Faroe Islands (faroe + island)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

A two-fold difference in the age-adjusted prevalences of Parkinson's disease between the island of Als and the Faroe Islands

L. Wermuth
With the aim of comparing the previously found high prevalence of idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD) in the Faroe Islands with the prevalence of PD in an area of Denmark, we used the same case-finding methods for case ascertainment and the same strict criteria to diagnose PD on the island of Als. During the last year before the prevalence date (1 January 1998), we found in various registries from pharmacies, hospital, private neurologist and general practioners 121 patients with suspected Parkinsonism out of 56 839 inhabitants on the island of Als. After exclusion of those who had other diseases, a total of 79 patients were left for further examinations. Among these we found 58 with PD. The overall prevalence of PD was estimated to be 102.0 and the age-adjusted prevalence to be 98.3 per 100 000 persons compared with 187.6 and 209.0 in the Faroe Islands. Compared with the previous results from the Faroe Islands (prevalence date 1 July 1995) we found an even lower mean age at onset of PD symptoms and at onset of treatment, a lower proportion of definite PD and a lower average dose of levodopa. We therefore conclude that the two-fold higher prevalence in the Faroe Islands than on the island of Als was not due to an early diagnosis and a higher ascertainment of cases with mild PD, which was suggested as being one possible explanation for our previous finding of a high prevalence of PD in the Faroe Islands. [source]

The enhancement of cod stocks

T. Svsand
Atlantic cod have been a primary target for marine stock enhancement since the 1880s. In the early part of this period, hatched larvae were released in Norway, the USA and Canada. The last larval releases were conducted in Norway in 1971, and a century of cod larvae releases were halted without any clear evidence of benefit. Since the early 1980s, the focus has been on production of larger, more viable juvenile cod. Emphasis has been given to the design of tag,release programmes involving large-scale releases and ecosystem analysis in selected ecosystems. Most of this research has been carried out in Norway, where more than one million tagged juvenile cod have been released. Smaller stocking experiments have also been performed in Denmark, Sweden, the Faroe Islands and the USA. This paper reviews the major findings from these programmes. We include summaries and evaluations of rearing techniques for juvenile cod, methods of tagging and recapture, experimental fishing, migration, mortality and growth rates in the different habitats, genetic analysis, and ecosystem studies that have tried to describe the variation in the cod carrying capacity of selected release areas. Despite relatively large variation in environmental conditions, in cod production and in fishing mortality along the Norwegian coast, results indicate that, under the conditions experienced during the 1980s and 1990s, releases of juvenile cod did not significantly increase cod production and catches. The biological limitations and future prospects of Atlantic cod stock enhancement are addressed. [source]

Seismic attenuation in Faroe Islands basalts

F. Shaw
ABSTRACT We analysed vertical seismic profiling (VSP) data from two boreholes at Glyvursnes and Vestmanna on the island of Streymoy, Faroe Islands, to determine the magnitude and causes of seismic attenuation in sequences of basalt flows. The work is part of SeiFaBa, a major project integrating data from vertical and offset VSP, surface seismic surveys, core samples and wireline log data from the two boreholes. Values of effective seismic quality factor (Q) obtained at Glyvursnes and Vestmanna are sufficiently low to significantly degrade the quality of a surface reflection seismic image. This observation is consistent with results from other VSP experiments in the North Atlantic region. We demonstrate that the most likely cause of the low values of effective Q at Glyvursnes and Vestmanna is a combination of 1D scattering and intrinsic attenuation due to seismic wave-induced fluid flow within pores and micro-cracks. Tests involving 3D elastic wave numerical modelling with a hypothetical basalt model based on field observations, indicate that little scattering attenuation is caused by lateral variations in basalt structure. [source]

