Family Level (family + level)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Selected Abstracts


Heroen Verbruggen
The genus Pseudochlorodesmis (Bryopsidales) is composed of diminutive siphons of extreme morphological simplicity. The discovery of Pseudochlorodesmis -like juveniles in more complex Bryopsidales (e.g., the Halimeda microthallus stage) jeopardized the recognition of this genus. Confronted with this uncertainty, taxonomists transferred many simple siphons into a new genus, Siphonogramen. In this study, we used a multimarker approach to clarify the phylogenetic and taxonomic affinities of the Pseudochlorodesmis-Siphonogramen (PS) complex within the more morphologically complex bryopsidalean taxa. Our analyses reveal a new layer of diversity largely distinct from the lineages containing the structurally complex genera. The PS complex shows profound cryptic diversity exceeding the family level. We discuss a potential link between thallus complexity and the prevalence and profundity of cryptic diversity. For taxonomic simplicity and as a first step toward clarifying the taxonomy of these simple siphons, we propose to maintain Pseudochlorodesmis as a form genus and subsume Siphonogramen and Botryodesmis therein. [source]

Conservation of Insect Diversity: a Habitat Approach

Jennifer B. Hughes
To explore the feasibility of basing conservation action on community-level biogeography, we sampled a montane insect community. We addressed three issues: (1) the appropriate scale for sampling insect communities; (2) the association of habitat specialization,perhaps a measure of extinction vulnerability,with other ecological or physical traits; and (3) the correlation of diversity across major insect groups. Using malaise traps in Gunnison County, Colorado, we captured 8847 Diptera (identified to family and morphospecies), 1822 Hymenoptera (identified to morphospecies), and 2107 other insects (identified to order). We sampled in three habitat types,meadow, aspen, and conifer,defined on the basis of the dominant vegetation at the scale of hundreds of meters. Dipteran communities were clearly differentiated by habitat type rather than geographic proximity. This result also holds true for hymenopteran communities. Body size and feeding habits were associated with habitat specialization at the family level. In particular, habitat generalists at the family level,taxa perhaps more likely to survive anthropogenic habitat alteration,tended to be trophic generalists. Dipteran species richness was marginally correlated with hymenopteran species richness and was significantly correlated with the total number of insect orders sampled by site. Because these correlations result from differences in richness among habitat types, insect taxa may be reasonable surrogates for one another when sampling is done across habitat types. In sum, community-wide studies appear to offer a practical way to gather information about the diversity and distribution of little-known taxa. Resumen:No existe ni el tiempo ni los recursos para diseñar planes de conservación para cada especie, particularmente para los taxones poco estudiados, no carismáticas, pero ecológicamente importantes que componen la mayoría de la biodiversidad. Para explorar la factibilidad de basar acciones de conservación en biogegrafía a nivel comunitario, muestreamos una comunidad de insectos de montaña. Evaluamos tres aspectos: (1) la escala adecuada para el muestreo de comunidades de insectos; (2) la asociación de especialización de hábitat,quizá una medida de vulnerabilidad de extinción,con otras características ecológicas o físicas; y (3) la correlación de la diversidad a lo largo de los grupos principales de insectos. Mediante el uso de trampas en el condado Gunnison, en Colorado, capturamos 8847 dípteros (identificados a nivel de familia y morfoespecies), 1822 himenópteros (identificadas hasta morfoespecies) y 2107 otros insectos (identificados a nivel de orden). Muestreamos tres tipos de hábitats,vega, álamos temblones y coníferas,definidos en base a la vegetación dominante a escala de cientos de metros. Las comunidades de dípteros estuvieron claramente diferenciadas por tipos de hábitat y no por la proximidad geográfica. Este resultado también se mantiene para las comunidades de himenópteros. El tamaño del cuerpo y los hábitos alimenticios estuvieron asociados con la especialización del hábitat a nivel de familia. En particular, los generalistas de hábitat a nivel de familia,los taxones que posiblemente tengan mayor probabilidad de sobrevivir alteraciones antropogénicas del hábitat,tendieron a ser generalistas tróficos. La riqueza de las especies de dípteros estuvo marginalmente correlacionada con la riqueza de especies de himenópteros y estuvo significativamente correlacionada con el número total de órdenes de insectos muestreadas por sitio. Debido a que estas correlaciones resultaron de diferencias en la riqueza de especies entre tipos de hábitats, los taxones de insectos podrían ser substitutos mutuos razonables cuando se muestrea entre diferentes tipos de hábitats. En resumen, los estudios a lo largo de comunidades parecen ofrecer una forma práctica de recolectar información sobre la diversidad y distribución de los taxones poco estudiados. [source]

The wing vestiture of the non-ditrysian Lepidoptera (Insecta).

ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 4 2001
Comparative morphology, phylogenetic implications
Abstract The ultrastructure of the dorsal forewing vestiture in exemplars of all family group taxa of non-ditrysian Lepidoptera is examined, and the evolutionary implications at family level and above are discussed. Wing-scale terminology is reviewed. Three different types of bilayer wing-scale covering are recognized; only a few groups have a single-layer wing-scale covering. The general scale arrangement is random, but a few taxa have clustered scale arrangements and scattered heteroneurans have scales arranged in transverse rows. Cross ribs are present in all taxa, but only as vestiges in eriocraniid cover scales. Ridge dimorphism is widespread in Neolepidoptera. Surprisingly, ridges and cross ribs on the adwing scale surface are of general occurrence in Neopseustidae and Hepialidae, and are even found on parts of the ground scales of many other Neolepidoptera. Morphological evidence strongly indicates that the fused wing-scale types found in non-Coelolepidan Lepidoptera and Neolepidoptera are independently evolved, as evidenced from the presence of vestigial perforations. Absence of perforations is not infallible evidence that a scale is solid. Microtrichia are independently reduced in a number of taxa and probably re-evolved in at least higher nepticulids. Wing vestiture and scale characters indicate that Tischerioidea may be the sister group of Ditrysia. [source]


EVOLUTION, Issue 11 2003
David Penney
Abstract Throughout Earth history a small number of global catastrophic events leading to biotic crises have caused mass extinctions. Here, using a technique that combines taxonomic and numerical data, we consider the effects of the Cenomanian,Turonian and Cretaceous,Tertiary mass extinctions on the terrestrial spider fauna in the light of new fossil data. We provide the first evidence that spiders suffered no decline at the family level during these mass extinction events. On the contrary, we show that they increased in relative numbers through the Cretaceous and beyond the Cretaceous,Tertiary extinction event. [source]

Exploring Triangulation in Infancy: Two Contrasted Cases

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 1 2006
Two contrasted father-mother-infant interactions are observed longitudinally during trilogue play. They illustrate the contribution of recent research to the exploration of triangulation in infancy: namely, the infant's capacity to handle triangular interactions and share her affects with her two parents, and the way that this capacity is recruited in functional versus problematic alliances. It is likely that an infant under stress when interacting with one parent will protest at that parent and also at the other. Such is the case when, for example, the father acts intrusively while playing with his baby. The infant is then driven to avert and turns to the mother. The regulation of this dyadic intrusion-avoidance pattern at family level depends on the family alliance. When coparenting is supportive, the mother validates the infant's bid for help without interfering with the father. Thus, the problematic pattern is contained in the dyad, and the infant's triangular capacities remain in the service of her own developmental goals. But when coparenting is hostile-competitive, the mother ignores the infant's bid or engages with her in a way that interferes with her play with her father. In this case, the infant's triangular capacities are used to relieve the tension between the parents. The importance of tracing family process back to infancy for family therapy is discussed. [source]

Effects of sand sedimentation on the macroinvertebrate fauna of lowland streams: are the effects consistent?

