Fe Concentrations (fe + concentration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Water quality and hydrogeochemical characteristics of the River Buyukmelen, Duzce, Turkey

Rustem Pehlivan
Abstract The River Buyukmelen is located in the province of Duzce in northwest Turkey and its water basin is approximately 470 km2. The Aksu, Kucukmelen and Ugursuyu streams flow into the River Buyukmelen. It flows into the Black Sea with an output of 44 m3 s,1. The geological succession in the basin comprises limestone and dolomitic limestone of the Y,lanl, formation, sandstone, clayey limestone and marls of the Akveren formation, clastics and volcano-clastics of the Caycuma formation, and cover units comprised of river alluvium, lacutrine sediments and beach sands. The River Buyukmelen is expected to be a water source that can supply the drinking water needs of Istanbul until 2040; therefore, it is imperative that its water quality be preserved. The samples of rock, soil, stream water, suspended, bed and stream sediments and beach sand were collected from the Buyukmelen river basin. They were examined using mineralogical and geochemical methods. The chemical constituents most commonly found in the stream waters are Na+, Mg2+, SO2,4, Cl, and HCO3, in the Guz stream water, Ca2+ in the Abaza stream water, and K+ in the Kuplu stream water. The concentrations of Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+, SO2,4, HCO,3, Cl,, As, Pb, Ni, Mn, Cr, Zn, Fe and U in the Kuplu and Guz stream waters were much higher than the world average values. The Dilaver, Gubi, Tepekoy, Maden, Celik and Abaza streams interact with sedimentary rocks, and the Kuplu and Guz streams interact with volcanic rocks. The amount of suspended sediment in the River Buyukmelen in December 2002 was 120 mg l,1. The suspended and bed sediments in the muddy stream waters are formed of quartz, calcite, plagioclase, clay (kaolinite, illite and smectite), muscovite and amphibole minerals. As, Co, Cd, Cr, Pb, Ni, Zn and U have all accumulated in the Buyukmelen river-bed sediments. The muddy feature of the waters is related to the petrographic features of the rocks in the basin and their mineralogical compositions, as most of the sandstones and volcanic rocks (basalt, tuffite and agglomerate) are decomposed to a clay-rich composition at the surface. Thus, the suspended sediment in stream waters increases by physical weathering of the rocks and water,rock interaction. Owing to the growing population and industrialization, water demand is increasing. The plan is to bring water from the River Buyukmelen to Istanbul's drinking-water reservoirs. According to the Water Pollution Regulations, the River Buyukmelen belongs to quality class 1 based on Hg, Cd, Pb, As, Cu, Cr, Zn, Mn, Se, Ba, Na+, Cl,, and SO2,4; and to quality class 3 based on Fe concentration. The concentration of Fe in the River Buyukmelen exceeds the limit values permitted by the World Health Organization and the Turkish Standard. Because water from the River Buyukmelen will be used as drinking water, it will have an adverse effect on water quality and humans if not treated in advance. In addition, the inclusion of Mn and Zn in the Elmali drinking-water reservoir of Istanbul and Fe in the River Buyukmelen water indicates natural inorganic contamination. Mn, Zn and Fe contents in the waters are related to geological origin. Moreover, the River Buyukmelen flow is very muddy in the rainy seasons and it is inevitable that this will pose problems during the purification process. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Concentration of copper, iron, manganese and zinc in muscle, fat and bone tissue of lambs of the breed German Merino Landsheep in the course of the growing period and different feeding intensities

