Family Involvement (family + involvement)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

End-of-Life Care and Family Involvement

Abid H. Iraqi MD
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Health-related and diabetes-related quality of life in Japanese children and adolescents with type 1 and type 2 diabetes

Nobue Nakamura
Abstract Background:, The aim of this study was to assess (i) the health-related quality of life (HR-QOL) of primary, junior and high school children with type 1 and type 2 diabetes and to compare it with that of healthy school children; and (ii) to compare the diabetes-related QOL (DR-QOL) and the QOL of parents of children with diabetes, between type 1 and type 2 diabetes in Japan. Methods:, Overall, 471 patients aged 9,18 years (368 with type 1 and 103 with type 2 diabetes) and their parents were involved. QOL was assessed using a self-administered questionnaire. Results:, The total score for HR-QOL of primary and junior school children with type 1 diabetes was significantly higher than that of those with type 2 diabetes and healthy controls. However, there were no significant differences in high school children. Some subscales regarding HR-QOL were significantly lower for children with type 2 diabetes than for children with type 1 diabetes or healthy controls. The DR-QOL of children with type 1 and type 2 diabetes did not significantly differ. The Family Burden and Family Involvement were significantly greater in parents of children with type 1 diabetes. There were significantly positive correlations between HR-QOL and DR-QOL in both groups. In type 1 diabetes only, there were significant negative correlations between glycated hemoglobin and some subscales of the HR-QOL and QOL of parents of children with diabetes, and weak positive correlation between glycated hemoglobin and Family Burden. Conclusions:, The HR-QOL of school children with type 1 diabetes was higher than that of those with type 2 diabetes and healthy school children. The QOL of school children with type 1 diabetes was not impaired. [source]

Family involvement in perioperative nursing of adult patients undergoing emergency surgery

Eija Paavilainen PhD
,,The purpose of this study was to describe how adult patients undergoing emergency surgery experience family centredness in perioperative nursing practice. The central aim was to generate knowledge to be used while developing the practice, education and management of perioperative nursing. ,,Data were collected using a questionnaire with emergency surgical patients in five regional hospitals in Southern Finland. The number of distributed questionnaires was 132. The response rate was 85% (n=112). ,,The results were mainly described as frequencies and percentages. The open-ended sections of the answers were analysed using qualitative content analysis. The findings from the open-ended questions were used for deepening and complementing the quantitative description of the results. ,,In the preoperative phase, ascertaining the family situation and informing the family member chosen by the patient were not achieved systematically. Family situation was also rarely examined in the intraoperative and postoperative phases, although it is central to coping after surgery, especially in home care. ,,The results support the view of earlier research about the importance of individuality of patients and their families during the perioperative care process and hence enhance the endeavour to develop nursing based on families' real needs. [source]

Is CEO Duality Always Negative?

An Exploration of CEO Duality, Ownership Structure in the Arab IPO Context
ABSTRACT Manuscript type: Empirical Research Question/Issue: This paper examines the relationships between initial public offering (IPO) underpricing, CEO duality, and strategic ownership in 12 Arab countries of the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Research Findings/Results: Using all IPOs from January 2000 until the end of July 2007, we document an average IPO underpricing of 184.1 per cent. Underpricing is higher in IPO firms that have CEO duality. However, strategic shareholders, such as corporations and other industry-related investors, are likely to play a monitoring role whereas underpricing is found to be lower in firms with both CEO duality and strategic shareholder ownership. Moreover, the negative relation between underpricing and strategic blockholding is greater for foreign strategic ownership than it is for domestic strategic ownership. Theoretical Implications: This paper examines the level and determinants of IPO underpricing in the MENA region. It provides evidence on the role played by foreign strategic owners in reducing agency conflicts and information asymmetries within an environment where firms may be affected by the cultural issues related to political ties and family involvement. Practical Implications: Our results contribute to the existing debate on the appropriate regulations for an effective and stable financial system in Arab countries. They offer policy-makers additional evidence on the positive impact of market openness to foreign shareholders. [source]