Summary 1. In lowland streams sand sedimentation can produce sand slugs: very slow moving, discrete volumes of sand that are created episodically. Hypothetically, such sedimentation causes losses of habitat and fauna but little is known about the effects of sand slugs. In south-eastern Australia sand slugs are widespread, especially in streams with granitic catchments. 2. This study in north-central Victoria was centred on three streams that rise in the Strathbogie Ranges and flow out onto lowland plains, where they contain sand slugs. Below the sand slugs, the streams are slow-flowing ,chains of ponds' with a clay streambed. To correct for potential upstream-downstream confounding of comparisons, two unsanded, nearby streams were included as potential controls. Habitat measurements and faunal samples were taken in Spring 1998, from three sites in the sand slug and three sites in the clay-bed, downstream sections of each impacted stream, as well as from three sites in commensurate upstream and downstream sections of the control streams. 3. The sand-slugged sections had significantly higher velocities, shallower depths and less coarse woody debris than the unsanded downstream sections. Macroinvertebrate taxon richness and abundance showed some significant differences between the sand and clay sections compared with commensurate up- and downstream locations in the control streams. Effects were not uniform, however. In Castle Creek there were no significant differences between the sand and clay sections, in Pranjip-Ninemile Creek taxon richness and abundances were higher in sand than in the clay sections, whereas in Creightons Creek the ,expected' results of lower taxon richness and abundance in the sand were found. 4. Of the 40 most common taxa, only eight provided a clear signal related to sand and, of these, one (Slavina sp.) occurred only in the sand slugs, whereas the other seven had significantly higher numbers in the clay sections. Of these taxa, three were ostracods, three were chironomids and one was a tubificid oligochaete, all taxa that live in detritus-rich environments. Overall faunal composition did not show a clear distinction though, between sandy and clay sites. The sand slug community of Creightons Creek was very different from the other communities in all of the streams. There were clear differences in community composition between the sand-affected and the control streams, even for downstream, clay sections, suggesting they cannot act as controls for the impacted sections of the sand-slugged streams. 5. Differences between streams within categories (particularly between sand-slugged streams) and between sites in the same section of stream accounted for most of the variability in species richness and the abundances of each of the 40 most common taxa. That finding was repeated when data were examined at the family level, for both numbers of families per sample and collated lists of families occurring across sites. These results strongly suggest that the effects of sedimentation by sand slugs do not overwhelm background variation in macroinvertebrate density and diversity. Overall the results suggest that many taxa may respond individually, and that there is much variation between sand-affected streams even over relatively small (approximately <10 km) spatial scales. [source]

Partitioning phylogenetic and adaptive components of the geographical body-size pattern of New World birds

GLOBAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
Lizabeth Ramirez
ABSTRACT Aim To evaluate seasonal body-size patterns for New World birds in geographical space, to develop environmental models to explain the gradients, and to estimate phylogenetic and adaptive contributions. Location The Western Hemisphere. Methods We used range maps to generate gridded geometric mean body masses. Summer and winter patterns were distinguished based on breeding and non-breeding ranges. We first generated the geographical gradients, followed by phylogenetic eigenvector regression to generate body sizes predicted by the birds' positions in a phylogenetic tree, which were used to generate the expected phylogenetic gradient. Subtracting the expected pattern from the observed pattern isolated the adaptive component. Ordinary least squares multiple-regression models examined factors influencing the phylogenetic, adaptive and combined components of the seasonal body-size patterns, and non-spatial and spatial models were compared. Results Birds are larger in the temperate zones than in the tropics. The gradient is quantitatively stronger in winter than in summer. Regression models explained 66.6% of the variance in summer mass and 45.9% of the variance in winter mass. In summer, phylogenetic and adaptive responses of birds contribute equally to the gradient. In winter, the gradient in North America is much stronger than that expected by taxonomic turnover, and responses of species independent of their family membership drive the overall pattern. Main conclusions We confirm Bergmann's rule in New World birds and conclude that winter temperatures ultimately drive the pattern, exerting selection pressures on birds that overwhelm patterns expected by phylogenetic inertia at the family level. However, in summer, the movement of migratory species into the temperate zone weakens the gradient and generates a pattern more congruent with that expected from the taxonomic composition of the fauna. The analytical method we develop here represents a useful tool for partitioning the phylogenetic and non-phylogenetic components of spatially explicit macroecological data. [source]