G. Bellof
Summary A growth experiment with 108 lambs (breed German Merino Landsheep) was carried out in order to examine how gender, body weight and feeding intensity affect trace element concentrations in tissues and carcass. The lambs (50% male and 50% female) were fattened at three levels of feeding intensity (,low', ,medium' and ,high' by varying daily amounts of concentrate and hay) and slaughtered at different final body weights (30, 45 or 55 kg). Six male and six female animals were sacrificed at 18 kg live weight at the beginning of the comparative slaughter experiment. The left half carcass of each animal was divided into muscle tissue, fat tissue as well as bones and sinews and analysed for the trace elements copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn) as well as zinc (Zn). The body weight level influenced the Zn concentrations significantly in all tissues. In addition, the Fe concentration in the fat tissue was influenced by the body weight as well as the Cu content in the bone tissue. An influence due to gender could be seen for the Zn concentration in the muscle and fat tissue and for the Fe content in the fat and bone tissue as well as for the Cu concentration in the bones. The feeding intensity affected the Cu content in the muscle and bone tissue and also the Zn content in the muscle tissue. In the present study with lambs at body weight range from 18 to 55 kg on an average, 127 mg Fe, 87 mg Zn, 1.5 mg Cu as well as 1.1 mg Mn per kilogram dry matter were found in the bone tissue. In lamb muscle tissue combined from all parts (body weight range from 18 to 45 kg, both genders) the highest concentrations were for Zn and Fe [3.42 and 1.31 mg/100 g meat (wet weight basis)], while Cu remained far below these levels (0.08 mg/100 g meat and Mn was even below the detection limit of 0.025 mg/kg). Lamb muscle is a valuable source for highly available haem-Fe as well as for Zn and Cu in human nutrition. [source]

Comparison of iron chelates and complexes supplied as foliar sprays and in nutrient solution to correct iron chlorosis of soybean

Patricia Rodríguez-Lucena
Abstract The application of synthetic chelates is the most efficient remedy for correcting iron (Fe) chlorosis. However, chelates are usually expensive and nondegradable products. Recently, new degradable chelates have been proposed for their use as Fe fertilizers. Also, Fe complexes cheaper than synthetic chelates and derived from natural products are also used to correct Fe deficiencies. Fifteen products, including five different synthetic chelates (Fe-EDDS, Fe-IDHA, and three Fe-EDTA formulations) and ten natural complexes (humates, lignosulfonates, amino acids, glycoproteins, polyamines, citrate, and gluconate), have been compared when applied at low concentration to soybean (Glycine max L.) chlorotic plants grown in hydroponics under controlled conditions. In the first experiment, Fe compounds were applied to the nutrient solution, while in the second trial, Fe was foliar-supplied. Dry matter, Fe concentration in shoots and roots, and SPAD values were used to evaluate the effectiveness of the Fe in the different products. In the nutrient-solution experiment, synthetic chelates provided better plant growth, Fe concentration, and SPAD values than complexes. Among the Fe complexes, transferrin generally provided good plant responses, similar to those obtained with synthetic chelates. After foliar application, the highest regreening was observed for plants treated with synthetic chelates and amino acid complexes, but the translocation to roots only occurred for Fe lignosulfonate. Fe-EDDS and Fe-EDTA performed in a similar way when applied in nutrient solution or as foliar sprays. [source]

Characterization of Electrical Properties of Li(FexAl1,x)5O8 Solid Solutions by Impedance Spectroscopy

Shuichi Arakawa
To examine polaronic transport properties in Li(FexAl1,x)5O8 spinel solid solutions, a scaling analysis for their conductivity spectra and modulus spectra was performed. As in the case of ionic conductors, two significant parameters of a crossover frequency and a power-law exponent were extracted from the conductivity spectra which displayed the universal dynamic response behavior. Both the mobility and the concentration of carriers were successfully determined from the crossover frequency. The power-law exponent and the stretching parameter obtained from the modulus spectra varied with composition, implying that the increase in Fe concentration would enhance the Coulomb interactions between small polarons. [source]

Ferrous silicate spherules with euhedral iron-nickel metal grains from CH carbonaceous chondrites: Evidence for supercooling and condensation under oxidizing conditions

