Fast Blue (fast + blue)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Fast Blue

  • luxol fast blue

  • Selected Abstracts

    Reciprocal connections between olfactory structures and the cortex of the rostral superior temporal sulcus in the Macaca fascicularis monkey

    A. Mohedano-Moriano
    Abstract Convergence of sensory modalities in the nonhuman primate cerebral cortex is still poorly understood. We present an anatomical tracing study in which polysensory association cortex located at the fundus and upper bank of the rostral superior temporal sulcus presents reciprocal connections with primary olfactory structures. At the same time, projections from this polysensory area reach multiple primary olfactory centres. Retrograde (Fast Blue) and anterograde (biotinylated dextran,amine and 3H-amino acids) tracers were injected into primary olfactory structures and rostral superior temporal sulcus. Retrograde tracers restricted to the anterior olfactory nucleus resulted in labelled neurons in the rostral portion of the upper bank and fundus of superior temporal sulcus. Injections of biotinylated dextran,amine at the fundus and upper bank of the superior temporal sulcus confirmed this projection by labelling axons in the dorsal and lateral portions of the anterior olfactory nucleus, as well as piriform, periamygdaloid and entorhinal cortices. Retrograde tracer injections at the rostral superior temporal sulcus resulted in neuronal labelling in the anterior olfactory nucleus, piriform, periamygdaloid and entorhinal cortices, thus providing confirmation of the reciprocity between primary olfactory structures and the cortex at the rostral superior temporal sulcus. The reciprocal connections between the rostral part of superior temporal sulcus and primary olfactory structures represent a convergence for olfactory and other sensory modalities at the cortex of the rostral temporal lobe. [source]

    Decreasing myelin density reflected increasing white matter pathology in Alzheimer's disease,a neuropathological study

    Martin Sjöbeck
    Abstract Background White matter disease (WMD) is frequently seen in Alzheimer's disease (AD) at neuropathological examination. It is defined as a subtotal tissue loss with a reduction of myelin, axons and oligodendrocytes as well as astrocytosis. Studies quantitatively defining the myelin loss in AD are scarce. The aim was to develop a method that could provide numerical values of myelin density in AD. The purpose was to compare the myelin contents in increasing grades of pathology of WMD, with age and cortical AD pathology as well as in different regions of the brain in AD. Material and methods Sixteen cases with AD and concomitant WMD were investigated with an in-house developed image analysis technique to determine the myelin attenuation with optical density (OD) in frontoparietal, parietal, temporal and occipital white matter on whole brain coronal sections stained for myelin with Luxol Fast Blue (LFB). The OD values in LFB were compared grouped according to Haematoxylin/Eosin (HE) evaluated mild, moderate and severe WMD or normal tissue. The OD values were also correlated with age and cortical AD pathology and compared between the different studied white matter regions. Results Increasing severity of WMD was associated with a statistically significant OD reduction. No correlation was seen between age and OD or overall cortical AD pathology. The OD values were significantly lower in frontoparietal-compared to occipital white matter. Conclusions Myelin loss in AD with WMD is a marked morphologic component of the disease and it is possible to determine the reduction objectively in neuropathological specimens with quantitative measures. This may be of use for clinical diagnostics including brain imaging. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    MRI identification of the rostral-caudal pattern of pathology within the corpus callosum in the cuprizone mouse model

    Qi-Zhu Wu BS
    Abstract Purpose To characterize and compare histological and MRI-based changes within the corpus callosum (CC) in the cuprizone mouse model of multiple sclerosis (MS). Materials and Methods A total of 12 C57/BL6 mice were fed cuprizone from eight weeks of age for four weeks. One cohort of six cuprizone and two control mice were scanned with a T2-weighted (T2W) sequence. The other cohort of six cuprizone and four control mice were scanned using a dual-echo sequence for T2-mapping and a diffusion-weighted sequence with two orthogonal diffusion encoding directions to calculate water diffusivities parallel and perpendicular to the CC fiber (apparent diffusion coefficients [ADC], and ADC,). After the mice were killed, the rostral-caudal pattern of CC demyelination and other pathologies were examined using Luxol Fast Blue, neurofilament staining, and immunohistochemistry for microglia and were correlated with MRI. Results In contrast to control mice, T2W imaging (T2WI) hyperintensity, reduced ADC,, and elevated ADC, were detected in the CC of cuprizone-fed mice, particularly in the caudal segment. The T2 value was increased in the entire CC. Marked demyelination, as well as axonal injury, microglia accumulation, and cellular infiltration were found in the caudal section of the cuprizone mouse CC. The rostral-caudal pattern of abnormalities within the CC in MRI measurements correlated well with histopathological findings. Conclusion Noninvasive MRI using quantitative T2 and ADC mapping accurately characterized the rostral-caudal pattern of CC demyelination and other pathologies in cuprizone challenged mice, and thus could provide an effective way to assess the structural response to experimental therapeutics being designed for the treatment of MS. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2007. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Striated Perineal Muscles: Location of Autonomic, Sensory, and Somatic Neurons Projecting to the Male Pig Bulbospongiosus Muscle