Families, Not Parents, Differ: Development of Communication in Finnish Infants

INFANCY, Issue 2 2009
Maija Haapakoski
This longitudinal study on Finnish families was conducted to identify developmental differences in family-level communication among mothers, fathers, and their infants during the second half of the infant's first year, and associations with infants' later language and communicative skills. We examined coregulated communication of parent-infant dyads during 5-min laboratory play sessions at 7 and 11 months. Few differences in mutually regulated communicative exchanges emerged between maternal and paternal dyads, and few developmental changes were found across the whole sample. Families with different communication profiles were identified, and changes rather than stability characterized communicative development at the family level. The family-level differences at 7 months predicted variation in children's language and communicative skills at 14 months. [source]

Mortuary behaviour reconstruction through palaeoentomology: a case study from Chachapoya, Perú

K. C. Nystrom
Abstract This paper explores the contribution that applied forensic entomology can make to our understanding of prehistoric mortuary behaviour. Samples of insect remains were recovered from a mummy bundle that has been attributed to the Chachapoya people who occupied the northern highlands of Perú from ca. AD 800 to ca. AD 1532. The insects were identified to the family level and used to create a hypothetical timeline of post-mortem interval before the construction of the mummy bundle. The individual in question suffered from a number of blunt force insults to the head, followed by two and possibly three trepanation events. We speculate the initial insect colonisation to have taken place almost immediately following injury and subsequent surgery, occurring before the individual's death. Insect succession patterns and timing estimates for the appearance of periosteal reactive bone suggest that the individual was wrapped shortly following death. The application of such modern forensic techniques holds vast promise for addressing issues concerning Chachapoya mortuary behaviour and, further, these results can expand our understanding of mummy studies in general. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Do life history traits account for diversity of polychaete annelids?

Damhnait McHugh
Abstract. Within many phylogenetic assemblages, a pattern of domination has been observed: one or a few clades have had many more speciation events or fewer extinctions than other clades in a particular assemblage. We investigated this phenomenon in the polychaete annelids. Polychaetes comprise ,9000 described species classified in over 70 families and exhibit a great variety of life history strategies. Our goal was to test whether diverse polychaete families are characterized by species with short generation times, high reproductive output, small body size, or with planktotrophic larval development. Each of these factors has been advanced as cause for high diversity in other taxonomic assemblages. Here, we establish that the diversification pattern of polychaete families is non-random, but the data collected show no significant correlations between familial diversity and several life history traits including age at first reproduction, life span, body size, fecundity, and egg size. Pairwise comparisons of sister families do not reveal any trends between familial diversity and any of the life history traits. The great variability of life history traits within polychaete families may explain the lack of significant results; perhaps no trends are seen because polychaete life history traits cannot be generalized at the family level. [source]

Panbiogeography of Nothofagus (Nothofagaceae): analysis of the main species massings

Michael Heads
Abstract Aim, The aim of this paper is to analyse the biogeography of Nothofagus and its subgenera in the light of molecular phylogenies and revisions of fossil taxa. Location, Cooler parts of the South Pacific: Australia, Tasmania, New Zealand, montane New Guinea and New Caledonia, and southern South America. Methods, Panbiogeographical analysis is used. This involves comparative study of the geographic distributions of the Nothofagus taxa and other organisms in the region, and correlation of the main patterns with historical geology. Results, The four subgenera of Nothofagus have their main massings of extant species in the same localities as the main massings of all (fossil plus extant) species. These main massings are vicariant, with subgen. Lophozonia most diverse in southern South America (north of Chiloé I.), subgen. Fuscospora in New Zealand, subgen. Nothofagus in southern South America (south of Valdivia), and subgen. Brassospora in New Guinea and New Caledonia. The main massings of subgen. Brassospora and of the clade subgen. Brassospora/subgen. Nothofagus (New Guinea,New Caledonia,southern South America) conform to standard biogeographical patterns. Main conclusions, The vicariant main massings of the four subgenera are compatible with largely allopatric differentiation and no substantial dispersal since at least the Upper Cretaceous (Upper Campanian), by which time the fossil record shows that the four subgenera had evolved. The New Guinea,New Caledonia distribution of subgenus Brassospora is equivalent to its total main massing through geological time and is explained by different respective relationships of different component terranes of the two countries. Global vicariance at family level suggests that Nothofagaceae/Nothofagus evolved largely as the South Pacific/Antarctic vicariant in the breakup of a world-wide Fagales ancestor. [source]