Agency Relations within the Family Business System: an exploratory approach

L.A.A. Van den Berghe
Researchers use various definitions to describe the family firm. The characteristics of family firms that are stressed in each of these definitions are somehow related to family control. All characteristics together reflect a spectrum of family firm types along one core dimension: family involvement in the firm. However, it is more helpful to distinguish among family firms by using their precise type. Each particular family firm type is characterised by a set of agency relations within and between the family system, ownership system and the business system. This paper is a first attempt to apply the insights from agency theory on a highly simplified (reference) family firm situation where the father is full owner and the daughter manager of the family firm. Agency theory establishes the foundation for the optimal contract conditions between father and daughter. While real life is often characterised by bounded rationality and incomplete information, future research should help identify the "optimal contract" be-tween the family/shareholders and management in various family firm types under these circumstances. [source]

European perspectives: a carer's view

Ursula Brand
Objective:,To present the work of the European Federation of Associations of Families of Mentally Ill People (EUFAMI) and discuss issues of concern to family carers. Method:,The problem areas identified and discussed by family carers are presented on the basis of questionnaire surveys organized by EUFAMI. Addresses of national organisations of family carers are included. Results:,A range of problem areas are identified; they include subsistence and welfare payments for the severely mentally ill, some shortage of general hospital units, problems of care co-ordination, issues of respect for family carers and family involvement. Conclusion:,The aim of best practice in mental health care throughout Europe has not yet been reached. Key activities of EUFAMI are aimed at empowerment of families and best practice in psychiatry in Europe. [source]

The role of the family in preventing and intervening with substance use and misuse: a comprehensive review of family interventions, with a focus on young people

Abstract The family plays a key part in both preventing and intervening with substance use and misuse, both through inducing risk, and/or encouraging and promoting protection and resilience. This review examines a number of family processes and structures that have been associated with young people commencing substance use and later misuse, and concludes that there is significant evidence for family involvement in young people's taking up, and later misusing, substances. Given this family involvement, the review explores and appraises interventions aimed at using the family to prevent substance use and misuse amongst young people. The review concludes that there is a dearth of methodologically highly sound research in this area, but the research that has been conducted does suggest strongly that the family can have a central role in preventing substance use and later misuse amongst young people. [source]

Embeddedness Perspectives of Economic Action Within Family Firms

Lloyd P. Steier
Family firms are embedded in social structures that differ substantially from those of nonfamily firms. While these social structures can be sources of strength, they can also lead to dysfunctional consequences. The four papers and three commentaries contained in this special issue on theories of family enterprise deal with the various positive and negative aspects of family involvement in a firm. The purpose of this introduction is to attempt to establish linkages between these papers and to provide further insights on their contributions to knowledge and the directions that future research might take to build upon them. [source]

Trends and Directions in the Development of a Strategic Management Theory of the Family Firm

James J. Chrisman
This article provides a review of important trends in the strategic management approach to studying family firms: convergence in definitions, accumulating evidence that family involvement may affect performance, and the emergence of agency theory and the resource-based view of the firm as the leading theoretical perspectives. We conclude by discussing directions for future research and other promising approaches to inform the inquiry concerning family business. [source]

Cognitive-behavioural therapy for adolescents with bulimia nervosa,

G. Terence Wilson
Abstract Psychological and pharmacological treatments for bulimia nervosa (BN) have been studied extensively in adults, but there are no published controlled treatment studies of adolescents with BN. One option for treating adolescents with BN is to adapt cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) for younger individuals. The rationale for developing CBT for adolescents with BN is three-fold: the efficacy of CBT for adult patients with BN, the efficacy of CBT in treating adolescents with other clinical disorders, and the conceptual fit between CBT and adolescent eating disorders. CBT should be tailored to the treatment of adolescents, with particular focus on domains of development, including: motivation, cognitive processing, interpersonal functioning, and family involvement. A recently described new version of CBT for BN (Fairburn, Cooper, & Shafran, 2003) is well-suited for adapting manual-based CBT from adults to adolescents. Future research should evaluate the efficacy of CBT for the treatment of adolescents with BN and related eating disorders. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

