Fe2+ Ions (fe2+ + ion)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Promotion of the fenton reaction by Cu2+ ions: Evidence for intermediates

Mordechai L. Kremer
The promotion of the Fenton reaction by Cu2+ ions has been investigated using a wide range of [Cu2+]. Both the disappearance of Fe2+ and the evolution of O2 were followed as a function of time by quenching the reaction mixture with o -phenanthroline or with excess Fe2 + ions, respectively. Two series of experiments were performed. In one series [H2O2] was 5 × 10,4 mol dm,3, and in the other [H2O2] was reduced to 5 × 10,5 mol dm ,3. By stopping the reaction with excess Fe2+ ions, significant differences in the measured absorbance in the two series were observed. In the higher [H2O2] range, the absorbance decreased monotonically in time, due to O2 formation during the reaction. In the lower range, an initial transient rise of the absorbance was observed, indicating the formation of spectroscopically distinct intermediates in the system. A mechanism involving the intermediates FeOCu4+ and FeOCu5+ has been set up. Rate constants of the mechanism have been determined. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Chem Kinet 38: 725,736, 2006 [source]

Synthesis and characterizations of nanosized iron(II) hydroxide and iron(II) hydroxide/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite

M. Fathima Parveen
Abstract Nanosized Fe(OH)2 was synthesized by a coprecipitation method. Peaks between 500 and 1250 cm,1 in Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy confirmed the presence of metal hydroxide stretching. X-ray diffraction showed the suppressed crystalline system of Fe(OH)2/aniline (ANI) due to the presence of a higher weight percentage of the dispersing agent, ANI. Thermogravimetric analysis implied that 75.5 wt % of residue remained up to 800°C. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) analysis of Fe(OH)2/ANI revealed that its size ranged from 10 to 50 nm with a rodlike morphology. Scanning electron microscopy implied that pristine Fe(OH)2 had a nanotriangular platelet morphology, and a higher weight percentage of dispersing agent intercalated with Fe(OH)2 had a spheroid with an agglomerated structure. The (UV,visible) spectrum implied the presence of Fe2+ ions at 326 nm and the existence of an amino group intercalated with Fe(OH)2 showed a sharp peak at 195 nm, the intensity of which increased with increasing intercalated dispersing agent weight percentage. Photoluminescence showed that ANI-intercalated Fe(OH)2 showed a lesser intensity than the pristine Fe(OH)2. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2010 [source]

A study on the sorption of NO3, and F, on the carboxymethylated starch-based hydrogels loaded with Fe2+ ions

Ghanshyam S. Chauhan
Abstract Using the principle of geochemistry of fluoride, green and cost effective anion adsorbents were developed for the removal of F, from water systems. The scheme was further applied for the removal of NO3, also. Carboxymethylated starch functionalized through network formation with acrylamide was used as adsorbent, and the resultant hydrogels were loaded with Fe2+ ions to generate anchorage for the anions. Sorption of Fe2+ was studied as a function of different factors such as time, temperature, pH, and ion strength. The network having the highest Fe2+ uptake was loaded with the Fe2+ ions under optimum conditions and used for the sorption of F, and NO3,. High efficiency has been observed for F,, as even up to 100% uptake has been observed within just 10 minutes. The support shows high selectivity for NO3,, which was used as anion reference. Thermodynamics of sorption confirms low order and low energy processes. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2007 [source]

Magneto-Dielectric Properties of Mg,Cu,Co Ferrite Ceramics: I. Densification Behavior and Microstructure Development