The silicate portions of the spherules are highly depleted in refractory lithophile elements (CaO, Al2O3, and TiO2 <0.04 wt%) and enriched in FeO, MnO, Cr2O3, and Na2O relative to the dominant, volatile-poor, magnesian chondrules from CH chondrites. The Fe/(Fe + Mg) ratio in the silicate portions of the spherules is positively correlated with Fe concentration in metal grains, which suggests that this correlation is not due to oxidation, reduction, or both of iron (FeOsil , Femet) during melting of metal-silicate solid precursors. Rather, we suggest that this is a condensation signature of the precursors formed under oxidizing conditions. Each metal grain is compositionally uniform, but there are significant intergrain compositional variations: about 8,18 wt% Ni, <0.09 wt% Cr, and a sub-solar Co/Ni ratio. The precursor materials of these spherules were thus characterized by extreme elemental fractionations, which have not been observed in chondritic materials before. Particularly striking is the fractionation of Ni and Co in the rounded-to-euhedral metal grains, which has resulted in a Co/Ni ratio significantly below solar. The liquidus temperatures of the euhedral Fe, Ni metal grains are lower than those of the coexisting ferrous silicates, and we infer that the former crystallized in supercooled silicate melts. The metal grains are compositionally metastable; they are not decomposed into taenite and kamacite, which suggests fast postcrystallization cooling at temperatures below 970 K and lack of subsequent prolonged thermal metamorphism at temperatures above 400,500 K. [source]

Optical, structural, and magnetic properties of p-type GaN implanted with Fe+ (5 and 10 at%)

Yoon Shon
Abstract p-type GaN epilayers were prepared by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition and subsequently implanted with Fe+. The results of energy dispersive X-ray peak displayed the Fe-injected concentration of 5 and 10 at%, respectively. The results of photoluminescence measurement show that optical transitions related to Fe appear at 2.5 and 3.1 eV. It was confirmed that the photoluminescence peak at 2.5 eV is a donor-Fe acceptor transition and the photoluminescence peak at 3.1 eV is a conduction band-Fe acceptor transition. Apparent ferromagnetic hysteresis loops measured at 10 and 300 K with the Fe concentration of 10 at% were observed, and the temperature-dependent magnetization displayed a ferromagnetic behavior persisting up to 300 K. The systematic enhancement of ferromagnetic hysteresis loops for GaN implanted with high doses of Fe (5 , 10 at%) takes place with an increase in the annealing temperature from 700 to 850 °C. The trends of magnetic properties coincide with the results of the increased full width at half maximum of triple axis diffraction for GaN (0002) including the appearance of GaFeN, the enhanced Fe-related photoluminescence transitions, and the increased sizes of symmetric spin ferromagnetic domains GaFeN in atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy systematically. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Photoluminescence and Hall studies of GaN:Fe and (Ga,Fe)N:Mg layers

M. Wegscheider
Abstract Temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) in the ultraviolet (UV) regime and Hall measurements at room temperature have been performed on Metal-Organic-Chemical-Vapour-Deposition (MOCVD) grown GaN:Fe and (Ga,Fe)N:Mg layers. PL measurements were employed in order to study the dopants' influence on the near-band edge excitonic emission and their tendency to provoke the formation and suppression of defects or incorporation of impurities. For their identification and for the understanding of the PL spectra the evaluation of the free carrier concentrations via Hall measurements were necessary. Depending on the iron concentration of the (Ga,Fe)N layers, the near-band edge emission goes through two different stages: at low Fe-concentration no excitonic emission can be seen whereas with higher doping levels, excitonic features develop. The (Ga,Fe)N films exhibit n-type behaviour. The Mg codoped samples show strong Mg and defect related luminescence bands, whose occurrence and intensity also strongly depends on whether high or low Fe concentration is present. The (Ga,Fe)N:Mg layers were semi insulating. (© 2007 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Structural and spectroscopic study of the Fe doped TiO2 thin films for applications in photocatalysis

