Fe Availability (fe + availability)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Iron-mediated suppression of bloom-forming cyanobacteria by oxine in a eutrophic lake

Summary 1. Published studies show that cyanobacteria have higher Fe requirements than eukaryotic algae. To test whether Fe availability can affect formation of a cyanobacterial bloom, a strong Fe chelator, oxine (8-hydroxyquinoline, C9H7NO), was added to enclosures in eutrophic Lake 227 in the Experimental Lakes Area (ELA) (northwestern Ontario). 2. Aphanizomenon schindlerii growth was suppressed, and growth of eukaryotic chlorophytes significantly promoted in enclosures to which oxine had been added. Significant eukaryotic growth did not occur in enclosures treated with ammonium, suggesting that N supplied by degradation of oxine was not responsible for eukaryotic success in the oxine enclosures. 3. In situ Fe2+ measurements were unreliable because of interference from high concentrations of dissolved organic compounds. However, oxine rapidly promoted oxidation of Fe2+ to Fe3+ in deionised water, suggesting that rapid removal of Fe2+ also occurred in the oxine-treated enclosures. 4. In batch cultures, 10 ,m Fe and 10 ,m oxine (a 1 : 1 ratio) completely inhibited the growth of the cyanobacteria Synechococcus sp. and Anabaena flos-aquae and the chlorophytes Pseudokirchneriella subcapitata and Scenedesmus quadricauda. Increasing Fe 10-fold to 100 ,m Fe completely and partially reversed oxine inhibition in the two chlorophytes but could not overcome inhibition of the cyanobacteria, indicating that inhibition was Fe-mediated at least in the eukaryotes. Since oxine binds Fe3+ in a 1 : 3 ratio (Fe : oxine), inhibition at a 1 : 1 ratio indicates that not all of the Fe is bound, and a mechanism involving Fe other than chelation was at least partly responsible for inhibition. 5. Collectively, the enclosure and laboratory results suggest that the outcome of competition between cyanobacteria and eukaryotic algae in the oxine-treated enclosures in Lake 227 was likely a result of decreased availability of Fe, especially Fe2+. 6. The results suggest that remediation methods that dramatically restrict the supply rate of Fe2+ could reduce the relative abundance of cyanobacteria in eutrophic systems. [source]


Adam B. Kustka
The centric diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana Hasle et Heimdal and the pennate diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum Bohlin possess genes with translated sequences homologous to high-affinity ferric reductases present in model organisms. Thalassiosira pseudonana also possesses putative genes for membrane-bound ferroxidase (TpFET3) and two highly similar iron (Fe) permeases (TpFTR1 and TpFTR2), as well as a divalent metal (M2+) transporter belonging to the NRAMP superfamily (TpNRAMP). In baker's yeast, the ferroxidase,permease complex transports Fe(II) produced by reductases. We investigated transcript abundances of these genes as a function of Fe quota (QFe). Ferric reductase transcripts are abundant in both species (15%,60% of actin) under low QFe and are down-regulated by 5- to 35-fold at high QFe, suggesting Fe(III) reduction is a common, inducible strategy for Fe acquisition in marine diatoms. Permease transcript abundance was regulated by Fe status in T. pseudonana, but we did not detect significant differences in expression of the copper (Cu)-containing ferroxidase. TpNRAMP showed the most dramatic regulation by QFe, suggesting a role in cellular Fe transport in either cell-surface uptake or vacuolar mobilization. We could not identify ferroxidase or permease homologues in the P. tricornutum genome. The up-regulation of genes in T. pseudonana that appear to be missing altogether from P. tricornutum as well as the finding that P. tricornutum seems to have an efficient system to acquire Fe,, suggest that diverse (and uncharacterized) Fe-uptake systems may be at play within diatom assemblages. Different uptake systems among diatoms may provide a mechanistic basis for niche differentiation with respect to Fe availability in the ocean. [source]


David Porta
The complex chemical speciation of Fe in aquatic systems and the uncertainties associated with biological assimilation of Fe species make it difficult to assess the bioavailability of Fe to phytoplankton in relation to total dissolved Fe concentrations in natural waters. We developed a cyanobacterial Fe-responsive bioreporter constructed in Synechococcus sp. strain PCC 7942 by fusing the Fe-responsive isiAB promoter to Vibrio harveyi luxAB reporter genes. A comprehensive physiological characterization of the bioreporter has been made in defined Fraquil medium at free ferric ion concentrations ranging from pFe 21.6 to pFe 19.5. Whereas growth and physiological parameters are largely constrained over this range of Fe bioavailability, the bioreporter elicits a luminescent signal that varies in response to Fe deficiency. A dose-response characterization of bioreporter luminescence made over this range of Fe3+ bioavailability demonstrates a sigmoidal response with a dynamic linear range extending between pFe 21.1 and pFe 20.6. The applicability of using this Fe bioreporter to assess Fe availability in the natural environment has been tested using water samples from Lake Huron (Laurentian Great Lakes). Parallel assessment of dissolved Fe and bioreporter response from these samples reinforces the idea that measures of dissolved Fe should not be considered alone when assessing Fe availability to phytoplankton communities. [source]

