Family Life (family + life)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences

Kinds of Family Life

  • and family life
  • work and family life

  • Terms modified by Family Life

  • family life cycle

  • Selected Abstracts

    Family Diversity in 50 Years of Storybook Images of Family Life

    Nancy M. Rodman
    Storybooks are cultural artifacts and part of children's normative socialization. Content analysis of the 100-book sample of picture storybooks about daily family life published between 1943 and 1993 revealed no significant differences among time periods in frequency of appearance of different family types nor of different ethnicities. The dominant family images portrayed across 50 years and in each time period were the traditional nuclear and the Caucasian family. The diversity in families of real children should be reflected in fictional picture storybooks about family life. [source]

    Complexity of Family Life Among the Low-Income and Working Poor: Introduction to the Special Issue

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 2 2004
    Patricia Hyjer Dyk
    Like all families, low-income and working-poor families need economic stability, safety, good health, and engagement in the larger community. However, the complexity of their lives is greatly impacted by limited economic resources. Three primary themes are explored by the 12 articles in this special issue: competing stressors and tensions, effective parenting, and economic stability and financial decision making. Key findings and program and policy implications identified by each set of authors are discussed. This body of work provides research-based practice and policy suggestions to guide future efforts in partnering with families to strengthen their families and communities for successful enhancement of child well-being. [source]

    Everyday Family Life: Dimensions, Approaches, and Current Challenges

    Anna Rönkä
    The aim of this systematic literature review was to identify, categorize, and evaluate the empirical research that has been conducted on everyday family life. Fifty-three empirically based articles focusing on everyday family life were included in the analysis, which focused on the conceptual, empirical, and theoretical content. According to our review, everyday family life comprises three dimensions: emotions, actions, and temporality. It is a continuously constructed process in which family members transmit emotions, engage in activities, and schedule timetables in the course of interactions with each other and with the wider social context. Three empirical or theoretical approaches were identified: the emotion transmission approach, the cultural activity approach, and the constructionist approach, all of which adopt research methods and concepts sensitive to daily fluctuations. [source]

    Making and Breaking Family Life: Adoption, the State, and Human Rights

    Sonia Harris-Short
    This article explores the extent to which the state's duties and responsibilities in the context of adoption are framed and reinforced by a rights-based discourse. It argues that the human rights paradigm plays an invaluable role in the pre-adoption process by identifying and imposing ever more exacting obligations on the state - obligations which are currently not being fully met by the Adoption and Children Act 2002. The application of a rights-based discourse to the post-adoption context proves, however, to be considerably more problematic. Indeed, it is argued that rather than extend and strengthen the state's responsibilities towards the child and the adopted family, liberal rights-based doctrine tends towards a more traditional model of adoption in which a minimalist state and the privacy, autonomy, and self-sufficiency of the new adoptive family are further entrenched. It is thus concluded that a human rights analysis provides no secure basis for challenging the Adoption and Children Act's rather limited provisions on post-adoption support. [source]

    The Couple That Prays Together: Race and Ethnicity, Religion, and Relationship Quality Among Working-Age Adults

    Christopher G. Ellison
    A substantial body of research has shown that relationship quality tends to be (a) lower among racial and ethnic minorities and (b) higher among more religious persons and among couples in which partners share common religious affiliations, practices, and beliefs. However, few studies have examined the interplay of race or ethnicity and religion in shaping relationship quality. Our study addresses this gap in the literature using data from the National Survey of Religion and Family Life (NSRFL), a 2006 telephone survey of 2,400 working-age adults (ages 18,59), which contains oversamples of African Americans and Latinos. Results underscore the complex nature of the effects of race and ethnicity, as well as religious variables. In particular, we found that couples' in-home family devotional activities and shared religious beliefs are positively linked with reports of relationship quality. [source]

