Farmed Rainbow Trout (farmed + rainbow_trout)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Lipid damage in farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) after slaughtering and chilled storage

Jaime Ortiz
Abstract The flow ice system including ozone (OFI condition) was tested for slaughtering and storage (up to 16,days) of farmed rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Lipid damage analyses were carried out and compared to sensory acceptance and instrumental colour changes. Comparison to individuals processed with the flow ice system in the absence of ozone (FI condition) was undertaken. Rainbow trout slaughtered and chilled under FI and OFI conditions showed a low lipid damage development, according to lipid oxidation and hydrolysis events and lipid composition (polyunsaturated fatty acids, phospholipids and endogenous antioxidants) changes. Additionally, both icing conditions led to largely good quality and shelf life times and to the absence of changes in colour properties. It is concluded that flow ice as such, or including the presence of ozone, can be considered as ideal strategy to be employed as slaughtering and storage system during the commercialisation of the actual farmed species. The ozone presence has shown some profitable effects as leading to an extended shelf life time by quality retention of several sensory parameters; in contrast, some negligible negative effects could be observed on the secondary and tertiary lipid oxidation development. However, the oxidation values reached by individuals kept under OFI conditions cannot be considered as particularly high. [source]

Histomorphometrical studies of vertebral bone condition in farmed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss

M.-H. Deschamps
Summary A major problem for the fish farming industry is to find reliable indicators of bone condition that could help to prevent vertebral abnormalities. Here, we summarize the main results of two recent studies aiming to assess the variation of two vertebral bone variables (bone mineralization and vertebral total bone area) during rainbow trout grow-out in several French farms. We provide evidence for a wide range of variation for these parameters and for the occurrence of vertebral bone abnormalities, and new data on vertebral structure in trout reared either in various fish farms (influence of rearing conditions) or at different temperatures (influence of various growth rates). Although further experiments are needed to understand bone metabolism in trout, these findings increase our knowledge on growth and modelling of vertebrae, and provide valuable data that will enable comparisons in the future. [source]

The relationships between stocking density and welfare in farmed rainbow trout

T. Ellis
There is increasing public, governmental and commercial interest in the welfare of intensively farmed fish and stocking density has been highlighted as an area of particular concern. Here we draw scientific attention and debate to this emerging research field by reviewing the evidence for effects of density on rainbow trout. Although no explicit reference to ,welfare' has been made, there are 43 studies which have examined the effects of density on production and physiological parameters of rainbow trout. Increasing stocking density does not appear to cause prolonged crowding stress in rainbow trout. However, commonly reported effects of increasing density are reductions in food conversion efficiency, nutritional condition and growth, and an increase in fin erosion. Such changes are indicative of a reduced welfare status,although the magnitude of the effects has tended to be dependent upon study-specific conditions. Systematic observations on large scale commercial farms are therefore required, rather than extrapolation of these mainly small-scale experimental findings. There is dispute as to the cause of the observed effects of increasing density, with water quality deterioration and/or an increase in aggressive behaviour being variously proposed. Both causes can theoretically generate the observed effects of increasing density, and the relative contribution of the two causes may depend upon the specific conditions. However, documentation of the relationship between density and the effects of aggressive behaviour at relevant commercial densities is lacking. Consequently only inferential evidence exists that aggressive behaviour generates the observed effects of increasing density, whereas there is direct experimental evidence that water quality degradation is responsible. Nevertheless, there are contradictory recommendations in the literature for key water quality parameters to ensure adequate welfare status. The potential for welfare to be detrimentally affected by non-aggressive behavioural interactions (abrasion, collision, obstruction) and low densities (due to excessive aggressive behaviour and a poor feeding response) have been largely overlooked. Legislation directly limiting stocking density is likely to be unworkable, and a more practical option might be to prescribe acceptable levels of water quality, health, nutritional condition and behavioural indicators. [source]

An investigation into the prevalence of Renibacterium salmoninarum in farmed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum), and wild fish populations in selected river catchments in England and Wales between 1998 and 2000

