Fe Content (fe + content)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Concentration of copper, iron, manganese and zinc in muscle, fat and bone tissue of lambs of the breed German Merino Landsheep in the course of the growing period and different feeding intensities

G. Bellof
Summary A growth experiment with 108 lambs (breed German Merino Landsheep) was carried out in order to examine how gender, body weight and feeding intensity affect trace element concentrations in tissues and carcass. The lambs (50% male and 50% female) were fattened at three levels of feeding intensity (,low', ,medium' and ,high' by varying daily amounts of concentrate and hay) and slaughtered at different final body weights (30, 45 or 55 kg). Six male and six female animals were sacrificed at 18 kg live weight at the beginning of the comparative slaughter experiment. The left half carcass of each animal was divided into muscle tissue, fat tissue as well as bones and sinews and analysed for the trace elements copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) as well as zinc (Zn). The body weight level influenced the Zn concentrations significantly in all tissues. In addition, the Fe concentration in the fat tissue was influenced by the body weight as well as the Cu content in the bone tissue. An influence due to gender could be seen for the Zn concentration in the muscle and fat tissue and for the Fe content in the fat and bone tissue as well as for the Cu concentration in the bones. The feeding intensity affected the Cu content in the muscle and bone tissue and also the Zn content in the muscle tissue. In the present study with lambs at body weight range from 18 to 55 kg on an average, 127 mg Fe, 87 mg Zn, 1.5 mg Cu as well as 1.1 mg Mn per kilogram dry matter were found in the bone tissue. In lamb muscle tissue combined from all parts (body weight range from 18 to 45 kg, both genders) the highest concentrations were for Zn and Fe [3.42 and 1.31 mg/100 g meat (wet weight basis)], while Cu remained far below these levels (0.08 mg/100 g meat and Mn was even below the detection limit of 0.025 mg/kg). Lamb muscle is a valuable source for highly available haem-Fe as well as for Zn and Cu in human nutrition. [source]

Oscillatory zoning in garnet from the Willsboro Wollastonite Skarn, Adirondack Mts, New York: a record of shallow hydrothermal processes preserved in a granulite facies terrane

C. C. Clechenko
Abstract Oscillatory zoning in low ,18O skarn garnet from the Willsboro wollastonite deposit, NE Adirondack Mts, NY, USA, preserves a record of the temporal evolution of mixing hydrothermal fluids from different sources. Garnet with oscillatory zoning are large (1,3 cm diameter) euhedral crystals that grew in formerly fluid filled cavities. They contain millimetre-scale oscillatory zoning of varying grossular,andradite composition (XAdr = 0.13,0.36). The ,18O values of the garnet zones vary from 0.80 to 6.26, VSMOW and correlate with XAdr. The shape, pattern and number of garnet zones varies from crystal to crystal, as does the magnitude of the correlated chemistry changes, suggesting fluid system variability, temporal and/or spatial, over the time of garnet growth. The zones of correlated Fe content and ,18O indicate that a high Fe3+/Al, high ,18O fluid mixed with a lower Fe3+/Al and ,18O fluid. The high ,18O, Fe enriched fluids were likely magmatic fluids expelled from crystallizing anorthosite. The low ,18O fluids were meteoric in origin. These are the first skarn garnet with oscillatory zoning reported from granulite facies rocks. Geochronologic, stable isotope, petrologic and field evidence indicates that the Adirondacks are a polymetamorphic terrane, where localized contact metamorphism around shallowly intruded anorthosite was followed by a regional granulite facies overprint. The growth of these garnet in equilibrium with meteoric and magmatic fluids indicates an origin in the shallow contact aureole of the anorthosite prior to regional metamorphism. The zoning was preserved due to the slow diffusion of oxygen and cations in the large garnet and protection from deformation and recrystallization in zones of low strain in thick, rigid, garnetite layers. The garnet provide new information about the hydrothermal system adjacent to the shallowly intruded massif anorthosite that predates regional metamorphism in this geologically complex, polymetamorphic terrane. [source]

