cd. Hysteresis was observed in the coprecipitation curves for Zn and Cd, revealing reduced solubility after adsorption or coprecipitation. Lead and Cu failed to show hysteresis, with strong retention in the solid phase at pH greater than 6. The citrate-extractable fraction was greatest for Cd and Zn, less for Cu, and least for Pb. Citrate-extractable metal was higher for the coprecipitate formed at pH 7 than at pH 6, suggesting increased potential availability from coprecipitates formed at higher pH. [source]


Transformation of haematite and Al-poor goethite to Al-rich goethite and associated yellowing in a ferralitic clay soil profile of the middle Amazon Basin (Manaus, Brazil)

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, Issue 5 2005
E. Fritsch
Summary The red and yellow colours of ferralitic soils in the tropics have for long intrigued pedologists. We have investigated the upward yellowing in a 10-m thick profile representative of the Ferralsols of the plateaux of the Manaus region of Brazil. We determined changes in the nature and crystal chemistry of their Fe oxides by optical and Mössbauer spectroscopy as well as Rietveld refinement of X-ray diffraction patterns. We attribute the upward yellowing of the soil to a progressive transformation of the Fe oxides at nearly invariant iron contents. Aluminium in contrast is strongly mobilized in the uppermost clay-depleted topsoil where there is preferential dissolution of kaolinite and crystallization of gibbsite. Haematite decreases from 35 to 10% of the Fe oxides from the bottom to the top of the profile and the particles become smaller (75,10 nm). Its Al for Fe-substitution remains almost unchanged (10,15 mol %). The average Al-substitution rate of goethite increases from 25 to 33 mol %, and its mean crystal diameter remains in the range 20,40 nm. The proportion of Al-rich goethite (33 mol %) increases at the expense of less Al-substituted Fe oxides (haematite and goethite). This conversion with restricted transfer of iron means that the amount of Al stored in Fe oxides gradually increases. Kaolinite, haematite and Al-poor goethite are thus witnesses of earlier stages of ferralitization of the soil. In contrast, Al-rich goethite and gibbsite initiate the alitization (or bauxitization) of the soil. They correspond to the last generation of soil minerals, which most likely reflects the present-day weathering conditions. The progressive replacement of kaolinite, haematite and Al-poor goethite by new generations of Al-rich goethite and gibbsite attests to greater activities of water and aluminium and smaller activity of aqueous silica in the topsoil than in the subsoil. We interpret this as a consequence of longer periods of wetting in the topsoil that could result from soil aging, more humid climate or both. [source]


Quantifying the effects of aggregation, particle size and components on the colour of Mediterranean soils

EUROPEAN JOURNAL OF SOIL SCIENCE, Issue 3 2004
M. SÁnchez-Marańón
Summary Aggregation, particle size, and chemical composition affect the colour of the soil. We have attempted to quantify and understand these effects in 12 Mediterranean soils. We measured the CIELAB colour variables hab, L*, and C*ab in aggregated and dispersed soil samples, and also in coarse sand, fine sand, silt, and clay samples before and after sequential removal of organic matter, carbonates, and Fe oxides. Grassmann's colour-mixing equations adjusted by regression analysis described the colour of the dispersed soil from its particle-size fractions with an error of 1% for hab, 4% for L*, and 9% for C*ab. This suggests that the contribution of each fraction to the colour of the dispersed soil can be accurately calculated by its colorimetric data weighted by its content and a regression coefficient, which was greatest for clay. We inferred the influence of a component within each fraction by measuring the colour changes after its removal. Iron oxides reduced hab of the silicated substrate by 19%, reduced L* by 12%, and increased C*ab by 64% in all particle-size fractions. Carbonates and organic matter had little influence: the former because they impart little colour to the silicates and the latter because there was little of it. The CIELAB colour-difference between dispersed and aggregated soil (mean ,E*ab = 15.3) was due mainly to ,L* (,14.7). Aggregation contributed to diminishing L* of dispersed soil by 34%. Scanning electron microscopy showed that Fe oxides and organic coatings cover the surface of aggregates thereby influencing soil colour. [source]


Petrology, Mineralogy and Geochemisty of Antarctic Mesosiderite GRV 020175: Implications for Its Complex Formation History

ACTA GEOLOGICA SINICA (ENGLISH EDITION), Issue 3 2010
Linyan WANG
Abstract: GRV 020175 is an Antarctic mesosiderite, containing about 43 vol% silicates and 57 vol% metal. Metal occurs in a variety of textures from irregular large masses, to veins penetrating silicates, and to matrix fine grains. The metallic portion contains kamacite, troilite and minor taenite. Terrestrial weathering is evident as partial replacement of the metal and troilite veins by Fe oxides. Silicate phases exhibit a porphyritic texture with pyroxene, plagioclase, minor silica and rare olivine phenocrysts embedded in a fine-grained groundmass. The matrix is ophitic and consists mainly of pyroxene and plagioclase grains. Some orthopyroxene phenocrysts occur as euhedral crystals with chemical zoning from a magnesian core to a ferroan overgrowth; others are characterized by many fine inclusions of plagioclase composition. Pigeonite has almost inverted to its orthopyroxene host with augite lamellae, enclosed by more magnesian rims. Olivine occurs as subhedral crystals, surrounded by a necklace of tiny chromite grains (about 2,3 ,m). Plagioclase has a heterogeneous composition without zoning. Pyroxene geothermometry of GRV 020175 gives a peak metamorphic temperature (,1000°C) and a closure temperature (,875°C). Molar Fe/Mn ratios (19,32) of pyroxenes are consistent with mesosiderite pyroxenes (16,35) and most plagioclase compositions (An87.5,96.6) are within the range of mesosiderite plagioclase grains (An88,95). Olivine composition (Fo53.8) is only slightly lower than the range of olivine compositions in mesosiderites (Fo55,90). All petrographic characteristics and chemical compositions of GRV 020175 are consistent with those of mesosiderite and based on its matrix texture and relatively abundant plagioclase, it can be further classified as a type 3A mesosiderite. Mineralogical, petrological, and geochemical studies of GRV 020175 imply a complex formation history starting as rapid crystallization from a magma in a lava flow on the surface or as a shallow intrusion. Following primary igneous crystallization, the silicate underwent varying degrees of reheating. It was reheated to 1000°C, followed by rapid cooling to 875°C. Subsequently, metal mixed with silicate, during or after which, reduction of silicates occurred; the reducing agent is likely to have been sulfur. After redox reaction, the sample underwent thermal metamorphism, which produced the corona on the olivine, rims on the inverted pigeonite phenocrysts and overgrowths on the orthopyroxene phenocrysts, and homogenized matrix pyroxenes. Nevertheless, metamorphism was not extensive enough to completely reequilibrate the GRV 020175 materials. [source]