Families, Urban Neighborhood Youth Centers, and Peers as Contexts for Development

Stephen A. Anderson
Abstract: Three social contexts,family, neighborhood youth centers, and peer relationships,were examined in relation to several measures of adjustment among 1,406 mostly minority, inner-city adolescents. Family and center involvement were directly related to 3 of the 4 adjustment measures (i.e., achievement orientation, emotion regulation, attitudes toward school). Peer connections interacted with family and center involvement to also predict these variables. Substance use, the fourth adjustment measure, was related only to family involvement. Significant 3-way interactions suggested that within urban settings, favorable attitudes toward school may best be achieved when family, neighborhood youth center, and peer involvement are all strong. The combined effects of these 3 contexts appear to be greater among younger adolescents. Implications for promoting urban youth development programs are discussed. [source]

Recent evidence on the development and maintenance of constructive staff,family relationships in the care of older people , a report on a systematic review update

Emily Haesler BN PgradDipAdvNsg
Abstract Aim, This paper is an update to a systematic review that presents the best available evidence on the factors that are most effective in promoting constructive staff,family relationships in the care of older people in the institutional healthcare setting. Methods, Systematic review. Results, The updated review supports findings from the earlier review. Additional evidence points to the importance of monitoring care, family involvement in decision-making, staff upholding the uniqueness of the older person, trust, the involvement of the multidisciplinary care team and family dynamics as factors underpinning effective staff,family relationships. Conclusion, A number of factors critical to the development and maintenance of positive staff,family relationships in the institutional setting have been identified. The delivery of quality care is predicated on staff having an understanding of these factors. [source]

Factors associated with constructive staff,family relationships in the care of older adults in the institutional setting

Emily Haesler BN PGradDipAdvNsg
Abstract Background, Modern healthcare philosophy espouses the virtues of holistic care and acknowledges that family involvement is appropriate and something to be encouraged due to the role it plays in physical and emotional healing. In the aged care sector, the involvement of families is a strong guarantee of a resident's well-being. The important role family plays in the support and care of the older adult in the residential aged care environment has been enshrined in the Australian Commonwealth Charter of Residents' Rights and Responsibilities and the Aged Care Standards of Practice. Despite wide acknowledgement of the importance of family involvement in the healthcare of the older adult, many barriers to the implementation of participatory family care have been identified in past research. For older adults in the healthcare environment to benefit from the involvement of their family members, healthcare professionals need an understanding of the issues surrounding family presence in the healthcare environment and the strategies to best support it. Objectives, The objectives of the systematic review were to present the best available evidence on the strategies, practices and organisational characteristics that promote constructive staff,family relationships in the care of older adults in the healthcare setting. Specifically this review sought to investigate how staff and family members perceive their relationships with each other; staff characteristics that promote constructive relationships with the family; and interventions that support staff,family relationships. Search strategy, A literature search was performed using the following databases for the years 1990,2005: Ageline, APAIS Health, Australian Family and Society Abstracts (FAMILY), CINAHL, Cochrane Library, Dare, Dissertation Abstracts, Embase, MEDLINE, PsycINFO and Social Science Index. Personal communication from expert panel members was also used to identify studies for inclusion. A second search stage was conducted through review of reference lists of studies retrieved during the first search stage. The search was limited to published and unpublished material in English language. Selection criteria, The review was limited to studies involving residents and patients within acute, subacute, rehabilitation and residential settings, aged over 65 years, their family and healthcare staff. Papers addressing family members and healthcare staff perceptions of their relationships with each other were considered for this review. Studies in this review also included those relating to interventions to promote constructive staff,family relationships including organisational strategies, staff,family meetings, case conferencing, environmental approaches, etc. The review considered both quantitative and qualitative research and opinion papers for inclusion. Data collection and analysis, All retrieved papers were critically appraised for eligibility for inclusion and methodological quality independently by two reviewers, and the same reviewers collected details of eligible research. Appraisal forms and data extraction forms designed by the Joanna Briggs Institute as part of the QARI and NOTARI systematic review software packages were used for this review. Findings, Family members' perceptions of their relationships with staff showed that a strong focus was placed on opportunities for the family to be involved in the patient's care. Staff members also expressed a theoretical support for the collaborative process, however, this belief often did not translate to the staff members' clinical practice. In the studies included in the review staff were frequently found to rely on traditional medical models of care in their clinical practice and maintaining control over the environment, rather than fully collaborating with families. Four factors were found to be essential to interventions designed to support a collaborative partnership between family members and healthcare staff: communication, information, education and administrative support. Based on the evidence analysed in this systematic review, staff and family education on relationship development, power and control issues, communication skills and negotiating techniques is essential to promoting constructive staff,family relationships. Managerial support, such as addressing workloads and staffing issues; introducing care models focused on collaboration with families; and providing practical support for staff education, is essential to gaining sustained benefits from interventions designed to promote constructive family,staff relationships. [source]