Rat brain iron concentration is lower following perinatal copper deficiency

Joseph R. Prohaska
Abstract Experiments performed with Holtzman rats demonstrated that brain iron (Fe) was lower by postnatal day 13 (P13) in pups born and nursed by dams that began copper-deficient (,Cu) treatment at embryonic day 7. Transcardial perfusion of P24,P26 males and females to remove blood Fe contamination revealed that brain Fe was still 20% lower in ,Cu than +Cu rats. Estimated blood content of brain for ,Cu rats was greater than for +Cu rats; for all groups, values ranged between 0.43 and 1.03%. Using group-specific data and regression analyses, r = 0.99, relating blood Fe to hemoglobin, brain Fe in non-perfused rats in a replicate study was lower by 33% at P13 and 39% at P24 in ,Cu rats. Brain extracts from these rats and from P50 rats from a post-weaning model were compared by immunobloting for transferrin receptor (TfR1). P24 brain ,Cu/+Cu TfR1 was 3.08, suggesting that brains of ,Cu rats were indeed Fe deficient. This ratio in P13 rats was 1.44, p < 0.05. No change in P50 ,Cu rat brain TfR1 or Fe content was detected despite a 50% reduction in plasma Fe. The results suggest that brain Fe accumulation depends on adequate Cu nutriture during perinatal development. [source]

Influence of Tithonia diversifolia and triple superphosphate on dissolution and effectiveness of phosphate rock in acidic soil

Isaac Savini
Abstract An incubation and a pot experiment were conducted to evaluate the dissolution and agronomic effectiveness of a less reactive phosphate rock, Busumbu soft ore (BPR), in an Oxisol in Kenya. Resin (anion and anion + cation)-extractable P and sequentially extracted P with 0.5 M NaHCO3, 0.1 M NaOH, and 1 M HCl were analyzed. Dissolution was determined from the increase in anion resin (AER),, NaHCO3 -, and NaOH-extractable P in soil amended with PR compared with the control soil. Where P was applied, resin P significantly increased above the no-P treatment. Busumbu-PR solubility was low and did not increase significantly in 16 weeks. Anion + cation (ACER)-extractable P was generally greater than AER-P. The difference was greater for PR than for triple superphosphate (TSP). The ACER extraction may be a better estimate of plant P availability, particularly when poorly soluble P sources are used. Addition of P fertilizers alone or in combination with Tithonia diversifolia (TSP, BPR, TSP + Tithonia, and BPR + Tithonia) increased the concentration of labile inorganic P pools (NaHCO3 - and NaOH-Pi). Cumulative evolved CO2 was significantly correlated with cumulative N mineralized from Tithonia (r, 0.51, p < 0.05). Decrease in pH caused NH -N accumulation while NO -N remained low where Tithonia was incorporated at all sampling times. However, when pH was increased, NH -N declined with a corresponding rise in NO -N. Tithonia significantly depressed soil exchangeable acidity relative to control with time. A significant increase (p < 0.05) was observed for P uptake but not dry-mass production in maize where BPR was applied. The variations in yield and P uptake due to source and rates of application were statistically significant. At any given P rate, highest yields were obtained with Tithonia alone. Combination of Busumbu PR with TSP or Tithonia did not enhance the effectiveness of the PR. The poor dissolution and plant P uptake of BPR may be related to the high Fe content in the PR material. [source]

On the evolution of the Fe abundance and of the Type Ia supernova rate in clusters of galaxies

F. Calura
ABSTRACT The study of the Fe abundance in the intracluster medium (ICM) provides strong constraints on the integrated star formation history and supernova rate of the cluster galaxies, as well as on the ICM enrichment mechanisms. In this Letter, using chemical evolution models for galaxies of different morphological types, we study the evolution of the Fe content of clusters of galaxies. We assume that the ICM Fe enrichment occurs by means of galactic winds arising from elliptical galaxies and from gas stripped from the progenitors of S0 galaxies via external mechanisms, due to the interaction of the interstellar medium with the ICM. The Fe-rich gas ejected by ellipticals accounts for the XFe,ICM values observed at z > 0.5, whereas the gas stripped from the progenitors of the S0 galaxies accounts for the increase of XFe,ICM observed at z < 0.5. We test two different scenarios for Type Ia supernova (SN) progenitors and we model the Type Ia SN rate observed in clusters, finding a good agreement between our predictions and the available observations. [source]