The Branchiopoda (Crustacea: Anomopoda, Ctenopoda and Cyclestherida) of the rain forests of Cameroon, West Africa: low abundances, few endemics and a boreal,tropical disjunction

George Y. Chiambeng
Abstract Aim, We provide the first in-depth study of the Branchiopoda of the rain forests of Cameroon and also of the African continent. Location, Surface water environments, Cameroon. Methods, Qualitative plankton samples were collected in all types of surface water environments present, ranging from big lakes to water collected in rock crevices or fallen fruit cavities. A tow or hand-held plankton net of mesh size 100 ,m was used, and water volumes filtered were at least several m3 in large water bodies, or half to whole water volume in small water bodies. Results, We recorded 61 species (53 first records for the country), based on 700+ samples collected between September 1998 and March 2002. Anomopoda (92%) was the dominant order, followed by Ctenopoda (6.5%) and Cyclestherida (1.5%). Chydoridae (67%) was the most speciose family followed by Macrothricidae (6.5%) and Daphniidae (5%). Alona (11%) was the dominant genus followed by Chydorus (10%) and Pleuroxus (8%). Several species of Chydorinae, especially of the genus Pleuroxus, are shared with continental Eurasia,North America, but are absent from the Mediterranean and desert,steppe,savanna zones of Africa (boreal,tropical disjunction). Daphnia was absent, as in most tropical lowlands. No single species was really abundant, and a majority were rare to very rare, and of restricted occurrence within the rain forest patches. Comparing Africa, South America and Southeast Asia, we found a current total of 196 species for the combined rain forest areas, out of a world total of 500+ species. Systematic trends in richness at three taxonomic levels were the same for all continents: Anomopoda,Ctenopoda,Cyclestherida at ordinal level, Chydoridae,Daphniidae,Macrothricidae,Sididae at family level and Alona,Chydorus,Macrothrix,Diaphanosoma at genus level. Southeast Asia was richest (111 species, 14 endemics) with South America a close second (110 species, 27 endemics). Africa was the most species-poor (95 species, of which only 5 are endemics). Main conclusions, We hypothesize that the post-Miocene cooling and aridization of the world climate hit the freshwater biota of Africa particularly hard, with more extinction here than elsewhere, and little recolonization. Most extinction occurred in the savanna-desert belt, and eight disjunct boreal species (four Pleuroxus, Picripleuroxus laevis, Kurzia latissima, Alonella exigua, and Monospilus dispar) survive morphologically unchanged since pre-Pleistocene times in the Cameroon rain forest. Slow evolution thus appears typical of these cyclic parthenogenetic branchiopods in which sexual recombination occurs only at intervals. Illustrative of the same slow evolution is the fact that the two endemic cladocerans of Cameroon (Nicsmirnovius camerounensis and Bryospilus africanus) belong to tropicopolitan genera of Gondwanan age. [source]


Heroen Verbruggen
The genus Pseudochlorodesmis (Bryopsidales) is composed of diminutive siphons of extreme morphological simplicity. The discovery of Pseudochlorodesmis -like juveniles in more complex Bryopsidales (e.g., the Halimeda microthallus stage) jeopardized the recognition of this genus. Confronted with this uncertainty, taxonomists transferred many simple siphons into a new genus, Siphonogramen. In this study, we used a multimarker approach to clarify the phylogenetic and taxonomic affinities of the Pseudochlorodesmis-Siphonogramen (PS) complex within the more morphologically complex bryopsidalean taxa. Our analyses reveal a new layer of diversity largely distinct from the lineages containing the structurally complex genera. The PS complex shows profound cryptic diversity exceeding the family level. We discuss a potential link between thallus complexity and the prevalence and profundity of cryptic diversity. For taxonomic simplicity and as a first step toward clarifying the taxonomy of these simple siphons, we propose to maintain Pseudochlorodesmis as a form genus and subsume Siphonogramen and Botryodesmis therein. [source]