    Satisfaction With Work and Family Life: No Evidence of a Cultural Reversal

    K. Jill Kiecolt
    Hochschild (1997) argued that in recent decades the rewards of work have increased relative to those of family life and that this cultural reversal has aggravated the time bind that families face by increasing working hours. To the contrary, pooled data from the 1973,1994 General Social Surveys indicate that in working families, women have shifted away from finding work more satisfying than home toward finding home a haven. Moreover, were it not for women's growing labor force participation and the changing distribution of marital status, the shift would have been even larger. Men's relative work,home satisfaction has been stable. Finally, finding work a haven is unrelated to weekly working hours, and it has not contributed to any increases in working hours over time. [source]

    Children Enrolled in Public Pre-K: The Relation of Family Life, Neighborhood Quality, and Socioeconomic Resources to Early Competence

    Oscar Barbarin PhD
    This article presents data on the family and social environments of 501 children enrolled in public sponsored pre-K in 5 states and tests the relation of these resources to child competence. Structured interviews and questionnaires provide information from parents about the family's social and economic status. Direct assessments and teacher reports provide data on children's literacy, numeracy, and behavioral problems. A majority of the children served in public pre-K lived in poverty and showed decrements in language but not in other domains. A socioeconomic resource factor consisting of parental education, household income, and material need predicted all domains of children's functioning. Children from households high in socioeconomic resources entered pre-K with more well developed language and math skill but fewer behavioral problems than their disadvantaged peers. Neighborhood quality status was related to language competence and mother's marital status to math competence. Neighborhood quality and income level may have their impact on child competence through their relation to dyadic quality and the health and the psychological well-being of the parents. [source]

    Towards a Fuller Human Identity: a Phenomenology of Family Life, Social Harmony, and the Recovery of the Black Self.

    THE HEYTHROP JOURNAL, Issue 3 2008
    By Pius Ojara
    First page of article [source]

    The ,Earned Privilege' of Family Contact in Northern Ireland: Judicial Justification of Prisoners' Loss of Family Life

    Abstract: Our ,carceral society' often conspires to effect a continuum of punishments far beyond that needed to extinguish ,behaviour and bring about attitude change' in offenders (Hudson 1993, p.32). Recent jurisprudence on family life during incarceration has inverted the concept of the right, framing it as ,earned privilege' and linking it to subjective notions of good behaviour.1 This has created a sub-category of the right, also diminishing its normative status. In many of the judgments referred to, judicial concern for public opinion seems to sideline the need to promote family life. This applies equally to Northern Ireland jurisprudence and to the international case-law to which domestic judiciaries look for guidance. [source]

    Competing Claims in Work and Family Life , Edited by Tanja van der Lippe and Pascale Peters

    Jeanne Fagnani
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Honourable Sacrifice: A Visual Ethnography of the Family Lives of Korean Children with Autistic Siblings

    CHILDREN & SOCIETY, Issue 6 2010
    Se Kwang Hwang
    Literature on the siblings of disabled children has been dominated by western psychosocial theories that focus on stresses associated with being a ,young carer' or on children as active agents realising their ,rights' rather than as the victims of familial expectations. This article presents the findings of a visual ethnographic study exploring the lives of nine children living with an autistic sibling in South Korea (hereafter Korea). Despite personal challenges and family tensions, experiences of ,being' a sibling were strongly influenced by Confucian familist cultural values in which sacrifice plays a central role in achieving honourable and harmonious family life. [source]

    Trauma in the family: groupwork on family awareness for men in high security hospital

    Estelle Moore BSc MSc PhD C.Psychol
    Introduction It is typically considered important in clinical practice to generate an understanding of the relationships and consequences of interaction patterns within the families of patients with serious interpersonal difficulties and histories of violent offending. Method Eight men on a dedicated treatment unit for patients with personality disturbance within a maximum security hospital participated in structured groupwork which focused on family awareness. Results Two measures of outcome were employed: their recollections of family life were assessed before and after the intervention, and their general progress in rehabilitation was followed up 12 months later. Summary scores of the participants' recall of feelings associated with familial figures indicate that the group reported changes in their feelings over the eight-month period. For the duration of the group, and during the subsequent year, the group members remained on the same ward; two had been transferred to medium security at follow-up. Discussion The inherent bias and the small numbers in the group prevent generalization. However, it seems that patients who participated in group work are likely to remain on the ward studied or be moved to lower security. The recollection and sharing experiences of family life may have reduced the patients' sense of isolation. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    What's Cultural about Biocultural Research?