E Chambers
Abstract A cross-sectional survey of Renibacterium salmoninarum infection in farmed rainbow trout (RBT) and wild fish populations was carried out in 10 farms and six river catchments, respectively, in England and Wales. The majority of the wild fish were sampled in 1998 and the farmed fish in 2000. Grayling, Thymallus thymallus, and brown trout, Salmo trutta, were the main wild species sampled. Two fish, one grayling and one salmon, Salmo salar, were R. salmoninarum culture-positive, compared with 40 confirmed polymerase chain reaction-positive wild fish. The highest prevalence of R. salmoninarum infection was found in grayling in rivers with RBT farms with a history of R. salmoninarum infection. One hundred and fifty fish were sampled from each RBT farm, but none of the fish was found to be R. salmoninarum -positive. Evidence was found, for the first time, for the presence of R. salmoninarum in an eel, Anguilla anguilla. [source]

Investigation of wild caught whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus (L.), for infection with viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) and experimental challenge of whitefish with VHSV

H F Skall
Abstract One hundred and forty-eight wild whitefish, Coregonus lavaretus (L.), were caught by electrofishing and sampled for virological examination in December 1999 and 2000, during migration from the brackish water feeding grounds to the freshwater spawning grounds, where the whitefish may come into contact with farmed rainbow trout. All samples were examined on cell cultures. No viruses were isolated. Three viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus (VHSV) isolates of different origin were tested in infection trials by immersion and intraperitoneal (IP) injection, using 1.5 g farmed whitefish: an isolate from wild caught marine fish, a farmed rainbow trout isolate with a suspected marine origin and a classical freshwater isolate. The isolates were highly pathogenic by IP injection where 99,100% of the whitefish died. Using an immersion challenge the rainbow trout isolates were moderately pathogenic with approximately 20% mortality, whereas the marine isolate was virtually non-pathogenic. At the end of the experiment it was possible to isolate VHSV from survivors infected with the marine and suspected marine isolates. Because of the low infection rate in wild whitefish in Denmark, the role of whitefish in the spread of VHSV in Denmark is probably not significant. The experimental studies, however, showed that whitefish are potential carriers of VHSV as they suffer only low mortality after infection but continue to carry virus. [source]

Microbial community diversity associated with the intestinal mucosa of farmed rainbow trout (Oncoryhnchus mykiss Walbaum)

Daniel L Merrifield
Abstract Bacterial communities from the intestinal tract of rainbow trout were investigated to assess transient and resident microbial communities using both culture-based and culture-independent techniques. Viable counts attached to the intestinal mucosa were in the range of log 4.77,5.38 and log 6.67,6.79 CFU g,1 in the intestinal contents. Pseudomonas spp. and Enterobacteriaceae constituted nearly 80% of the allochthonous population but <60% of the autochthonous populations. This coincided with an elevated mucosal level of a group of Gram-positive rods from ,2% in the digesta to 25,35% on the mucosa. This group was identified by 16S rRNA as Arthrobacter aurescens and Janibacter spp. HTCC2649. Analysis of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis banding patterns showed complex communities in all intestinal regions. Similarity coefficients showed that mucosal communities were ,70% similar to digesta communities and yet due to the presence of bands found uniquely either in the digesta or on the mucosa, the communities are distinctly different. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed mucosal bacterial populations and highlighted a possible localized colonization between mucosal folds. The study highlights the complexity of resident microbial communities that have not been fully explored in previous rainbow trout studies; this is especially true with probiotic/prebiotic investigations. [source]

Transfer of toxaphene and chlordane into farmed rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) via feed

H Karl
Abstract The study was carried out to quantitate the transfer of toxaphene and chlordane compounds from commercial fish feed into the edible part of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss (Walbaum) under normal rearing conditions. Trout were fed with unspiked high energy feed for salmon (fat content 26,30%) over a period of 19 months. The average weight of trout increased from 10 g to more than 2092 g, reaching sizes of 51 cm length. Considerable amounts of toxaphene and chlordane residues were transferred from fish feed into trout muscle. Toxaphene concentrations increased up to 8.6 g (, toxaphene indicator compounds 1,3) kg,1 wet weight (w.w.) and chlordane reached 5.3 g ,oxy -, trans -, cis -chlordane + t -nonachlor kg,1 w.w. Results are also discussed on the contaminant levels based on the fat content and the effect of sexual maturation is considered in this study. The data allow the establishment of transfer rates for toxaphene and chlordane congeners from high energy diet into the edible part of farmed rainbow trout. [source]