L. B. Kong
The densification, grain growth, and microstructure development of Mg,Cu,Co ferrite ceramics (MgFe1.98O4, Mg1,xCuxFe1.98O4, with x=0.10,0.30 and Mg0.90,xCoxCu0.10Fe1.98O4, with x=0.05,0.20) were studied. The primary objective was to develop magneto-dielectric materials for miniaturization of high frequency and very-high frequency antennas. It was found that magnesium ferrite (MgFe1.98O4) is a promising magneto-dielectric material. However, due to its poor densification, it could not be fully sintered at a temperature below 1200°C. High-temperature sintering resulted in undesirable electrical and dielectric properties, due to the formation of Fe2+ ions. The poor densification and slow grain growth rate of MgFe1.98O4 can be considerably improved by incorporating Cu, due to the occurrence of liquid-phase sintering at a high temperature. A critical concentration of Cu was observed for Mg1,xCuxFe1.98O4, above which both densification and grain growth were maximized or saturated. The presence of Co did not have a significant influence on the densification and grain growth of the Mg-based ferrite ceramics. [source]

Effects of radio frequency magnetic fields on iron release from cage proteins

Oscar Céspedes
Abstract Ferritin, the iron cage protein, contains a superparamagnetic ferrihydrite nanoparticle formed from the oxidation and absorption of Fe2+ ions. This nanoparticle increases its internal energy when exposed to alternating magnetic fields due to magnetization lag. The energy is then dissipated to the surrounding proteic cage, affecting its functioning. In this article we show that the rates of iron chelation with ferrozine, an optical marker, are reduced by up to a factor of 3 in proteins previously exposed to radio frequency magnetic fields of 1 MHz and 30 µT for several hours. The effect is non-thermal and depends on the frequency-amplitude product of the magnetic field. Bioelectromagnetics 30:336,342, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Functional studies of frataxin

G Isaya
Mitochondria generate adenosine triphosphate (ATP) but also dangerous reactive oxygen species (ROS). One-electron reduction of dioxygen in the early stages of the electron transport chain yields a superoxide radical that is detoxified by mitochondrial superoxide dismutase to give hydrogen peroxide. The hydroxyl radical is derived from decomposition of hydrogen peroxide via the Fenton reaction, catalyzed by Fe2+ ions. Mitochondria require a constant supply of Fe2+ for heme and iron-sulfur cluster biosyntheses and therefore are particularly susceptible to ROS attack. Two main antioxidant defenses are known in mitochondria: enzymes that catalytically remove ROS, e.g. superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and low molecular weight agents that scavenge ROS, including coenzyme Q, glutathione, and vitamins E and C. An effective defensive system, however, should also involve means to control the availability of pro-oxidants such as Fe2+ ions. There is increasing evidence that this function may be carried out by the mitochondrial protein frataxin. Frataxin deficiency is the primary cause of Friedreich's ataxia (FRDA), an autosomal recessive degenerative disease. Frataxin is a highly conserved mitochondrial protein that plays a critical role in iron homeostasis. Respiratory deficits, abnormal cellular iron distribution and increased oxidative damage are associated with frataxin defects in yeast and mouse models of FRDA. The mechanism by which frataxin regulates iron metabolism is unknown. The yeast frataxin homologue (mYfhlp) is activated by Fe(II) in the presence of oxygen and assembles stepwise into a 48-subunit multimer (,48) that sequesters <2000 atoms of iron in a ferrihydrite mineral core. Assembly of mYfhlp is driven by two sequential iron oxidation reactions: a fast ferroxidase reaction catalyzed by mYfh1p induces the first assembly step (,,3), followed by a slower autoxidation reaction that promotes the assembly of higher order oligomers yielding ,48. Depending on the ionic environment, stepwise assembly is associated with the sequestration of 50,75 Fe(II)/subunit. This Fe(II) is initially loosely bound to mYfh1p and can be readily mobilized by chelators or made available to the mitochondrial enzyme ferrochelatase to synthesize heme. However, as iron oxidation and mineralization proceed, Fe(III) becomes progressively inaccessible and a stable iron-protein complex is produced. In conclusion, by coupling iron oxidation with stepwise assembly, frataxin can successively function as an iron chaperon or an iron store. Reduced iron availability and solubility and increased oxidative damage may therefore explain the pathogenesis of FRDA. [source]