    Maddalena Botti
    Abstract The location, number, and size of the neurons innervating the bulbospongiosus muscle (BSM) were studied in male pigs, by means of Fast Blue (FB) retrograde transport. After injection of FB into the left BSM, labeled neurons were found bilaterally in the L2-S4 sympathetic trunk ganglia (STGs), in the caudal mesenteric ganglia (CMGs), in the microganglia of the pelvic plexus (PGs), in a dorsolateral area with respect to the central canal of S1-S3 segments of the spinal cord (SC) and in the S1-S4 ipsilateral and S2-S3 contralateral spinal ganglia (SGs). The mean number of labeled FB cells was 3,122 ± 1,968 in STGs, 979 ± 667 in CMGs, 108 ± 104 in PGs, 89 ± 39 in SC and 77 ± 23 in SGs. The area of the multipolar neurons was 852 ± 22 ,m2 in the STGs, 878 ± 23 ,m2 in the CMGs and 922 ± 31 ,m2 in the PGs. The multipolar SC neurons had an area of 1,057 ± 38 ,m2, while pseudounipolar SG cells had dimensions of 2,281 ± 129 ,m2. Our research enables us to highlight two peculiarities regarding the innervation of the boar BSM: the very high number of labeled autonomic neurons and the particular localization of the motor somatic nucleus. Anat Rec, 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Origin and Chemical Coding of Primary Afferent Neurones Supplying the Prostate of the Dog

    M. B. Arciszewski
    Summary Retrograde tracing technique combined with the double-fluorescent immunohistochemistry were used to investigate the distribution and chemical coding of primary afferent neurones supplying the canine prostate. After the injection of Fast Blue (FB) into the prostatic tissue retrogradely-labelled (FB+) primary afferent neurones were localized in bilateral L1,Ca1 dorsal root ganglia (DRG). Statistical analysis using anova test showed that there are two major sources of afferent prostate innervation. The vast majority of prostate-supplying primary afferent neurones were located in bilateral L2,L4 DRG (56.9 ± 0.6%). The second source of the afferent innervation of canine prostate were bilateral S1,Ca1 DRG (40.6 ± 1.0%). No statistically significant differences were found between average number of FB+ neurones localized in the left and right DRG (49.5 ± 1.7 and 50.5 ± 1.7%, respectively). Immunohistochemistry revealed that FB+ primary afferent neurones contain several neuropeptides in various combinations. In the prostate-supplying neurones of lumbar and sacro-caudal DRG the immunoreactivity to substance P (SP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was found most frequently (50 ± 3.7 and 37.3 ± 1.9%, respectively). Both in the lumbar and sacro-caudal DRG, considerable population of FB+ neurones immunoreactive neither to SP nor CGRP were also found (23 ± 2.6 and 32.8 ± 2.3%, respectively). In the lumbar DRG 10.7 ± 1.1% of SP-immunoreactive FB+ neurones also contained galanin (GAL). In 9.2 ± 2.2% of the prostate-supplying primary afferent neurones located in the sacro-caudal DRG the co-localization of SP and GAL was also reported. Results of the retrograde tracing experiment demonstrated for the first time sources of afferent innervation of the canine prostate. Double immunohistochemistry revealed that many of the prostate-supplying primary afferent neurones express some of sensory neuropeptides which presumably may be involved in nociception and some pathological processes like inflammation or nerve injury. [source]

    Sequential myelin protein expression during remyelination reveals fast and efficient repair after central nervous system demyelination