Bulk anisotropy Nd-Fe-B/,-Fe nanocomposite permanent magnets prepared by sonochemistry and spark plasma sintering

Peili Niu
Abstract NdFeB/,-Fe nanocomposite magnetic powders were prepared by sonochemical process. The powders were then submitted to a hot press and subsequent hot deformation process by spark plasma sintering (SPS) technique. Effect of ,-Fe content on structure and magnetic properties of both isotropic and anisotropic magnets was investigated. For hot pressed magnets, the remanence increases with the content of ,-Fe, while the coercive force drops simultaneously. After hot deformation, the magnets with no more than 2 vol% ,-Fe exhibit obvious anisotropic characteristic. For the magnets with more ,-Fe, however, the magnetic anisotropy disappears due to the absence of (00l) crystal texture after deformation. It is, therefore, expected that ,-Fe content plays an important role in the formation of C-axis crystal texture during hot deformation process. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Hyperhydricity in micropropagated carnation shoots: the role of oxidative stress

Shady Saher
The physiology of hyperhydricity in relation to oxidative stress, mineral nutrients, antioxidant enzymes and ethylene has been studied in three micropropagated carnation cultivars under experimentally induced hyperhydricity. A marked increase in Fe content in comparison with normal tissues was observed in the hyperhydric tissues from the three cultivars. The levels of ethylene, solute leakage and malondialdehyde content were also significantly higher in the hyperhydric tissues. In relation to the time course of H2O2 production measured by fluorescence quenching, a similar trend could be observed for the three cultivars, with a clear increase in the generation of hydrogen peroxide in hyperhydric tissues. The activities of all the antioxidative enzymes studied, except lipoxygenase, were higher in the hyperhydric shoots. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) showed a significant decrease in activity in the hyperhydric tissues in comparison with the controls for the three cultivars. Soluble guaiacol peroxidase had a strong increase in activity in hyperhydric shoots of the three cultivars. These results provide, for the first time, direct evidence of H2O2 generation in hyperhydric tissues, characterize the response of the antioxidant system to an oxidative stress during hyperhydricity in carnation leaves and point to the accumulation of toxic forms of oxygen as the inducer of some of the abnormalities observed. [source]

Fate of airborne metal pollution in soils as related to agricultural management.


Summary The fate of airborne metal pollutants in soils is still relatively unknown. We studied the incorporation of such airborne metal pollution in two soils under long-term permanent pasture (PP) and conventional arable land (CA). Both soils were located at an almost equal distance from a former zinc smelter complex and developed under comparable pedogenetic conditions. Profiles of total concentrations of Zn, chosen as a mobile, and Pb as a little- or non-mobile element, were examined and compared with macro- and micromorphological soil characteristics (soil colour, biological activity). The two soils showed different profiles of total Zn and Pb concentrations, with a marked decrease of concentrations of both elements under the plough layer in CA, whereas the decrease was more progressive in PP. However, the stocks of Zn and Pb for the 1-m soil profiles of CA and PP were comparable. Correlation of Zn and Pb concentration at different depths with total Fe contents and comparison with estimated data for the local geochemical background (LGCB), suggests transport of Zn from the surface to depth in CA and PP, and Pb movement in PP. In CA, 53% of Zn and 92.5% of Pb stocks derived from airborne metal pollution were located at depths < 26 cm. In PP, only 40% of Zn and 82% of Pb, derived from airborne pollution, were found in the A11 and A12 horizons (< 26 cm), the remaining 18% of the Pb stock being incorporated until 50 cm depth; one-third of total Zn stock ascribed to airborne pollution was found at depths > 50 cm. Studies of the composition of gravitational water collected in soils from the same study area suggest two mechanisms for metal movement. First, mobile metal ions (Zn2+) move in the soil solution and are intercepted by iron-clay complexes in deeper soil horizons. Second, observed only in PP, simultaneous movement of Zn and Pb is ascribed to bioturbation by earthworms. [source]

Multivariate calibration of hyperspectral ,-ray energy spectra for proximal soil sensing