N. R. Mathews
Abstract In this work we are presenting the results of structural and optical investigations of TiO2 and Fe doped TiO2 films using XRD, XPS, UV-VIS transmittance spectroscopy, and the application of these films in photocatalysis is demonstrated. Fe-doped TiO2 films were prepared by sol-gel method. The concentration of Fe utilized for doping ranged from 0.5 to 4% by atomic weight. For lower concentrations of Fe the transformation from amorphous-to-polycrystalline occurred at 400 °C. However, as the Fe concentration was increased to 4% this transformation occurred only after annealing at 600 °C. The average grain size for 4% Fe doped sample was in the range of 13 nm. In the case of pure TiO2 the XPS analysis showed only the presence of Ti 4+, where the 4% Fe doped film showed the presence of two species of Ti atoms; one of unperturbed Ti atoms and another of negatively charged surface of Ti atoms due to the interaction with Fe atoms in the anatase lattice of TiO2. The optical band gap was found to decrease with Fe concentration. The resistivity was found to decrease by one order after doping. The 4% Fe doped TiO2 films showed an increased photocatalytic activity. (© 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Al,Fe interactions and growth enhancement in Melastoma malabathricum and Miscanthus sinensis dominating acid sulphate soils

ABSTRACT Plants growing in acid sulphate soils are subject to high levels of Al availability, which may have effects on the growth and distribution of these species. Although Fe availability is also high in acid sulphate soils, little is known about the effect of Fe on the growth of native plants in these soils. Two species dominating this soil type in Asia, viz. Melastoma malabathricum and Miscanthus sinensis were grown hydroponically in a nutrient solution with different concentrations of Al and Fe. Melastoma malabathricum is found to be sensitive to Fe (40 and 100 µm). Application of 500 µm Al, however, completely ameliorates Fe toxicity and is associated with a decrease of Fe concentration in shoots and roots. The primary reason for the Al-induced growth enhancement of M. malabathricum is considered to be the Al-induced reduction of toxic Fe accumulation in roots and shoots. Therefore, Al is nearly essential for M. malabathricum when growing in acid sulphate soils. In contrast, application of both Fe and Al does not reduce the growth of M. sinensis, and Al application does not result in lower shoot concentrations of Fe, suggesting that this grass species has developed different mechanisms for adaptation to acid sulphate soils. [source]

Growth and characterization of FexMn1-xIn2Se4 (0 , x , 1) single crystals

G. Attolini
Abstract Single crystals of Mn1-xFexIn2Se4 with 0 , x , 1.0 were grown by chemical vapor transport technique using I2 as transporting agent. The resulting crystals appeared as brilliant black plates. X-ray powder diffraction data could be indexed following the hexagonal structure with space group Rm for the low Fe concentration samples, while the high concentration sample is associated to the space group P63mc. Both polytypes have similar parameters, however the c parameter reduces as the Fe concentration increases, therefore the number of anion slabs decreases. The characterization of the crystals was based on morphological observations and optical absorption as a function of temperature. The obtained energy gap for the samples at different Fe concentrations suggested that they behave as direct energy gap semiconductors. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Bog Iron Ores and their Potential Role in Arsenic Dynamics: An Overview and a "Paleo Example"

A. Banning
Abstract Bog iron ores (BIOs), i.e. terrestrial accumulations of iron (Fe) minerals forming within the zone of groundwater oscillation, have been described in several regions in Germany and other countries. Since BIOs are composed of a variety of Fe minerals, primarily amorphous Fe hydroxides, they are likely to have an influence on the arsenic (As) dynamics of an area, as these minerals represent important natural As sources and sinks. In this study, mineralogical research results (XRD, microscopy) of altered BIOs of Tertiary age ("paleo" BIOs or PBIOs), occurring within Cretaceous sands in an area of North Rhine-Westphalia, are briefly presented. Genesis and mineralogical evolution of the categorized five different types of PBIOs, along with hydrogeochemical data from the literature, are discussed and compared to studies describing Holocene BIOs from other areas. In doing so, striking similarities (depositional environment, substratum, Fe source and its transport, geochemical evolution, and mineralogy) became evident. Differences in mineralogical and chemical composition can be attributed to the longer period of oxidation that the PBIOs have undergone (Fe hydroxide "aging"). This process is still ongoing (most of the groundwaters in the area plot in the goethite stability field) and leads to a higher stability of the Fe phases and thus, a stronger As retention. The known impact of the PBIOs on the As budget of the study area (they represent the source for elevated As concentrations in soils) can be transferred to more recent environments fostering BIO formation. These are likely to be even more important As sinks , and sources , as they contain higher Fe concentrations, higher shares of potentially mobile As and highly variable redox conditions which might lead to an As output from the BIOs into groundwater, soils and plants. Therefore, BIOs and their potential role in As behaviour are not only of scientific, but also of public interest. [source]