    ETHOS, Issue 1 2005
    Advances in biocultural research have been hampered by the lack of an explicit theory of culture. Culture can be viewed as a collection of cultural models of specific domains with empirically verifiable distributions within a social group. Individuals are variably able to approximate these models in their own beliefs and behavior, a concept referred to as "cultural consonance." Cultural consonance is hypothesized to be associated with psychophysiologic outcomes, including blood pressure and depressive symptoms. In this article, the cultural domain of family life in Brazil is used to illustrate both the concept and measurement of cultural consonance. It is associated with arterial blood pressure and depressive symptoms, controlling for covariates and other explanatory variables. This theoretical orientation can define more precisely the cultural in the biocultural. [source]

    Family Diversity in 50 Years of Storybook Images of Family Life

    Nancy M. Rodman
    Storybooks are cultural artifacts and part of children's normative socialization. Content analysis of the 100-book sample of picture storybooks about daily family life published between 1943 and 1993 revealed no significant differences among time periods in frequency of appearance of different family types nor of different ethnicities. The dominant family images portrayed across 50 years and in each time period were the traditional nuclear and the Caucasian family. The diversity in families of real children should be reflected in fictional picture storybooks about family life. [source]

    The Last Will and Testament in Literature: Rupture, Rivalry, and Sometimes Rapprochement from Middlemarch to Lemony Snicket

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2008
    Although the psychological literature on the last will and testament is sparse, authors of fiction and memoir have filled the gap, writing in rich detail about the impact of wills on families. Henry James, George Eliot, J. R. Ackerley, and others reveal that a will is not only a legal document but a microcosm of family life: a coded and nonnegotiable message from the will's writer to its intended readers, the heirs, delivered at a stressful time and driving home the truth that options for discussion between testator and heirs are now gone, all factors which may intensify the ambivalence of grief and stall its resolution. Among the problems the authors chronicle: reinvigorated sibling rivalries, vindictive testators, and the revelation of traumatic family secrets. Writers also demonstrate how contemporary social factors, such as divorce, second families, and geographic distance between family members, may complicate wills and ensuing family relations. Exemplary wills, or will-like documents, appear in fiction by Maria Katzenbach and Marilynne Robinson, allowing the living to make rapprochements with the dead, and pointing to testamentary strategies clinicians might develop to lead to a resolution of grief. The depth of these writers' accounts allows clinicians to imagine points at which they might productively intervene in matters pertaining to a will. RESUMEN Aunque la literatura psicológica sobre la última voluntad y el testamento es escasa, los autores de ficción y de memorias han llenado ese vación, escribiendo en rico detalle sobre el impacto de los testamentos en las familias. Henry James, George Eliot, J.R. Ackerley y otros, revelan que un testamento no es sólo un documento legal, sino un microcosmos de vida familiar: un mensaje codificado y no negociable de la voluntad de quien lo escribe a sus destinatarios, los herederos, enviado en un momento estresante y haciendo obvio el hecho de que las posibilidades de discutir entre el emisor y sus herederos ya no existen. Todos estos factores pueden aumentar la ambivalencia de la pena y demorar su resolución. Entre todos los problemas, los autores relatan: aumento de la rivalidad entre hermanos, testamentos vengativos, y la revelación de secretos de familia traumáticos. Los autores también demuestran cómo los factores sociales contemporáneos, como el divorcio, segundas familias y la distancia geográfica entre miembros de la familia, pueden complicar los testamentos y las relaciones familiares posteriores. Testamentos ejemplarizantes, o documentos con aspecto de testamento, aparecen en los trabajos de ficción de Maria Katzenbach y Marilynne Robinson, permitiendo a los vivos acercarse a los muertos, y señalando estrategias testamentarias que los profesionales de clínica pueden desarrollar con el fin de acabar con la pena. La profundidad de los relatos de estos autores permite a los profesionales de clínica imaginarse puntos en que pueden intervenir de una forma productiva en temas relacionados con testamentos. Palabras clave: última voluntad y testamento, muerte, secretos, Henry James, George Eliot, Marilynne Robinson, J.R. Ackerley, Dorothy Gallagher, Maria Katzenbach [source]