R. A. Viscarra Rossel
Summary The development of proximal soil sensors to collect fine-scale soil information for environmental monitoring, modelling and precision agriculture is vital. Conventional soil sampling and laboratory analyses are time-consuming and expensive. In this paper we look at the possibility of calibrating hyperspectral ,-ray energy spectra to predict various surface and subsurface soil properties. The spectra were collected with a proximal, on-the-go ,-ray spectrometer. We surveyed two geographically and physiographically different fields in New South Wales, Australia, and collected hyperspectral ,-ray data consisting of 256 energy bands at more than 20 000 sites in each field. Bootstrap aggregation with partial least squares regression (or bagging-PLSR) was used to calibrate the ,-ray spectra of each field for predictions of selected soil properties. However, significant amounts of pre-processing were necessary to expose the correlations between the ,-ray spectra and the soil data. We first filtered the spectra spatially using local kriging, then further de-noised, normalized and detrended them. The resulting bagging-PLSR models of each field were tested using leave-one-out cross-validation. Bagging-PLSR provided robust predictions of clay, coarse sand and Fe contents in the 0,15 cm soil layer and pH and coarse sand contents in the 15,50 cm soil layer. Furthermore, bagging-PLSR provided us with a measure of the uncertainty of predictions. This study is apparently the first to use a multivariate calibration technique with on-the-go proximal ,-ray spectrometry. Proximally sensed ,-ray spectrometry proved to be a useful tool for predicting soil properties in different soil landscapes. [source]

Inorganic sulphate extraction from SO2 -impacted Andosols

T. Delfosse
Summary Sulphate sorption on to the surface of short-range ordered minerals and precipitation of Al-hydroxy sulphate contribute to the acid neutralizing capacity of soils. The correct measurement of total inorganic sulphate is thus essential in soils that are accumulating SO42, anions. We extracted SO42, by various solutions, namely 0.005 m Ca(NO3)2, 0.016 m KH2PO4, 0.5 m NH4F and 0.2 m acidic NH4 -oxalate (pH 3), from Vitric and Eutric Andosols exposed to prolonged deposition of acid and SO2 from an active volcano (Masaya, Nicaragua). We attributed sulphate extractable by KH2PO4 (20,3030 mg kg,1) to anion-exchangeable SO42,, which was much smaller than NH4F- and oxalate-extractable SO42, (400,9680 and 410,10 480 mg kg,1, respectively). Our results suggest the occurrence of a sparingly soluble Al-hydroxy-mineral phase extractable by both NH4F and oxalate. The formation of Al-hydroxy minerals would result from the combination of enhanced weathering caused by strong acid loading and simultaneous occurrence of large SO42, concentrations in soil solution. Oxalate extracted slightly more inorganic SO42, than did NH4F, this additional amount of SO42, correlating strongly with oxalate-extractable Si and Fe contents. Preferential occlusion of SO42, by short-range ordered minerals, especially ferrihydrite, explains this behaviour. If we exclude the contribution of occluded sulphate then oxalate and NH4F mobilize similar amounts of SO42, and are believed to mobilize all of the inorganic SO42, pool. [source]

Iron reduction and changes in cation exchange capacity in intermittently waterlogged soil

F. Favre
Summary The long-term effects of intermittent flooding on soil properties were studied in field experiments on a Vertisol cropped with rice in Senegal. The dominant clay minerals were smectite and kaolinite. When the soil was reduced after flooding, its cation exchange capacity (CEC) increased to twice that of its oxidized, unflooded state. Mössbauer spectroscopy showed an increase in smectite structural FeII upon reduction, which explained a part of the increase in CEC. The rest of the increase was attributed to the removal of iron oxyhydroxide coatings by reductive dissolution. The reduction and dissolution of oxides under the field conditions were substantiated by analysis of the surfaces of vermiculites buried in the Ap horizons of the cropped and the non-cropped soils. The redox-induced CEC changes were found to be reversible after 22 cycles of rice cropping. Nevertheless, the structural Fe and free Fe contents of the rice field Ap horizon were less than those of soil in uncropped neighbouring land, suggesting that inundation induced weathering and eluviation of the minerals. The observed changes in CEC and related redox reactions may substantially modify proton, anion and cation balances in intermittently flooded soils. [source]