David Porta
The complex chemical speciation of Fe in aquatic systems and the uncertainties associated with biological assimilation of Fe species make it difficult to assess the bioavailability of Fe to phytoplankton in relation to total dissolved Fe concentrations in natural waters. We developed a cyanobacterial Fe-responsive bioreporter constructed in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 by fusing the Fe-responsive isiAB promoter to Vibrio harveyi luxAB reporter genes. A comprehensive physiological characterization of the bioreporter has been made in defined Fraquil medium at free ferric ion concentrations ranging from pFe 21.6 to pFe 19.5. Whereas growth and physiological parameters are largely constrained over this range of Fe bioavailability, the bioreporter elicits a luminescent signal that varies in response to Fe deficiency. A dose-response characterization of bioreporter luminescence made over this range of Fe3+ bioavailability demonstrates a sigmoidal response with a dynamic linear range extending between pFe 21.1 and pFe 20.6. The applicability of using this Fe bioreporter to assess Fe availability in the natural environment has been tested using water samples from Lake Huron (Laurentian Great Lakes). Parallel assessment of dissolved Fe and bioreporter response from these samples reinforces the idea that measures of dissolved Fe should not be considered alone when assessing Fe availability to phytoplankton communities. [source]

Effects of chromium stress on the subcellular distribution and chemical form of Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn in two rice genotypes

Fanrong Zeng
Abstract A hydroponic experiment was carried out to study effects of chromium (Cr) stress on the subcellular distribution and chemical form of Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn in two rice genotypes differing in Cr accumulation. The results showed that Ca, Mg, Fe, and Zn ions were mainly located in cell walls and vacuoles in roots. However, large amounts of metal ions were transferred from the vacuole to the nucleus and to other functional organelles in shoots. Chromium concentrations in the nutrient solution of 50 ,M and above significantly decreased Ca concentrations in the chloroplast/trophoplast, the nucleus, and in mitochondria. It further increased Mg concentrations in the nucleus and in mitochondria, as well as Zn and Fe concentrations in the chloroplast/trophoplast. These Cr-induced changes in ion concentrations were associated with a significant reduction in plant biomass. It is suggested that Cr stress interferes with the functions of mineral nutrients in rice plants, thus causing a serious inhibition of plant growth. The chemical forms of the four nutrients were determined by successive extraction. Except for Ca, which was mainly chelated with insoluble phosphate and oxalic acid, Mg, Zn, and Fe were extractable by 80% ethanol, d-H2O, and 1,M NaCl. The results indicated that these low,molecular weight compounds, such as organic acids and amino acids, may play an important role in deposition and translocation of Mg, Zn, and Fe in the xylem system of rice plants. [source]

Fe3+ Ions Acting as Probes and Agents in Aggregation Processes and Solid-State Reactions in AlO(OH)/Al2O3 Matrices

