Family Interactions (family + interaction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Humanities and Social Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Leisure Time: Do Married and Single Individuals Spend It Differently?

FAMILY & CONSUMER SCIENCES RESEARCH JOURNAL, Issue 3 2004
Yoon G. Lee
Using data from the 1998,1999 Family Interaction, Social Capital, and Trends in Time Use Study, the authors estimated the time use of 1,151 respondents on various leisure activities (e.g., active leisure, passive leisure, and social entertainment). Onaverage, the most time was spent on active sports (12 minutes) in the active leisure category, TVuse (119 minutes) in the passive leisure category, and socializing with people (27 minutes) in the social entertainment category. Single individuals spent more time playing musical instruments, singing, acting, and dancing than married individuals. Single individuals also spent more time listening to the radio, watching TV, socializing with people, going to bars/lounges, and traveling for social activities than married individuals. Married individuals spent significantly less time for leisure activities than did single individuals. Among the sociodemographic factors, income, employment status, age, gender, and race of respondents were significant determinants of their time use for leisure. [source]


Caregiver Depressive Symptoms and Observed Family Interaction in Low-Income Children with Persistent Asthma

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 1 2008
MARIANNE CELANO PH.D.
This study examined the relationship between caregiver depressive symptoms and observed parenting behaviors and family processes during interactions among 101 urban, low-income Africtan American families with children with persistent asthma. Caregivers (primarily female) were assessed on four dimensions (i.e., warmth/involvement, hostility, consistent discipline, relationship quality) in three videotaped interaction tasks (loss, conflict, cohesion). The results indicated that increased depressive symptoms were significantly associated with lower warmth/involvement and synchrony scores and greater hostility scores during the loss and conflict tasks. In the total sample, the highest levels of hostility and the lowest levels of warmth/involvement were found for the conflict task; nevertheless, caregivers with moderate/severe depressive symptoms showed a significantly greater increase in hostility from the loss to the conflict task than caregivers with minimal/mild depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the salience of considering task content in family observational process research to expand our understanding of depressed and nondepressed caregivers' abilities to modulate appropriately their behaviors and affect across various family interactions. Implications for improving asthma management for low-income children with persistent asthma are discussed, including the utility of multidisciplinary interventions that combine asthma education with family therapy. RESUMEN Síntomas de depresión en los responsables de los niños e interacción familiar observada en niños de familias de bajos ingresos que padecen asma crónica Este estudio examinó la relación entre los síntomas de depresión de los responsables de los niños y los comportamientos paternos y dinámicas familiares observados durante interacciones entre 101 familias afronorteamericanas, urbanas y de bajos recursos, con niños que padecen asma crónica. Los responsables de los niños (la mayoría mujeres) fueron evaluados en base a cuatro criterios: calidez/implicación, hostilidad, disciplina constante, y calidad de la relación) en tres tareas de interacción grabadas en cinta de video (pérdida, conflicto y cohesión). Los resultados demostraron que el aumento de los síntomas de depresión estaban relacionados de forma significativa con una menor puntuación en calidez/implicación y comprensión mutua, y una mayor puntuación en hostilidad durante las tareas de pérdida y conflicto. En la muestra total, los mayores niveles de hostilidad y menores niveles de calidez/implicación se encontraron en la tarea de conflicto; sin embargo, los responsables con síntomas de depresión de moderados a severos mostraron un aumento mucho mayor de la hostilidad, de la tarea de pérdida a la de conflicto, que los responsables con síntomas de mínimos a leves. Los resultados enfatizan la importancia de considerar el contenido de la tarea en la investigación observacional de familias para aumentar nuestra comprensión de las habilidades de los responsables de los niños, con o sin depresión, con el fin de modular de una manera apropiada su comportamiento y afecto en diferentes interacciones familiares. Las medidas para mejorar el control del asma en niños que padecen asma crónica y provienen de familias de bajos ingresos están en debate, incluida la utilidad de intervenciones multidisciplinarias que combinen formación sobre el asma con terapia familiar. [source]