Water quality and hydrogeochemical characteristics of the River Buyukmelen, Duzce, Turkey

Rustem Pehlivan
Abstract The River Buyukmelen is located in the province of Duzce in northwest Turkey and its water basin is approximately 470 km2. The Aksu, Kucukmelen and Ugursuyu streams flow into the River Buyukmelen. It flows into the Black Sea with an output of 44 m3 s,1. The geological succession in the basin comprises limestone and dolomitic limestone of the Y,lanl, formation, sandstone, clayey limestone and marls of the Akveren formation, clastics and volcano-clastics of the Caycuma formation, and cover units comprised of river alluvium, lacutrine sediments and beach sands. The River Buyukmelen is expected to be a water source that can supply the drinking water needs of Istanbul until 2040; therefore, it is imperative that its water quality be preserved. The samples of rock, soil, stream water, suspended, bed and stream sediments and beach sand were collected from the Buyukmelen river basin. They were examined using mineralogical and geochemical methods. The chemical constituents most commonly found in the stream waters are Na+, Mg2+, SO2,4, Cl, and HCO3, in the Guz stream water, Ca2+ in the Abaza stream water, and K+ in the Kuplu stream water. The concentrations of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO2,4, HCO,3, Cl,, As, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr, Zn, Fe and U in the Kuplu and Guz stream waters were much higher than the world average values. The Dilaver, Gubi, Tepekoy, Maden, Celik and Abaza streams interact with sedimentary rocks, and the Kuplu and Guz streams interact with volcanic rocks. The amount of suspended sediment in the River Buyukmelen in December 2002 was 120 mg l,1. The suspended and bed sediments in the muddy stream waters are formed of quartz, calcite, plagioclase, clay (kaolinite, illite and smectite), muscovite and amphibole minerals. As, Co, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn and U have all accumulated in the Buyukmelen river-bed sediments. The muddy feature of the waters is related to the petrographic features of the rocks in the basin and their mineralogical compositions, as most of the sandstones and volcanic rocks (basalt, tuffite and agglomerate) are decomposed to a clay-rich composition at the surface. Thus, the suspended sediment in stream waters increases by physical weathering of the rocks and water,rock interaction. Owing to the growing population and industrialization, water demand is increasing. The plan is to bring water from the River Buyukmelen to Istanbul's drinking-water reservoirs. According to the Water Pollution Regulations, the River Buyukmelen belongs to quality class 1 based on Hg, Cd, Pb, As, Cu, Cr, Zn, Mn, Se, Ba, Na+, Cl,, and SO2,4; and to quality class 3 based on Fe concentration. The concentration of Fe in the River Buyukmelen exceeds the limit values permitted by the World Health Organization and the Turkish Standard. Because water from the River Buyukmelen will be used as drinking water, it will have an adverse effect on water quality and humans if not treated in advance. In addition, the inclusion of Mn and Zn in the Elmali drinking-water reservoir of Istanbul and Fe in the River Buyukmelen water indicates natural inorganic contamination. Mn, Zn and Fe contents in the waters are related to geological origin. Moreover, the River Buyukmelen flow is very muddy in the rainy seasons and it is inevitable that this will pose problems during the purification process. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


ABSTRACT The changes in physical, chemical and sensory properties of common bean (CB) and chickpea (CP) bulgur prepared with different cooking (atmospheric, pressure and microwave) and drying (oven at 60, 70 and 80C; microwave at 350 and 700 W) processes were investigated. Neither the cooking methods nor the drying methods significantly affected the ash and protein contents of CB and CP bulgur. Pressure cooking gave lower phytate phosphorus and higher bulgur yield and volume increase values when compared to the other cooking methods. Average bulgur yields were found as 82% for CB and 84% for CP. Cooking processes decreased the phytic acid content of the bulgurs between 25.2 and 39.5% according to raw legume. Ca, K, Mg, P, Zn, Cu and Fe contents of the bulgurs decreased in variable degrees (8.69,28.5%) when compared to raw materials. Pressure cooked and oven (80C) dried bulgur samples in the case of bulgur pilaf were appreciated by the panelists in terms of overall acceptability. PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS Bulgur is a valuable cereal product with its high nutritional value and long shelf life. In this research, bulgur process was applied successfully on common bean and chickpea, and new legume-based bulgur products improved. The bulgur yield (BY) of the legumes was above 80%. Pressure cooking increased the nutritional, sensory and technological quality of the legume bulgurs. [source]