Incidence of Cotton Seedling Diseases Caused by Rhizoctonia solani and Thielaviopsis basicola in Relation to Previous Crop, Residue Management and Nutrients Availability in Soils in SW Spain

A. Delgado
Abstract Cotton seedling damping-off is considered a disease complex, in which several pathogens can be involved. In SW Spain, postemergence damping-off seems to be mainly associated with Rhizoctonia solani and Thielaviopsis basicola, posing a serious limitation for crop, especially in cold springs. Ninety-seven commercial plots, where postemergence damping-off of cotton seedlings was observed during previous years, were selected in April 2001. In each plot, plants were randomly sampled between cotyledon to three true-leaf stage and soil samples besides the plants were taken. Symptomatic plants were separated according to the main observable seedling disease symptom: black necrosis (black root rot), brown necrosis and other symptoms. Thielaviopsis basicola inoculum was estimated in soil samples. Soil samples were also analysed for nutrient availability (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Mn and Zn). All the sampled plants showed some seedling disease symptom. Macroscopic symptoms can provide a reasonable distinction between these two major pathogens involved in seedling disease symptoms in the studied area: the percentage of T. basicola isolates (18%) from black necrosis symptomatic plants was significantly higher than that of R. solani (4.1%), whereas in brown necrosis symptomatic plants, the situation was reversed (10.7 vs. 12.8%). The percentage of plants with black necrosis symptoms was inversely related to the portion of plants with brown necrosis in each plot. The mean incidence of black necrosis was significantly lower in plots with residue incorporation (sugar beet as the preceding crop) than in plots without residue incorporation. No significant effect of preceding crop or residue management on brown necrosis incidence was observed. Incidence of black necrosis was negatively correlated with available N measured as NO3 -N when corn or sunflower were the preceding crop. The incidence of black necrosis was positively related to Fe availability in soil after cotton as preceding crop, whereas brown necrosis was negatively related to the availability of this micronutrient. [source]

Al,Fe interactions and growth enhancement in Melastoma malabathricum and Miscanthus sinensis dominating acid sulphate soils

ABSTRACT Plants growing in acid sulphate soils are subject to high levels of Al availability, which may have effects on the growth and distribution of these species. Although Fe availability is also high in acid sulphate soils, little is known about the effect of Fe on the growth of native plants in these soils. Two species dominating this soil type in Asia, viz. Melastoma malabathricum and Miscanthus sinensis were grown hydroponically in a nutrient solution with different concentrations of Al and Fe. Melastoma malabathricum is found to be sensitive to Fe (40 and 100 Ám). Application of 500 Ám Al, however, completely ameliorates Fe toxicity and is associated with a decrease of Fe concentration in shoots and roots. The primary reason for the Al-induced growth enhancement of M. malabathricum is considered to be the Al-induced reduction of toxic Fe accumulation in roots and shoots. Therefore, Al is nearly essential for M. malabathricum when growing in acid sulphate soils. In contrast, application of both Fe and Al does not reduce the growth of M. sinensis, and Al application does not result in lower shoot concentrations of Fe, suggesting that this grass species has developed different mechanisms for adaptation to acid sulphate soils. [source]

Pyrite Formation in Organic-rich Clay, Calcitic and Coal-Forming Environments

Gordana DEVI
Abstract, The early diagenetic characteristics of pyrite formation processes in a Miocene freshwater sequence of mixed sediments (coal fragments in clays, sandstones or shales) alternating with continuous brown coal layers was investigated. Based on abundant minerals, the following main sedimentary environments were distinguished: the illite-montmorillonitic (I-M), calcitic (Ct) and coal-forming environment (CL). For these hydrogeochemically differing environments the effects of limiting factors on the pyrite formation process (availability of sulphate and Fe, amount of organic matter and participation of organic sulphur) were assessed by correlation analysis. Significant differences in the effects of these limiting factors in the particular environments were observed. These differences were explained taking in account the different oxidative activity, Fe-complex and surface complex forming properties of humic substances in dependence of pH of environment and the abundance of sorptionally active clay minerals. In environments having a relatively low pH and containing clay minerals (I-M-and CL-environments) the oxidative activity of humic substances (Hs) on pyrite precursors was greatly prevented however pyrite formation depended on reactive Fe availability as the consequence of complex formation. On the contrary, in environments with a relatively high pH, as it was the calcitic, the oxidative activity of Hs was greatly enhanced, thus oxidizing the sulfur precursors of pyrite. The oxidation degree of organic matter was probably also a consequence of the differing activity of the humic electron-acceptors. [source]