Attachment, Social Rank, and Affect Regulation: Speculations on an Ethological Approach to Family Interaction,

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 3 2002
F.R.C.P. (C), L.R.C.P., Leon Sloman M.R.C.P.
The attachment and social rank systems are biological-evolutionary systems that can serve as models for conceptualizing family interaction. By exploring both their unique and interrelated impact on affect regulation, we can differentiate between processes that foster healthy growth and those leading to individual psychopathology. This perspective facilitates the integration of biological and psychological models, and has therapeutic implications. It also integrates well with other family therapy models. [source]


Testing the Biobehavioral Family Model in Pediatric Asthma: Pathways of Effect

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 1 2008
BEATRICE L. WOOD PH.D.
This study uses a laboratory-based multiinformant, multimethod approach to test the hypothesis that a negative family emotional climate (NFEC) contributes to asthma disease severity by way of child depressive symptoms, and that parent-child relational insecurity mediates the effect. Children with asthma (n=199; aged 7,17; 55% male) reported parental conflict, parent-child relational security, and depressive symptoms. Parent(s) reported demographics, asthma history, and symptoms. Asthma diagnosis was confirmed by clinical evaluation and pulmonary function tests, with disease severity rated by an asthma clinician according to NHLBI guidelines. Family interactions were evoked using the Family Process Assessment Protocol, and rated using the Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales. Path analysis indicated a good fit of data to the hypothesized model (,2[1]=.11, p=.74, NFI=.99, RMSEA=.00). Observed NFEC predicted child depression (,=.19, p<.01), which predicted asthma disease severity (,=.23, p<.01). Relational security inversely predicted depressive symptoms (,=,.40, p<.001), and was not a mediator as predicted, but rather an independent contributor. The findings are consistent with the Biobehavioral Family Model, which suggests a psychobiologic influence of specific family relational processes on asthma disease severity by way of child depressive symptoms. RESUMEN Prueba del Biobehavioral Family Model (Modelo familiar de biocomportamiento) en asma pediátrica: Factores desencadenantes Objetivo: Este estudio utiliza un método de laboratorio con varios informantes y distintos enfoques para probar la hipótesis de que un ambiente familiar negativo agrava la enfermedad del asma a través de síntomas de depresión infantil, y que la inseguridad en la relación entre padres e hijos influye en su efecto. Sujetos y métodos: Una serie de niños que padecen asma (n=199; edades entre 7 y 17; 55% varones) informaron sobre conflictos de pareja de sus padres, la seguridad en la relación con sus padres y síntomas de depresión. Los padres, por su parte, aportaron datos demográficos, antecedentes de asma e información acerca de los síntomas. El diagnóstico de asma fue confirmado por examen clínico y pruebas de pulmón, y un experto en asma determinó la gravedad de la enfermedad de acuerdo con las pautas del NHLBI (National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute). La interacción en familia fue simulada mediante el método Family Process Assessment Protocol (protocolo de evaluación de dinámicas familiares) y estimada mediante el Iowa Family Interaction Rating Scales (escala Iowa de interacciones familiares). Resultados: El análisis de camino demostró que los datos encajaron bien con el modelo de la hipótesis (,2[1]=.11, p=.74, NFI=.99, RMSEA=.00). En las familias en las que se observó un ambiente emocional negativo se predijo la depresión del niño o de la niña (,=.19, p<.01), lo que, a su vez, predijo un agravamiento del asma (,=.23, p<.01). Por otra parte, las relaciones positivas predijeron síntomas de depresión de manera inversa (,=.40, p<.001), y no resultaron ser un mediador, como se había predicho, sino un contribuidor independiente. Conclusión: Las averiguaciones coinciden con el Biobehavioral Family Model (modelo familiar de biocomportamiento), que sugiere la existencia de una influencia psicobiológica de procesos de relaciones familiares específicos en la gravedad de la enfermedad del asma a través de síntomas de depresión infantil. [source]


The development of the family alliance from pregnancy to toddlerhood and children outcomes at 18 months

INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2006
N. Favez
Abstract This paper presents a longitudinal study of the development of family interactions from pregnancy to toddlerhood. Family interactions are increasingly acknowledged as a predictive factor for children's psychopathological outcomes. We used an observational setting, the Lausanne Trilogue Play, to evaluate the ,family alliance', namely, the quality of interactive coordination between family members. Families participated at the 5th month of pregnancy, and at 3- and 18-months after birth. The sample (N=39) consisted of non-referred primiparous families. Results show that (i) family alliance is stable during the first two years for most families: the quality of prenatal interactions between parents and a baby doll is thus predictive of the subsequent interactions with the actual child; (ii) there are links, but only a few, between family interactions and children outcomes reported by parents. Methodological issues (observation versus self-reported questionnaires) are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Effects of preoccupation on interpersonal recall: a pilot study

DEPRESSION AND ANXIETY, Issue 1 2009
Annukka Lehtonen Ph.D.
Abstract Background: The aim of this pilot study was to examine whether priming preoccupation (rumination) in healthy participants adversely affects the processing of interpersonal information. Methods: Sixty female undergraduates with moderate or marked preoccupation proneness (selected on the basis of their high preoccupation on eating, shape, and weight issues) were randomized to receive either a general preoccupation prime, a standardized preoccupation prime, or a control prime. Following the prime, participants watched an 8-min videotape of a family interaction and then were asked free recall questions about the tape. Results: Participants who received the general preoccupation prime scored lower than the other two groups in response to free recall questions regarding emotion-related topics. Conclusions: These findings suggest that when primed by everyday worries and concerns, individuals prone to preoccupation may have their capacity to recall emotion-related interpersonal information compromised. Depression and Anxiety, 2009. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]


Attachment, Social Rank, and Affect Regulation: Speculations on an Ethological Approach to Family Interaction,

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 3 2002
F.R.C.P. (C), L.R.C.P., Leon Sloman M.R.C.P.
The attachment and social rank systems are biological-evolutionary systems that can serve as models for conceptualizing family interaction. By exploring both their unique and interrelated impact on affect regulation, we can differentiate between processes that foster healthy growth and those leading to individual psychopathology. This perspective facilitates the integration of biological and psychological models, and has therapeutic implications. It also integrates well with other family therapy models. [source]


Validity of PTSD in a sample of refugee children: can a separate diagnostic entity be justified?

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF METHODS IN PSYCHIATRIC RESEARCH, Issue 2 2006
Edith Montgomery
Abstract The objective of this study was to examine the construct validity of PTSD in a sample of refugee children from the Middle East , more specifically, to assess whether associations between traumatic events and specific PTSD symptoms were more outspoken than (1) the associations of PTSD symptoms with non-traumatic exposures, and (2) the associations of violent exposures with symptoms other than PTSD-symptoms. Parents of 311 refugee children from the Middle East were interviewed concerning their children's traumatic experiences and mental health symptoms. The specific PTSD symptoms did not cluster in a factor analysis. The PTSD symptom complex was significantly predicted not only by violent exposures (mother tortured, OR 8.2, p < 0.005; father disappeared OR 3.2, p < 0.05) but also by indicators of family interaction and parents' occupational situation. The two identified violent exposures had significant independent associations with a series of symptoms including symptoms other than those of PTSD (rs ranging from 0.25 to 0.44, p < 0.001). Thus it does not seem sufficient to focus solely on PTSD symptomatology when assessing the mental health needs of refugee children. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Logistic regression approach to modelling the variability of recombination rate

JOURNAL OF ANIMAL BREEDING AND GENETICS, Issue 1 2000
By J. Szyda
The objective of the paper is to quantify the relationship between recombination rate and factors such as ,sex of sperm', paternal halfsib family, and individual, using logistic regression modelling. The analysed data set consists of 2214 single bovine sperm cell samples. Haplotypes at each single sperm were determined at eleven marker loci forming eight intervals located on chromosomes 6, 23 and X/Y. The experimental design comprises six paternal halfsib families. Six logistic regression models are fitted to the data from each interval. Departure from commonly assumed homogenous recombination is detected for one marker interval on chromosome 23 , influence of individual and ,sex of sperm' by family interaction, and for both intervals mapped to sex chromosomes , influence of ,sex of sperm' and paternal halfsib family. [source]