Mutations in the holocarboxylase synthetase gene HLCS,

HUMAN MUTATION, Issue 4 2005
Yoichi Suzuki
Abstract Holocarboxylase synthetase (HLCS) deficiency is an autosomal recessive disorder. HLCS is an enzyme that catalyzes biotin incorporation into carboxylases and histones. Since the first report of the cDNA sequence, 30 mutations in the HLCS gene have been reported. Mutations occur throughout the entire coding region except exons 6 and 10. The types of mutations are one single amino acid deletion, five single nucleotide insertions/deletions, 22 missense mutations, and two nonsense mutations. The only intronic mutation identified thus far is c.1519+5G>A (also designated IVS10+5G>A), which causes a splice error. Several lines of evidence suggest that c.1519+5G>A is a founder mutation in Scandinavian patients. Prevalence of this mutation is about 10 times higher in the Faroe Islands than in the rest of the world. The mutations p.L237P and c.780delG are predominant only in Japanese patients. These are probably founder mutations in this population. Mutations p.R508W and p.V550M are identified in several ethic groups and accompanied with various haplotypes, suggesting that these are recurrent mutations. There is a good relationship between clinical biotin responsiveness and the residual activity of HLCS. A combination of a null mutation and a point mutation that shows less than a few percent of the normal activity results in neonatal onset. Patients who have mutant HLCS with higher residual activity develop symptom after the neonatal period and show a good clinical response to biotin therapy. Hum Mutat 26(4), 285,290, 2005. 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The North Atlantic subpolar gyre and the marine migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar: the ,Merry-Go-Round' hypothesis

M. J. Dadswell
One model for marine migration of Atlantic salmon Salmo salar proposes that North American and southern European stocks (<62 N) move directly to feeding grounds off west Greenland, then overwinter in the Labrador Sea, whereas northern European stocks (>62 N) utilize the Norwegian Sea. An alternate model proposes that both North American and European stocks migrate in the North Atlantic Subpolar Gyre (NASpG) where S. salar enter the NASpG on their respective sides of the Atlantic, and travel counterclockwise within the NASpG until returning to natal rivers. A review of data accumulated during the last 50 years suggests a gyre model is most probable. Freshwater parr metamorphose into smolts which have morphological, physiological and behavioural adaptations of epipelagic, marine fishes. Former high-seas fisheries were seasonally sequential and moved in the direction of NASpG currents, and catches were highest along the main axis of the NASpG. Marking and discrimination studies indicate mixed continental origin feeding aggregations on both sides of the Atlantic. Marked North American smolts were captured off Norway, the Faroe Islands, east and west Greenland, and adults tagged at the Faroes were recovered in Canadian rivers. Marked European smolts were recovered off Newfoundland and Labrador, west and east Greenland, and adults tagged in the Labrador Sea were captured in European rivers. High Caesium-137 (137Cs) levels in S. salar returning to a Quebec river suggested 623% had fed at or east of Iceland, whereas levels in 1 sea-winter (SW) Atlantic Canada returnees indicated 247% had fed east of the Faroes. Lower levels of 137Cs in returning 1SW Irish fish suggest much of their growth occurred in the western Atlantic. These data suggest marine migration of S. salar follows a gyre model and is similar to other open-ocean migrations of epipelagic fishes. [source]

Revised age estimate of the Mjuvtn tephra A on the Faroe Islands based on Bayesian modelling of 14C dates from two lake sequences,

Jesper Olsen
Abstract Tephra horizons are potentially perfect time markers for dating and cross-correlation among diverse Holocene palaeoenvironmental records such as ice cores and marine and terrestrial sequences, but we need to trust their age. Here we present a new age estimate of the Holocene Mjuvtn tephra A using accelerator mass spectrometry 14C dates from two lakes on the Faroe Islands. With Bayesian age modelling it is dated to 6668,6533,cal. a BP (68.2% confidence interval) , significantly older and better constrained than the previous age. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Mitochondrial DNA and microsatellite variation in the eider duck (Somateria mollissima) indicate stepwise postglacial colonization of Europe and limited current long-distance dispersal

R. Tiedemann
Abstract To unravel the postglacial colonization history and the current intercolony dispersal in the common eider, Somateria mollissima, we analysed genetic variation at a part of the mitochondrial control region and five unlinked autosomal microsatellite loci in 175 eiders from 11 breeding colonies, covering the entire European distribution range of this species. As a result of extreme female philopatry, mitochondrial DNA differentiation is substantial both among local colonies and among distant geographical regions. Our study further corroborates the previous hypothesis of a single Pleistocene refugium for European eiders. A nested clade analysis on mitochondrial haplotypes suggests that (i) the Baltic Sea eider population is genetically closest to a presumably ancestral population and that (ii) the postglacial recolonization progressed in a stepwise fashion via the North Sea region and the Faroe Islands to Iceland. Current long-distance dispersal is limited. Differentiation among colonies is much less pronounced at microsatellite loci. The geographical pattern of this nuclear genetic variation is to a large extent explained by isolation by distance. As female dispersal is very limited, the geographical pattern of nuclear variation is probably explained by male-mediated gene flow among breeding colonies. Our study provides genetic evidence for the assumed prominent postglacial colonization route shaping the present terrestrial fauna of the North Atlantic islands Iceland and the Faroes. It suggests that this colonization had been a stepwise process originating in continental Europe. It is the first molecular study on eider duck populations covering their entire European distribution range. [source]