Reinhard Stößer
The fate of doped iron species during various mechanically and thermally initiated redox reactions and aggregation processes in crystalline and amorphous AlO(OH) or Al2O3 matrices was investigated. The amorphization of the matrix was performed by chemical (i.e., via sol,gel processes) or mechanochemical treatment (high-energy ball milling). Thermal analysis, coupled with mass spectrometry (TA-MS), Mössbauer spectroscopy, and electron spin resonance (ESR), was used. The TA under various gas atmospheres allowed preparing samples under a controlled temperature regime, together with a controlled gas influence. Both the effect of mechanical activation and the influence of the iron doping could be followed macroscopically via the down-shift of the peak temperature of the corundum formation. The ESR data characterize the Fe3+ ions and their interaction with the magnetic surrounding based on the fine structure parameters. The Mössbauer data allowed the characterization of the Fe(0), Fe2+, and Fe3+ species, together with providing information about their coordinative surrounding. Both methods provided general complementary spectroscopical information. Unexpectedly, (FeOx)n and (FexAl1,x)2O3 aggregates could also be detected in the range of low Fe concentrations. It was demonstrated that even in the low-level doped systems [(FexAl1,x)2O3 with x,0.01], all the essential spectroscopic phenomena occur. At higher Fe concentrations, they were discovered to be caused by magnetic and spin exchange interactions as well as by solid-state reactions during and after the mechanical activation. [source]

Essential elements and contaminants in tissues of commercial pelagic fish from the Eastern Mediterranean Sea

Beyza Ersoy
Abstract BACKGROUND: It is important to determine the concentrations of essential and non-essential metals in fish for human health. The essential elements and contaminants (Pb and Cd) were determined seasonally in the muscle and liver of some pelagic fish species round herring (Etrumeus teres), chub mackerel (Scomber japonicus), golden grey mullet (Liza aurata) and Mediterranean horse mackerel (Trachurus mediterraneus) from the Iskenderun Bay, Eastern Mediterranean Sea. RESULTS: The Na, K, Ca and Mg were the most abundant elements in muscle and liver tissues. The Na, K, Ca and Mg concentrations in fish tissues were between 51.7 and 3426 mg kg,1. Muscle accumulated the lowest levels of elements. Trace element and contaminant levels in muscle were highest in spring and summer. The Cu, Zn and Cr concentrations were highest in summer. The Ni, Mn and Fe concentrations were highest in spring. The maximum Pb concentrations in the muscle and liver of fish species was 0.39 and 0.80 mg kg,1 in autumn. The maximum Cd concentration in the muscle of fish was 0.27 mg kg,1 in spring and the maximum Cd concentration in the liver was 0.78 mg kg,1 in summer. CONCLUSION: The Cr, Pb, Cd, Cu and Zn levels in muscle were found to be lower than permissible limits reported by various authorities. Estimated weekly and daily intake for Pb and Cd by consumption of fish muscle were far below the PTWI and PTDI values established by FAO/WHO. Copyright © 2009 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Grain mineral concentrations and yield of wheat grown under organic and conventional management

MH Ryan
Abstract On the low-P soils in southeastern Australia, organic crops differ from conventional ones primarily in the use of relatively insoluble, as opposed to soluble, P fertilisers and in the non-use of herbicides. As organic management, particularly elimination of soluble fertilisers, is often claimed to enhance grain mineral concentrations, we examined grain from wheat on paired organic and conventional farms in two sets of experiments: (1) four pairs of commercial crops (1991,1993); and (2) fertiliser experiments on one farm pair where nil fertiliser was compared with 40 kg ha,1 of P as either relatively insoluble reactive phosphate rock or more soluble superphosphate (1991 and 1992). All wheat was grown following a 2,6 year legume-based pasture phase. Both conventional management and the superphosphate treatment greatly increased yields but reduced colonisation by mycorrhizal fungi. While only minor variations occurred in grain N, K, Mg, Ca, S and Fe concentrations, conventional grain had lower Zn and Cu but higher Mn and P than organic grain. These differences were ascribed to: soluble P fertilisers increasing P uptake but reducing mycorrhizal colonisation and thereby reducing Zn uptake and enhancing Mn uptake; dilution of Cu in heavier crops; and past lime applications on the organic farm decreasing Mn availability. These variations in grain minerals had nutritional implications primarily favouring the organic grain; however, organic management and, specifically, elimination of soluble fertilisers did not induce dramatic increases in grain mineral concentrations. In addition, organic management was coupled with yield reductions of 17,84 per cent due to P limitation and weeds. The impact of large regional variations in the characteristics of organic and conventional systems on the general applicability of the results from this study and other similar studies is discussed. Copyright © 2004 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