    Coherent Accounts of Coping with a Chronic Illness: Convergences and Divergences in Family Measurement Using a Narrative Analysis

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2003
    Researchers and clinicians have shown increasing interest in family narratives as an avenue for accessing the family meaning-making process. In this study, we examine the convergences and divergences between narrative assessment, family self-report, and verbal accounts of family climate. Sixty-two families with a child with pediatric asthma were interviewed about the impact that asthma had on family life. These interviews were coded for narrative coherence, relationship expectations, and engagement with the interviewer. Primary caregivers were also interviewed using the Five Minute Speech sample (FMSS) and completed self-report assessments of family functioning (Family Assessment Device [FAD] Impact on the Family Scale [IOF]). Contrary to prediction. Narrative coherence was higher in those cases where Emotional Over-involvement (EOI) was present on the FMSS. Narrative coherence and engagement with the interviewer were positively related to self-report of family problem solving, communication, and affective responsiveness as measured on the FAD. Divergences and convergences between different types of family measurement are discussed in light of meaning-making processes associated with coping with a chronic illness. [source]

    The Ecology of Attachment in the Family

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2003
    Jonathan Hill FRCPsych
    In this article we outline a conceptualization of attachment processes within the family. We argue that the key elements of attachment processes are affect regulation, interpersonal understanding, information processing, and the provision of comfort within intimate relationships. Although these have been described and assessed primarily in terms of individual functioning and development, they are equally applicable in family systems, provided three farther steps are taken. First, the description of attachment processes at the individual level is applied to the family using the concept of shared frames or representations of emotions, cognitions, and behaviors. Second, there is an explicit formulation of the way in which individual and family processes are linked. Third, there is a conceptualization of the nature and quality of the dynamic between attachment and other processes in family life. In this "ecology" of family processes, those that entail heightened affect and a need to create certainty through action, particularly in response to threats to safety, attachment needs, and discipline challenges, are contrasted with exploratory processes characterized by low affect, tolerance of uncertainty, and opportunities to review existing assumptions and knowledge. [source]

    Theorizing in Family Gerontology: New Opportunities for Research and Practice

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 5 2006
    Karen A. Roberto
    Abstract: We examine the extent to which theory has been used in empirical studies of families in later life, identify prevalent types of theoretical frameworks, and assess connections between theory and both focal topics and analytic methods in the family gerontology literature. The paper is based on content and methodological analysis of 838 empirical articles with a family-level focus published in 13 social science journals during the 1990s. Approximately one half of the articles included theory, with micro-interpretive (social psychological) theories being used most often to guide and inform research and practice. To advance the field and understand better the intricacies of family life among older adults, we suggest that investigators and practitioners explicitly incorporate theoretical frameworks into their endeavors. [source]

    Working Time, Gender and Family: An East-West European Comparison

    Ning Tang
    This article provides a comparison of three West European countries with five Central East European countries in respect of working time and the integration of work and family life. The countries are the Netherlands, Sweden and the UK in West Europe and Bulgaria, the Czech Republic, Hungary, Romania and Slovenia in Central East Europe. As well as providing an East,West comparison, the article also takes into account the differing institutional and policy contexts in the selected countries and the different routes to flexibility. A further aim of the article is to extend our understanding of the culture and values which underpin the organization of family and work in each country. Whilst there is a clear East,West divide, all eight countries demonstrate diverse routes to flexibility and different mixes of social policies and gender cultures which have lead to considerable differences in the integration of work and family life. [source]