    M. Lindner
    To understand the mechanisms of remyelination and the reasons for regeneration failure is one of the major challenges in multiple sclerosis research. This requires a good knowledge and reliable analysis of experimental models. This work was undertaken to characterize the pattern of myelin protein expression during experimental remyelination. Acute demyelination of the corpus callosum was induced by feeding of 0.3% cuprizone for 6 weeks, followed by a 10-week remyelination period. We used a combination of Luxol fast blue (LFB) myelin staining, electron microscopy (EM) and immunohistochemistry for the myelin proteins 2,,3,-cyclic nucleotide 3, phosphodiesterase (CNPase), myelin basic protein (MBP), proteolipid protein (PLP) and myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG). Early remyelination was detected by the re-expression of CNPase, MBP and PLP as early as 4 days. MOG, as a marker for late differentiation of oligodendrocytes, was not detectable until 2 weeks of remyelination. EM data correlated well with the LFB myelin staining and myelin protein expression, with 50% of the axons being rapidly remyelinated within 2 weeks. While particularly MBP but also PLP and CNPase are re-expressed very early before significant remyelination is observed by EM, the late marker MOG shows a lag behind the remyelination detected by EM. The presented data indicate that immunohistochemistry for various myelin proteins expressed early and late during myelin formation is a suitable and reliable method to follow remyelination in the cuprizone model. Furthermore, investigation of early remyelination confirms that the intrinsic repair programme is very fast and switched on within days. [source]

    Remyelination can be extensive in multiple sclerosis despite a long disease course

    R. Patani
    Experimental studies using models of multiple sclerosis (MS) indicate that rapid and extensive remyelination of inflammatory demyelinated lesions is not only possible, but is the normal situation. The presence of completely remyelinated MS lesions has been noted in numerous studies and routine limited sampling of post mortem MS material suggests that remyelination may be extensive in the early stages but eventually fails. However, visual macroscopic guided sampling tends to be biased towards chronic demyelinated lesions. Here we have extensively sampled cerebral tissue from two MS cases to investigate the true extent of remyelination. Sections were cut from 185 cerebral tissue blocks and stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E), luxol fast blue and cresyl fast violet (LFB/CFV) and anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein, human leucocyte antigen-DR (HLA-DR) and 200 kDa neurofilament protein antibodies. Demyelinated areas were identified in 141 blocks, comprising both white matter (WMLs) and/or grey matter lesions. In total, 168 WMLs were identified, 22% of which were shadow plaques, 73% were partially remyelinated and only 5% were completely demyelinated. The average extent of lesion remyelination for all WMLs investigated was 47%. Increased density of HLA-DR+ macrophages and microglia at the lesion border correlated significantly with more extensive remyelination. Results from this study of two patients with long standing disease suggest that remyelination in MS may be more extensive than previously thought. [source]

    Quantitative MRI-pathology correlations of brain white matter lesions developing in a non-human primate model of multiple sclerosis

    NMR IN BIOMEDICINE, Issue 2 2007
    Erwin L. A. Blezer
    Abstract Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) induced with recombinant human myelin/oligodendrocyte glycoprotein in the common marmoset is a useful preclinical model of multiple sclerosis in which white matter lesions can be well visualized with MRI. In this study we characterized lesion progression with quantitative in vivo MRI (4.7,T; T1 relaxation time,±,Gd-DTPA; T2 relaxation time; magnetization transfer ratio, MTR, imaging) and correlated end stage MRI presentation with quantitative ex vivo MRI (formaldehyde fixed brains; T1 and T2 relaxation times; MTR) and histology. The histopathological characterization included axonal density measurements and the numeric quantification of infiltrated macrophages expressing markers for early active [luxol fast blue (LFB) or migration inhibition factor-related protein-14 positive] or late active/inactive [periodic acid Schiff (PAS) positive] demyelinating lesion. MRI experiments were done every two weeks until the monkeys were sacrificed with severe EAE-related motor deficits. Compared with the normal appearing white matter, lesions showed an initial increase in T1 relaxation times, leakage of Gd-DTPA and decrease in MTR values. The progressive enlargement of lesions was associated with stabilized T1 values, while T2 initially increased and stabilized thereafter and MTR remained decreased. Gd-DTPA leakage was highly variable throughout the experiment. MRI characteristics of the cortex and (normal appearing) white matter did not change during the experiment. We observed that in vivo MTR values correlated positively with the number of early active (LFB+) and negatively with late active (PAS+) macrophages. Ex vivo MTR and relaxation times correlated positively with the number of PAS-positive macrophages. None of the investigated MRI parameters correlated with axonal density. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]