Perceptions of nurses, families, and residents in nursing homes concerning residents' needs

Merav Ben Natan RN PhD StudentArticle first published online: 5 MAY 200
This study examined the congruence between needs identified as significant by older adults in comparison with caregivers (nurses) and elders' families. The study involved 44 patients, 94 nurses and 44 families from the Shoham Geriatric Center in Pardes Hanna, Israel. The findings are based on data gathered through questionnaires distributed at the nursing home. The findings indicate a discrepancy between residents' needs as identified by the staff, the families and the elderly residents themselves. An analysis based on primary needs showed that in comparison with the residents and their families, the nurses attributed greater significance to values and personal outlook of the residents, provision of proficient physical care, skilled mental support, social life and institutional requirements. Families attributed the most significance to the provision of information and family involvement, and in contrast, according to the residents, the most important area was skilled mental/emotional support. Also discussed are the research and practical implications of these findings. [source]

Top Management Teams in Family-Controlled Companies: ,Familiness', ,Faultlines', and Their Impact on Financial Performance

Alessandro Minichilli
abstract This article examines the affect of family management on performance of the company. We examine how familiness can provide further insights beyond the classical demographic measures of top management teams (TMTs) in explaining variations in firms' financial performance. We combine arguments on the ,bright' and ,dark' side of family involvement in the firm; we complement positive predictions on family involvement with negative predictions and develop family firm-specific measures of TMTs' familiness. Results indicate that while the presence of a family CEO is beneficial for firm performance, the coexistence of ,factions' in family and non-family managers within the TMT has the potential to create schisms among the subgroups and consequently hurt firm performance. We find support for a hypothesized U-shaped relationship between the ratio of family members in the TMT and firm performance. Additional evidence related to interactions between firm listing and CEO type on firm performance is then presented and discussed. [source]

A Culturally Appropriate School Wellness Initiative: Results of a 2-Year Pilot Intervention in 2 Jewish Schools

Maureen R. Benjamins PhD
BACKGROUND: Despite the growing number of school-based interventions designed to reduce childhood obesity or otherwise promote health, no models or materials were found for Jewish schools. The current study describes an effort within a Jewish school system in Chicago to create, implement, and evaluate a school-based intervention tailored to the unique characteristics of Jewish religion, culture, and school structures. METHODS: Two schools (with approximately 600 students) were selected for the 2-year pilot study. The schools were required to form a wellness council, write a wellness policy, and implement policy changes or activities in 5 target areas (health education, physical education, school environment, family involvement, and staff wellness). Objectives were measured using pre- and postintervention surveys for students, as well as the School Health Index and other tools. RESULTS: Findings showed several significant increases in student knowledge, as well as an increase in the percentage of older students regularly meeting physical activity guidelines. Few changes in attitudes, other behaviors, or environmental factors were seen. CONCLUSIONS: Due to a strong partnership between researchers, schools, and community organizations, meaningful changes were made within the pilot schools. These changes were reflected in a limited number of improvements in student knowledge and activity levels. Future work is needed to determine how to bring about behavioral changes, how to increase the sustainability of all of the changes, and how to disseminate the model and products of this intervention to other day schools. [source]