Phylogenetic reconstruction of carnivore social organizations

F. Dalerum
Abstract It is generally assumed that carnivore social organizations evolved directionally from a solitary ancestor into progressively more advanced forms of group living. Although alternative explanations exist, this evolutionary hypothesis has never been tested. Here, I used literature data and maximum likelihood reconstruction on a complete carnivore phylogeny to test this hypothesis against two others: one assuming directional evolution from a non-solitary ancestor, and one assuming parallel evolutions from a socially flexible ancestor, that is, an ancestor with abilities to live in a variety of social organizations. The phylogenetic reconstructions did not support any of the three hypotheses of social evolution at the root of Carnivora. At the family level, however, there was support for a non-solitary and socially flexible ancestor to Canidae, a socially flexible or solitary ancestor to Mustelidae, a solitary or socially flexible ancestor to Mephitidae, a solitary or group living ancestor to Phocidae, a group living ancestor to Otariidae and a solitary ancestor to Ursidae, Felidae, Herpestidae and Viverridae. There was equivocal support for the ancestral state of Procyonidae and Hyaenidae. It is unclear whether the common occurrence of a solitary ancestry at the family level was caused by a solitary ancestor at the root of Carnivora or by multiple transitions into a solitary state. The failure to support a solitary ancestor to Carnivora calls for caution when using this hypothesis in an evolutionary framework, and I suggest continued investigations of the pathways of the evolution of carnivore social organizations. [source]

Size-dependent sex allocation in Aconitum gymnandrum (Ranunculaceae): physiological basis and effects of maternal family and environment

PLANT BIOLOGY, Issue 6 2008
Z.-G. Zhao
Abstract Theory predicts size-dependent sex allocation (SDS): flowers on plants with a high-resource status should have larger investment in females than plants with a low-resource status. Through a pot experiment with Aconitum gymnandrum (Ranunculaceae) in the field, we examined the relationship between sex allocation of individual flowers and plant size for different maternal families under different environmental conditions. We also determined the physiological base of variations in plant size. Our results support the prediction of SDS, and show that female-biased allocation with plant size is consistent under different environmental conditions. Negative correlations within families showed a plastic response of sex allocation to plant size. Negative genetic correlations between sex allocation and plant size at the family level indicate a genetic cause of the SDS pattern, although genetic correlation was influenced by environmental factors. Hence, the size-dependency of sex allocation in this species had both plastic and genetic causes. Furthermore, genotypes that grew large also had higher assimilation ability, thus showing a physiological basis for SDS. [source]

Host relationships at plant family level in Dendrothrips Uzel (Thysanoptera: Thripidae: Dendrothripinae) with a new Australian species

Rita Marullo
Abstract The genus Dendrothrips Uzel (Thysanoptera: Thripidae, Dendrothripinae) comprises 50 described species from the Old World, including a fourth species from Australia, D. williamsi sp. n. For many of these species no host plant has been recorded, but the genera and families of the recorded host plants of 27 species are tabulated. These thrips are mainly associated with trees and shrubs, and the plant families involved come from five of the six subclasses of the Dicotyledonae. Several Dendrothrips species are recorded from Oleaceae and Flacourtiaceae, but none from the major families of tropical trees, Moraceae and Lauraceae. [source]

Three New Stoneflies (Insecta: Plecoptera) from the Yixian Formation of Liaoning, China

LIU Yushuang
Abstract: Three new genera and species Archaeoperla rarissimus gen. et sp. nov. (Perlidae), Liaotaenionema tenuitibia gen. et sp. nov. (Taeniopterygidae) and Parvinemoura parvus gen. et sp. nov. (?Nemouridae) are described and illustrated. All of them were collected from Yixian Formation of the western Liaoning, China. Hitherto, A. rarissimus is the oldest species possessing typical characters of Perlidae; the finding of L. tenuitibia indicates taeniopterygids once lived in the northeastern China in the late Mesozoic, but frequent volcanic activities, climate changes, or other environmental changes might have resulted in the disappearance of Taeniopterygidae in northern China after Mesozoic. Ancestral groups of Nemouridae have been abundant from Middle Jurassic, and male genitalia of P. parvus gen. et sp. nov. has been developed and similar to extant Nemouridae in the late Mesozoic. The stonefly fossils found from Yixian Formation are not divers at the species level, but rich at the family level. The diversity of stonefly implies different microclimate existed in the northeastern China at that time. A large old lacustrine basin existed in the western Liaoning, surrounded by hygrophilous plants on swampland and lake shore, warm and humid; tall arbor and boscage on the hillside nearby, mild and dry; mountains in the distance, rivulets running among the mountains, cool and wet. Many insects, prefer cool climate (e.g. stonefly, raphidiopterans, et al.), lived in the mountains with rivulets. [source]