    Reflexive Fathers: Negotiating Parental Leave and Working Life

    Berit Brandth
    The emergence of parental leave schemes has been the most important area of expansion for the Norwegian welfare state in the 1990s. Schemes have been extended, and special rights have been granted to fathers. The main underpinning of this strategy is the intention to bolster the fathers' contact with and care for their children. Another objective is to share the benefits and burdens of working life and family life between men and women. In this article we analyse how fathers construct different fatherhood practices through negotiations in relation to the leave schemes and different working conditions. [source]

    Family and nation: Brazilian national ideology as contested transnational practice in Japan

    GLOBAL NETWORKS, Issue 4 2008
    Abstract Studies of Brazilian Nikkeis (Japanese emigrants and their descendants) living in Japan tend to conceptualize ,family' and ,nation' as two distinct entities. Such distinctions are filtered through mutually exclusive discourses and understandings of national and ethnic identity. In this article, however, I view national attachments and migrant experiences in Japan through the lens of ideology, embodied experience and kinship relations. Treating national ideology as lived process sheds fresh light on the dynamics of state,society relations in transnational social spaces. I suggest that the ability of Brazilian state actors to impose social, moral and economic regulation on its citizens in Japan is compromised by the extent to which such discourses are ontologically grounded in the social relations of migrant family life. It is through these kin ties, I argue, that people set the tone and rules of play for state interests to encroach or otherwise on their everyday lives in these transnational social spaces. [source]

    ,We didn't know it would get that bad': South Asian experiences of dementia and the service response

    Alison Bowes BA PhD
    Abstract The aim of the present paper was to examine some views and experiences of dementia among older South Asian people, as well as their families and carers, and to explore central issues of service support. Data were collected in Scotland through interviews with 11 professionals working with South Asian people with dementia, and four case studies of South Asian people with a diagnosis of dementia, as well as their families and carers. The case studies demonstrated overwhelmingly negative experiences of dementia, with poor quality of life, desperate needs for support, lack of access to appropriate services, little knowledge of dementia, and isolation from community and family life. The interviews with professionals described a strong demand for services, a need to develop awareness and knowledge about dementia in South Asian communities, and a need to promote more culturally sensitive, individually responsive services. Similarities between South Asian people and the non-South Asian population include stress on carers, increasing isolation, problematic diagnostic practices, lack of knowledge and demand for service support. Differences include limited use of non-National Health Service (NHS) support, dealing with later stages of dementia at home, particularly negative views about residential care, culturally based attitudinal differences and use of the term ,dementia' in English as neutral rather than stigmatising. The present authors suggest that there is little knowledge and experience of dementia in South Asian communities, as well as restricted access to appropriate services, despite the efforts of voluntary sector and NHS special projects. There is demand for services, especially at home. Services need to develop individual responsiveness for effective working in a diverse society. [source]

    Experiences and support needs of siblings of children with cancer

    BA MA PhD CPsychol Patricia Sloper
    Abstract The diagnosis and treatment of childhood cancer places considerable demands on family life. Siblings have been shown to be at risk for development of emotional and behavioural problems. However, most studies have relied on parents' reports, and less is known about siblings' own views of their experiences. This paper presents findings from interviews with 94 siblings of children with cancer, at 6 and 18 months after diagnosis of the illness. Results show that, six months after diagnosis, siblings reported a number of problems: loss of attention and status; loss of their own and their families' usual activities and routines; loss of certainty and security; and loss of companionship of the ill child. For many, problems had resolved 18 months after diagnosis, but problems remained or had arisen for some. These were not confined to those whose brothers or sisters had relapsed or continued to have treatment. Supportive relationships were reported to be important resources, providing an opportunity for siblings to express their own feelings and needs, and information about the illness and treatment helped them to understand why family life was disrupted. Positive effects were also apparent: gains in maturity, understanding and compassion, and closer family relationships. The findings point to the need for support for siblings to provide information to help them make sense of the situation; opportunities to express their own feelings and reassurance to avoid fear and guilt; attention to feel valued and maintain self-esteem; and help to keep up their own interests and activities. Attention of parents and professionals in contact with the families was generally paid to the ill child. There is a need for health professionals, particularly those in the family's home community, to take a holistic approach to family support, to ensure that information and support is available to siblings. [source]