Sequence analysis of measles virus strains collected during the pre- and early-vaccination era in Denmark reveals a considerable diversity of ancient strains

APMIS, Issue 2 2002
L. Siig Christensen
A total of 199 serum samples from patients with measles collected in Denmark, Greenland and the Faroe Islands from 1964 to 1983 were analysed by PCR. Measles virus (MV) RNA could be detected in 38 (19%) of the samples and a total of 18 strains were subjected to partial sequence analysis of the hemagglutinin gene. The strains exhibited a considerable genomic diversity, which is at odds with the assumption that one genome type prevailed among globally circulating MV strains prior to the advent of live-attenuated vaccines. Our data indicate that the similarity of the various vaccine strains is attributed to their having originated from the same primary isolate. Consequently, it is implied that a small number of clinical manifestations of MV worldwide from which strains similar to the vaccine strain were identified were vaccine related rather than being caused by members of a persistently circulating ancient genome type. The Danish pre- and early-vaccination era MV strains seem to change the evolutionary spectrum of genome types A, C2 and E into one coherent group, suggesting that the genome types of MV strains circulating in the world at present do not represent far ranging evolutionary lineages but merely members of an evolutionary continuum of pre-vaccination era MV strains which by chance or due to an improved capability survived the worldwide partial herd immunity accomplished through vaccination. [source]

Vegetation transition following drainage in a high-latitude hyper-oceanic ecosystem

Anna Maria Fosaa
Abstract Questions: How does draining affect the composition of vegetation? Are certain functional groups favoured? Can soil parameters explain these differences? Location: Central Faroe Islands, treeless islands in the northern boreal vegetation zone. Since 1987, an area of 21 km2 at 100,200 m a.s.l. was drained in order to provide water for hydro-electric production. Method: Vegetation and soil of a drained area and a control, undrained neighbouring area of approximately the same size were sampled in 2007. Six sites were sampled in each area. The vegetation was classified with cluster analysis. Results: Four plant communities were defined in the area: Calluna vulgaris,Empetrum nigrum,Vaccinium myrtillus heath, Scirpus cespitosus,Eriophorum angustifolium blanket mire, Carex bigelowii,Racomitrium lanuginosum moss-heath, Narthecium ossifragum,Carex panacea mire. Heath was more extensively distributed within, and was the dominant community of the drained area, whereas moss-heath was more extensive in the undrained area. Blanket mire and mire had approximately the same distribution in both areas. For the blanket mire, species composition indicated drier conditions in the drained than in the undrained area. The drained area had higher frequencies of woody species and lichens, grasses had finer roots and available soil phosphate was considerably higher, whereas the undrained area had higher frequencies of grasses and sedges. Conclusion: The dominant plant communities were different in the two areas, which indicated that the blanket mire was drying in the drained area. Higher concentration of soil phosphate in the drained area also indicated increased decomposition of organic soils owing to desiccation. [source]

Rapid Holocene climate changes in the North Atlantic: evidence from lake sediments from the Faroe Islands

BOREAS, Issue 1 2006
Holocene records from two lakes on the Faroe Islands were investigated to determine regional climatic variability: the fairly wind-exposed Lake Starvatn on Streymoy and the more sheltered Lake Lykkjuvtn on Sandoy. Sediment cores were analysed for content of biogenic silica, organic carbon and clastic material, and magnetic susceptibility. In addition, a new qualitative proxy for past lake ice cover and wind activity was developed using the flux of clastic grains that are larger than 255 ,m. Both long-term and short-term climatic developments were similar between the two lakes, suggesting a response to a regional climate signal. The long-term climate development is characterized by early Holocene rapid warming followed by Holocene climatic optimum conditions ending around 8300 cal. yr BP. A more open landscape as evidenced from increased sand grain influx in the period 8300,7200 cal. yr BP could reflect the aftermath of the 8200 cal. yr BP event, although the event itself is not recognized in either of the two lake records. From around 7200 cal. yr BP the mid-Holocene climate deterioration is observed and from 4200 cal. yr BP the climate deteriorated further with increased amplitude of centennial cooling episodes. [source]

Multiple sclerosis in the Faroe Islands.