Quantitative trait loci analysis of mineral element concentrations in an Arabidopsis halleri × Arabidopsis lyrata petraea F2 progeny grown on cadmium-contaminated soil

Glenda Willems
Summary ,This study describes the quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis of cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), iron (Fe), potassium (K), magnesium (Mg) and calcium (Ca) accumulation in the pseudometallophyte Arabidopsis halleri under conditions of Cd excess using an interspecific A. halleri × Arabidopsis lyrata F2 population. ,Our data provide evidence for the implication of one major QTL in Cd hyperaccumulation in A. halleri, and suggests that Cd tolerance and accumulation are not independent in A. halleri. Moreover, the major loci responsible for Zn hyperaccumulation in the absence of Cd appear to be the same when Cd is present at high concentrations. ,More than twofold higher Fe concentrations were measured in A. halleri shoots than in A. lyrata, suggesting a different regulation of Fe accumulation in the hyperaccumulator. ,With the exception of Ca, the accumulation of Cd was significantly correlated with the accumulation of all elements measured in the F2 progeny, suggesting pleiotropic gene action. However, QTL analysis identified pleiotropic QTLs only for Cd, Zn and Fe. Mg accumulation was negatively correlated with Cd accumulation, as well as with dry shoot biomass, suggesting that it might indicate cellular damage. [source]

Comparison of the nutrient ecology of coastal Banksia grandis elfinwood (windswept shrub-like form) and low trees, Cape Leeuwin-Naturaliste National Park, Western Australia

Abstract Trees growing along windy coasts often have canopies that are greatly reduced in size by the sculpting effects of wind and salt spray. Trees with environmentally reduced stature are called elfinwood (windswept shrub-form or krummholz) and are ecologically important because they represent outposts growing at the limit of tree success. The purpose of this study was to assess if Banksia grandis elfinwood growing at Cape Leeuwin had a different nutrient status than normal low-form (LF) trees growing nearby, and if nutrient deficiencies, toxicities and/or imbalances were among the limiting factors imposed on elfinwood. The concentrations of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Na, Cl,, Fe, Mn, Zn, Cu, Mo and B were analysed for mature green foliage, immature foliage, foliage litter, flowers and soil. When the elfinwood and LF trees were compared, the foliar nutrient status was generally similar, except that elfinwood foliage had significantly higher mean concentrations of N, Zn and Cu, while LF trees had higher Fe and Mn contents. Many nutrients were conserved before leaves were shed in both elfinwood and LF trees, including N, P, K, Na, Cl,, Mn and Cu (LF trees also conserved Ca and Mg). However, elfinwood and LF tree-litter contained significantly higher Fe concentrations than green foliage (elfinwood litter also had higher levels of Mg and B). It is tempting to suggest that the translocation of Fe into leaves before they were shed is a regulation mechanism to prevent Fe toxicity, or imbalance in the Fe : Mn ratio. Proteoid roots strongly acidify the soil to mobilize P, which also chemically reduces Fe+3 to plant-available Fe+2. The increased supply of Fe+2 in the rhizosphere, caused by the action of proteoid roots, might tend to defeat self-regulation of Fe uptake. It is possible that excess Fe accumulation in the plant might be regulated, in part, by exporting Fe into the leaves before they are shed. The nutrient status of B. grandis elfinwood is compared with mountain elfinwood of North America. The extreme habitat of coastal elfinwood provides many theoretical pathways for nutrient limitation, but B. grandis elfinwood at Cape Leeuwin does not appear to be nutrient deficient. [source]