    Nocturnal Home Hemodialysis: Focus on the Partner

    H Vos
    Background. Nocturnal home hemodialysis (NHD, 6 times weekly 6,8 hours) results in a better clinical and psychosocial condition of dialysis patients. However, this intensive therapy has important consequences for partners, who bear at least some responsibilities during the treatment. Methods. Since December 2001, we included 15 patients in a Dutch NHD project (,Nocturne'). All patients are assisted by their spouses. An aim of Nocturne is to study the effects of NHD on partners and other family members with questionnaires and interviews by a social worker. Results. NHD affects daily life of partners much more than conventional therapies. Partners feel very involved with the treatment. The invasion of the treatment in bed, the noise and light produced by the machine, the daily assisting of the patient, less freedom, and co-responsibility for the treatment are felt as a burden, specially during the first months of the treatment. However, the improved clinical condition of their spouse, resulting in less fatigue, less disability, less uremic symptoms, less complications, more attention for and contribution to family life, better quality of life and better mood are considered major improvements, with important positive effects for the quality of life of all family members. Additionally, partners consider the fact that they make an important positive contribution to their spouse's health valuable. All partners judged NHD, despite some negative consequences, as a major improvement of their life. Conclusion. The positive effects of NHD are more important than the negative consequences for partners of patients. However, partners need active support by nurses or social workers, specially during the first months of the treatment. [source]

    Kim Jong-Il of North Korea: in the shadow of his father,

    Jerrold M. Post
    Abstract This paper explores the political personality of North Korea's leader, Kim Jong-Il, particularly in the context of his succession from his father, the founding leader Kim Il-Sung. Drawing upon what is known of Kim Jong-Il's childhood and family life, the paper examines the key personality formations that have shaped his political persona and leadership style, particularly his narcissism, paranoia and lack of empathy. Eccentric, reclusive and self-indulgent, Kim is depicted as an emotionally volatile, narcissistic personality who indulges in hedonistic behavior while ignoring the privations of his people. Copyright © 2004 Cornell University Press. [source]

    The effect of tadalafil on psychosocial outcomes in Swedish men with erectile distress: a multicentre, non-randomised, open-label clinical study

    Summary A multicentre, non-randomised, open-label study assessed whether personal distress caused by erectile dysfunction (ED) affected psychosocial outcomes of tadalafil treatment. Eligible Swedish men at least 18 years old reporting ,3-month history of ED were stratified into two groups (manifest or mild/no distress) based upon a distress question administered at enrolment. Tadalafil 20 mg was taken as needed for 8 weeks. The primary outcome was the difference between the two distress groups in change from baseline in the Psychological and Interpersonal Relationship Scales (PAIRS) spontaneity domain. Secondary outcome measures were PAIRS sexual self-confidence and time concerns domains, Life Satisfaction (LiSat-11) checklist and a Global Assessment of Treatment Response. The study also assessed tolerability. Of 662 men enrolled, 88% had manifest distress and 12% had mild/no distress. Baseline-to-endpoint changes for PAIRS domains were not significantly different between groups. Baseline-to-endpoint changes in LiSat-11 items were not significantly different between groups except for satisfaction with sexual life. Compared with men without ED, below normal baseline satisfaction with partner relationship and family life were normalised at endpoint. Over 90% of men reported improved erection and ability to engage in sexual activity. The most common treatment-emergent adverse events were headache, myalgia, dyspepsia, flushing and back pain. One man discontinued because of myalgia; 630 (95%) completed the study. In conclusion, erectile distress levels vary among patients with ED and distress can affect intra-familiar aspects of life, which may have implications for clinical practise. However, distress does not appear to hinder improvement in both mechanical and psychosocial outcomes of tadalafil treatment. [source]