Family and Community Involvement in Schools: Results From the School Health Policies and Programs Study 2006

Shannon Michael MPH
ABSTRACT Background:, Family and community involvement in schools is linked strongly to improvements in the academic achievement of students, better school attendance, and improved school programs and quality. Methods:, The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conducts the School Health Policies and Programs Study every 6 years. In 2006, computer-assisted telephone interviews or self-administered mail questionnaires were completed by state education agency personnel in all 50 states plus the District of Columbia and among a nationally representative sample of school districts (n = 461). Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted with personnel in a nationally representative sample of elementary, middle, and high schools (n = 1029) and with a nationally representative sample of teachers of required health education classes and courses (n = 912) and required physical education classes and courses (n = 1194). Results:, Although family and community involvement in states, districts, and schools was limited, many states, districts, and schools collaborated with community groups and agencies to promote and support school health programs. More than half of districts and schools communicated information to families on school health program components. Teachers in 55.5% of required health education classes and courses and 30.8% of required physical education classes and courses gave students homework or projects that involved family members. Conclusions:, Although family and community involvement occurred at all levels, many schools are not doing some of the fundamental things schools could do to increase family involvement. Improvements in family and community involvement can support school health programs in states, districts, schools, and classrooms nationwide. [source]

Follow-Up Comparisons of Intervention and Comparison Schools in a State Tobacco Prevention and Control Initiative

Phyllis Gingiss
The intervention, which was funded through the Texas Department of State Health Services, consisted of guidance, training, technical assistance, and reimbursement of approximately $2000 per year for program expenses. Self-administered written surveys for Principals and Health Coordinators, based on the School Health Education Profile Tobacco Module, were designed for periodic assessment of the status of school programs. Surveys were sent in 2002 to intervention (n = 74) and comparison (n = 60) schools. Response to the Principal Survey was received from 109 (81%) schools, and response to the Health Coordinator Survey was received from 84 (63%) schools. Survey analysis showed that intervention schools more frequently (p , .05) reported: (1) being extremely or moderately active in student cessation support, teacher training, policy development, family involvement, and assessment of the prevention program; (2) using recommended curricula, offering more tobacco-related lessons, involving more teachers, and using more recommended teaching methods such as role-playing, simulations or practice, and peer educators; and (3) having more interest in staff development and more funding to purchase release time. Similarities across schools are provided, as well as recommendations for future planning. (J Sch Health. 2006;76(3):98-103) [source]

Community Social Responsibility and Its Consequences for Family Business Performance,

Linda S. Niehm
Family-centered businesses may have unique perspectives of socially responsible behavior due to family involvement and ties to the community. This research explored the antecedents and consequences of community social responsibility (CSR) for family firms operating in small and rural markets. Using a national sample from the 2000 wave of the National Family Business Survey (NFBS), researchers profiled family business operators' (n = 221) to determine if their CSR orientation contributed to family business performance. Enlightened self interest and social capital perspectives provide a framework for elaborating the role of CSR in sustaining family businesses in changing small communities. Results indicate that three dimensions, commitment to the community, community support, and sense of community, account for 43 percent of the variation in family business operators' CSR. Size of the business was significantly related to family firms' ability to give and receive community support. Further, commitment to the community was found to significantly explain perceived family business performance while community support explained financial performance. Findings suggest that socially responsible business behaviors can indeed contribute to the sustainability of family businesses in small rural communities. [source]