The extent and nature of family alcohol and drug use: findings from the belfast youth development study

Andrew Percy
Abstract Using data from an ongoing longitudinal study of adolescent drug use, this study examines the proportion of teenagers living with parents who are problem alcohol or drug users. Around two per cent of parents report high levels of problem drinking and one per cent report problem drug use. If a broader definition of hazardous drinking is used, the proportion of teenagers exposed increases to over 15 per cent. When substance use is examined at a family level (taking account of alcohol and drug use amongst dependent children in addition to that of parents), the proportion of families experiencing some form of substance use is considerable. These findings add further support to the call for increased recognition of the needs of dependent children within adult treatment services when working with parents. Likewise, the reduction of harm to children as a result of parental substance use should be an increasingly important priority for family support services. This is likely to be achieved through the closer integration of addiction and family services. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Patch occupancy of North American mammals: is patchiness in the eye of the beholder?

Robert K. Swihart
Abstract Aim Intraspecific variation in patch occupancy often is related to physical features of a landscape, such as the amount and distribution of habitat. However, communities occupying patchy environments typically exhibit non-random distributions in which local assemblages of species-poor patches are nested subsets of assemblages occupying more species-rich patches. Nestedness of local communities implies interspecific differences in sensitivity to patchiness. Several hypotheses have been proposed to explain interspecific variation in responses to patchiness within a community, including differences in (1) colonization ability, (2) extinction proneness, (3) tolerance to disturbance, (4) sociality and (5) level of adaptation to prevailing environmental conditions. We used data on North American mammals to compare the performance of these ,ecological' hypotheses and the ,physical landscape' hypothesis. We then compared the best of these models against models that scaled landscape structure to ecologically relevant attributes of individual species. Location North America. Methods We analysed data on prevalence (i.e. proportion of patches occupied in a network of patches) and occupancy for 137 species of non-volant mammals and twenty networks consisting of four to seventy-five patches. Insular and terrestrial networks exhibited significantly different mean levels of prevalence and occupancy and thus were analysed separately. Indicator variables at ordinal and family levels were included in models to correct for effects caused by phylogeny. Akaike's information criterion was used in conjunction with ordinary least squares and logistic regression to compare hypotheses. Results A patch network's physical structure, indexed using patch area and isolation, received the greatest support among models predicting the prevalence of species on insular networks. Niche breadth (diet and habitat) received the greatest support for predicting prevalence of species occupying terrestrial networks. For both insular and terrestrial systems, physical features (patch area and isolation) received greater support than any of the ecological hypotheses for predicting species occupancy of individual patches. For terrestrial systems, scaling patch area by its suitability to a focal species and by individual area requirements of the species, and scaling patch isolation by species-specific dispersal ability and niche breadth, resulted in models of patch occupancy that were superior to models relying solely on physical landscape features. For all selected models, unexplained levels of variation were high. Main conclusions Stochasticity dominated the systems we studied, indicating that random events are probably quite important in shaping local communities. With respect to deterministic factors, our results suggest that forces affecting species prevalence and occupancy may differ between insular and terrestrial systems. Physical features of insular systems appeared to swamp ecological differences among species in determining prevalence and occupancy, whereas species with broad niches were disproportionately represented in terrestrial networks. We hypothesize that differential extinction over long time periods in highly variable networks has driven nestedness of mammalian communities on islands, whereas differential colonization over shorter time-scales in more homogeneous networks probably governed the local structure of terrestrial communities. Our results also demonstrate that integration of a species' ecological traits with physical features of a patch network is superior to reliance on either factor separately when attempting to predict the species' probability of patch occupancy in terrestrial systems. [source]