    The impact of family life on work efficiency: a study of employed women from different occupational statuses in a metropolitan area in Turkey

    Meltem Bayraktar
    Abstract The objective of this research was to investigate the family life of employed women from different occupational statuses (white collar, blue collar and professionals) on their work efficiency. The data were obtained from a survey of 300 randomly selected women who work in various offices, universities and factories in Ankara. The findings suggest that women in better conditions (high education, profession, etc.) experienced less negative spillover. [source]

    Family-Based Weight Management With Latino Mothers and Children

    Kathy Shadle James
    PURPOSE.,This paper aims to design a culturally appropriate weight management intervention for high-risk Latino families and to examine the feasibility of recruiting program participants. DESIGN AND METHODS.,A descriptive design using qualitative and quantitative data collected during preliminary phases of an ongoing intervention study. RESULTS.,From the preliminary works, a curriculum was revised for Latino families who have overweight children. The curriculum was modified to include suggestions from the focus groups, including helping mothers set limits with their children and make the transition to lighter foods and a more active family life. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.,The information will aid professionals in the process of program design for Latino families who have weight concerns. [source]

    Almack's Assembly Rooms,A Site of Sexual Pleasure

    Jane Rendell
    This paper explores the gendering of architectural space by examining exchange rituals in spaces of courtship, such as assembly rooms, that provided places of public gathering outside the family home for making marriage arrangements. As a specific example, I take Almack's Assembly Rooms, King Street, St. James's, a place of aristocratic entertainment and leisure during the early nineteenth century. At Almack's, activities of exchange, consumption, and display were articulated in relation to courtship and marriage. Such activities were carefully controlled by the patrons whose concerns over the possible transgressions that aspects of private family life might indicate in public company, were represented as issues of the private in terms of exclusivity and intimacy, and the public in relation to display and masquerade. [source]

    Infertile couples' experience of family stress while women are hospitalized for Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome during infertility treatment

    Shiu-Neng Chang MS
    Aims and objectives., The aim of this study was to explore the essential structure of family stress among hospitalized women receiving infertility treatment with Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome. Background., When hospitalization is necessary for infertile women with Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome, they face health-illness transition stress and their families are traumatized by the pressure of hospitalization. Most literature on infertility treatment has dealt with the infertile women's physio-psychological reactions, the impact on the couples' relationships and the influence of social support on infertile couples. Design., A descriptive phenomenological design consistent with Husserl's philosophy. Methods., Ten married couples from a Taipei medical centre participated in the study. All the couples were receiving infertility treatment because the female partners were suffering from moderate or severe Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome and this required hospitalized. An open in-depth interview technique encouraged parents to reflect on their experience, which raised their feelings to a conscious level. Data were analysed using Colaizzi's approach. Results., This study explored infertile women's experiences from the couples' perspectives and the results identify the overall stresses that the family face. Five themes emerged from the study, namely, the stress of ,carrying on the ancestral line', the psychological reactions of the couple, a disordering of family life, reorganization of family life and external family support. Conclusions., The results demonstrate that the experience of family stress involves impacts that range across the domains of individual, marital, family and social interactions and there is a need to cope with these when the wife is hospitalized for moderate to severe Ovarian Hyperstimulation Syndrome. Relevance to clinical practice., The findings indicated that nurses should provide infertile couples with family-centred perspectives that are related to Chinese cultural family values. Nurses should supply information on infertility treatment and assist couples to cope with their personal and family stress. [source]