Research Issues in Genetic Testing of Adolescents for Obesity

Mary E. Segal Ph.D.
Obesity is often established in adolescence, and advances are being made in identifying its genetic underpinnings. We examine issues related to the eventual likelihood of genetic tests for obesity targeted to adolescents: family involvement; comprehension of the test's meaning; how knowledge of genetic status may affect psychological adaptation; minors' ability to control events; parental/child autonomy; ability to make informed medical decisions; self-esteem; unclear distinctions between early/late onset for this condition; and social stigmatization. The public health arena will be important in educating families about possible future genetic tests for obesity. [source]

Practitioner Review: Psychological Management of Anxiety Disorders in Childhood

Mark R. Dadds
Many anxiety problems begin in childhood and are a common form of psychological problem that can be highly distressing and associated with a range of social impairments. Thus, skills for conceptualising, assessing, and treating childhood anxiety problems should be in the repertoire of all child mental health specialists. This paper reviews psychosocial treatments for the most common anxiety disorders in children and adolescents. Developmental models of anxiety disorders emphasise maximum risk in children with shy or inhibited temperaments who are exposed to high family anxiety and avoidance, and/or acutely distressing experiences. As children mature these temperamental and environmental experiences are internalised to low self-competence and high threat expectancy. Both individual or group-based interventions utilising cognitive-behavioural strategies to address multiple risk factors are highly efficacious and family involvement can contribute to positive outcomes. Guidelines for assessment and treatment are presented, and suggestions are made for effectively managing clinical process. [source]

Treating acute mental illness in rural general hospitals: Necessity or choice?

Catherine Hungerford
Abstract Objective:,To identify reasons why rural general practitioners (GPs) treat a large proportion of patients with a primary psychiatric diagnosis in general beds of their local hospitals, and the barriers encountered when providing this treatment. Design:,A postal questionnaire was developed and distributed to a sample of rural GPs, asking about the treatment of patients with an acute mental illness in their local hospital. Results:,The majority of GPs agreed that they treat the acutely mentally ill in general beds of their local hospital due to lack of availability of, and inability to gain access to, mental health beds in the larger centres; and also to enable ongoing family involvement and continuity of care. Distance factors were identified as least significant. Barriers to providing care to this group of patients included a perceived lack of support by consultant psychiatrists, confidentiality issues, lack of community mental health workers to provide assistance, aggression levels of patients, inappropriate local hospital setting, and lack of confidence of GPs and general hospital nursing staff. Conclusion:,Addressing these barriers is necessary if rural Australians are to receive a quality of care that is equal to that received by those located in metropolitan Australia. Continuing research in this area is crucial. [source]

Toward a Theory of Familiness: A Social Capital Perspective

Allison W. Pearson
In the search for ways in which the family firm context is unique to organizational science, the construct of "familiness" has been identified and defined as resources and capabilities that are unique to the family's involvement and interactions in the business. While identification and isolation of a construct unique to family firms is both groundbreaking and important for family firm research, it is also important that the development of the construct continues to be examined from complementing theoretical viewpoints. As such, we set out to review the development of the familiness construct and identify its dimensions. We also explore the nomological relationships of the construct based on a social capital theory perspective and offer a theory of familiness. [source]

(En)Gendering Responsibilities: Experiences of Parenting a ,Young Offender'

Abstract: This article discusses how parenting a ,young offender' involves specific additional responsibilities for parents who are already under scrutiny for apparently not taking their parenting responsibilities seriously. With reference to empirical data, three specific parental tasks are considered: managing the family's involvement in the youth justice system, waiting on ,standby' for police and schools, and reporting the child's offences to the police. In doing so, this article highlights the ways in which gender is implicated, and performs a regulatory function, in the day-to-day lives of mothers and fathers who are parenting a ,troublesome' child. [source]