Wallin MT, Heltberg A, Kurtzke JF. Multiple sclerosis in the Faroe Islands. 8. Notifiable diseases. Acta Neurol Scand: 2010: 122: 102,109. 2009 The Authors Journal compilation 2009 Blackwell Munksgaard. Objective,,, To seek evidence for a possible infectious origin of the type 1 epidemic of multiple sclerosis (MS) in the Faroe Islands. This began in 1943 coincident with their British military occupation throughout World War II. Materials and methods,,, Data obtained from the Danish National Health Service were assessed for all notifiable diseases in the Faroe Islands reported from 1900 to 1977. Results,,, Among 38 disorders, selective increases were found for acute infectious gastroenteritis (AIGE) and paradysentery, with outbreaks in late 1940 and in 1943 shortly after the introduction and later marked influx, respectively, of British troops. Five other infections showed elevated numbers in 1941 and 1942. Conclusions,,, There is a temporal association of AIGE and paradysentery in the Faroe Islands with the first arrival and later marked augmentation of British forces stationed there during the war. Rises in the incidence of other diseases in 1941,1942 seem more likely a consequence of increased foreign commercial travel by Faroese at that time. [source]

Comments on familial multiple sclerosis in the Faroe Islands

M. T. Wallin
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Multiple sclerosis in a family on the Faroe Islands

S. Binzer
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Multiple sclerosis incidence in the Faroe Islands 1986,2007

P. Joensen
Joensen P. Multiple sclerosis incidence in the Faroe Islands 1986,2007. Acta Neurol Scand: 2010: 121: 348,353. 2009 The Author Journal compilation 2009 Blackwell Munksgaard. Objective,,, Epidemiological studies of the isolated Faroese population in 1945 identified a high annual incidence of multiple sclerosis (MS) of 10/100,000. At the time, there was speculation that the disease was brought to the country by British occupation forces resident in the islands from 1940 to 1945. The objective of the current study is to determine the incidence of diagnosis of MS in the Faroe Islands during the period 1986,2007. Methods,,, All patients in the Faroe Islands diagnosed with MS from July 1, 1986 to July 1, 2007 are documented in the current longitudinal, prospective study. The diagnosis is based on clinical observation, magnetic resonance imaging scanning, cerebrospinal fluid tests, and visual evoked potential response testing. Results,,, The incidence of MS during the period 1986,2007 is 4.5/100,000 annually. This is generally of the same order of magnitude as other research findings in Scandinavia and Iceland. The incidence of MS from 1986 to 2007 is about double the incidence in the Faroe Islands for the period from 1940 to 1986, calculated to be 2.7/100,000 annually. Conclusion,,, The observed incidence of MS in the Faroe Islands, where the population is genetically homogeneous and where the diet exposes the population to neuro-toxic contamination, is at the same level as found in other high-risk regions. The former detected epidemics of MS in Faroe Islands seems apparently to have leveled out and could not be recognized in the recent period covered by the present survey. [source]

Multiple sclerosis in a family on the Faroe Islands

S. Binzer
Background,,, John Kurtzke has proposed that multiple sclerosis (MS) on the Faroe Islands occurred as a result of the spread of a transmittable agent brought to the country during World War II. Aim,,, Kurtzke's theory has been opposed earlier and in this study, we present a family from the Faroe Islands containing a total of 14 family members with MS which show further inconsistencies with the theory. The present study is to our knowledge, the first description of familial incidences of MS on the Faroe Islands. Methods,,, Medical histories were gathered from 12 family members and 6 of the 8 living MS cases were human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-typed. Results,,, Seven family members had primary progressive MS (PPMS), while five had relapsing remitting MS. The HLA-DR15 allele was carried by the three cases with the most aggressive form of MS and they shared a common haplotypes. The HLA types carried by the remaining cases varied. Conclusion,,, This research questions Kurtzke's theory as three of the cases do not conform to the epidemic cohorts described. Furthermore, there appears to be a higher than usual prevalence of PPMS. The high degree of heterogeneity of the HLA types carried indicates that HLA alleles do not independently explain the risk of developing MS. [source]