Mineral solubility of Panicum maximum with four herbaceous forage legume mixtures incubated in the rumen of N' Dama steers

Festus T. AJAYI
ABSTRACT This study was designed to determine the mineral concentration and bioavailability of iron (Fe), phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca) and sodium (Na) of mixtures of Panicum maximum (Panicum) with Lablab purpureus (Lablab), Centrosema pubescens (Centro), Stylosanthes guianensis (Stylo), and Aeschynomene histrix (Histrix) in a fistulated N'Dama steer. The solubility of minerals was determined by an in sacco method by incubating ground samples of these forages in the rumen at 0, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h. The mineral solubility characteristics of the forages were evaluated using the equation PD = a + b (1 , e,ct). The result showed that Panicum intercropped with legumes had better crude protein (CP) (av. 9.22% DM) and ash content (av. 2.22% DM) than sole Panicum which gave 7.63% DM and 1.84% DM for CP and ash contents respectively. The highest value of CP of 23.29% DM and ash content (3.96% DM) was obtained for Lablab. The mineral content values of the intercrop were higher than the sole Panicum. Higher mineral content values were obtained in the sole legumes. Iron solubility values of b and potential degradation (PD) which were 58.71% and 87.92% respectively were for Panicum/Histrix mixtures. Calcium solubility values ranged from 30.0% in Panicum to 46.0% in Panicum/Lablab mixture for b fraction. P solubility ranged from 28.0% and 46.0% for b and PD fractions in Panicum to 43.0% and 71.0% in Panicum/Centro mixture respectively. The solubility of the legumes was higher in Na for b fraction (av. 42.0%) and PD fraction (av. 60.0%). Higher values of b (av. 38.0%) and PD (av. 52.0%) were obtained for the mixtures than for sole Panicum. This study revealed that intercropping Panicum with either of the herbaceous forage legumes used for this experiment would increase the Ca, P, Na and Fe contents of the grass. [source]

Ag-Cu-Pb-Bi-S Minerals Newly Discovered from the Ohori Base Metal Deposit, Yamagata Prefecture, NE Japan: Implications for Bi-metallogenesis in the Green-Tuff Region

Yu Yokoro
Abstract The Ohori deposit, one of the base metal deposits in the Green-Tuff region, NE Japan, is composed of two types of mineralization; a skarn-type (Kaninomata orebody) made by the replacement of the Miocene calcareous layer, and a vein-type (Nakanomata orebody). While the ore mineral assemblage of the deposit (chalcopyrite, pyrite, sphalerite and galena) has been known for being rather simple, some Pb-Bi-S minerals have been discovered for the first time in the present study. The minerals mainly occur in the chalcopyrite-rich ores of both orebodies. They essentially belong to the Pb-Bi-S system and contain Cu and Ag in minor amounts, which correspond to the lillianite,gustavite solid solution series (phases Z and X), cosalite, neyite, felbertalite, krupkaite and Bi-bearing galena. The chalcopyrite-rich (Bi-bearing) ores from both orebodies are richer in chalcopyrite, pyrite and chlorite, and have higher homogenization temperatures (>300°C) of fluid inclusions, and higher FeS contents in sphalerite compared to the Bi-free ores. In the Green-Tuff region, Bi-minerals have been reported from many base metal deposits. Most of these Bi-bearing ore deposits are referred to as xenothermal-type deposits, and are characterized by the following common features; composite mineralization of high- and low-temperatures in the shallower environments, and close relationships with the Tertiary granitic rocks. The whole mineralization at the Ohori deposit also has a similar xenothermal character because of the coexistence of high-temperature chalcopyrite-rich ores with Pb-Bi-S minerals, which were formed by the influence of the Tertiary granitic rocks at a shallow depth. [source]