Predicting Mother/Father,Child Interactions: Parental Personality and Well-being, Socioeconomic Variables and Child Disability Status

JOURNAL OF APPLIED RESEARCH IN INTELLECTUAL DISABILITIES, Issue 1 2010
Laraine M. Glidden
Background, Child and parent characteristics as well as socioeconomic family variables can influence the quality of parent,child interactions. Methods, Coders rated parent behaviour from a video-taped 30-min family interaction in 91 families rearing children who were either typically developing or had intellectual/developmental disabilities. In addition, mothers and fathers completed NEO-FFI personality items as well as subjective well-being ratings. Results, Coder ratings were factor analysed, resulting in a four-factor parent behaviour inventory. The disability status of the children did not predict ratings on three of the factors, but parents of children with disabilities were perceived as less negative on one factor than parents of typically developing children. Extraversion, occupational status, and subjective well-being related to the child also predicted some parenting behaviours. Conclusions, Parenting a child with intellectual/developmental disabilities did not result in identifiably adverse outcomes for either mothers or fathers as determined by both behavioural and self-report measures. [source]


Understanding families in their own context: schizophrenia and structural family therapy in Beijing

JOURNAL OF FAMILY THERAPY, Issue 3 2002
Lawrence Hsin Yang
Evidence from a number of family intervention strategies demonstrates a beneficial impact on the course of schizophrenia. It appears that different family interventions have generic features that aid the patient to avoid relapse and improve functioning. A significant challenge for researchers is to modify these generic strategies to be sensitive to different cultural groups in order to ensure their effectiveness. Chinese culture, with its distinct cultural norms governing family interaction and intense stigma towards the mentally ill, would seem to raise a particular challenge. This paper offers an account of an eclectic model of structural family therapy that incorporates psychoeducation and behavioural treatments for schizophrenia as a theoretical guide to working in a cross,cultural context. A Beijing family, consisting of parents and their daughter with schizophrenia, were seen for sixteen months during a trial of family intervention in China. Through structural family concepts, China's sociocultural context of treatment resource constraints, population policy and stigma are examined and the impact of the illness on family organization is explored. [source]


Quality of Life and Related Factors among Elderly Nursing Home Residents in Southern Taiwan

PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING, Issue 5 2001
Su-Zu Tseng M.S.N.
This study explored subjectively perceived quality of life and related factors of elderly nursing home residents. In this study, 161 residents aged 65 and older were selected from 10 nursing homes in Southern Taiwan. The results showed: (1) the mean score of quality of life was 15.86 and the standardized score was 52.87, a medium rating for the overall sample; (2) different educational levels, and socioeconomic status were significantly different in the quality of life, the other sociodemographic variables were not significantly different in the quality of life. (3) length of residence in the nursing home was significantly negative relative to the quality of life. Physical function, activities of daily living, social support from nurses, social support from nursing aides, social support from families, and frequency of family interaction were significantly positive relatative to the quality of life. (4) Activies of daily living, social support from nurses, socioeconomic status, and physical function were the significant predictors in the quality of life, which explained 40.1% of the total amount of variance. Activities of daily living, social support from nursing aids, socioeconomic status, physical function and frequency of interaction with family were the significant predictors in the quality of life, which explained 39.5% of the total amount of variance. Results generated from this study may act as a reference for the staff of nursing homes to understand the quality of life and related factors among elderly residents. This study also acts as a reference for future intervention programs in this field. [source]


Caregiver Depressive Symptoms and Observed Family Interaction in Low-Income Children with Persistent Asthma

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 1 2008
MARIANNE CELANO PH.D.
This study examined the relationship between caregiver depressive symptoms and observed parenting behaviors and family processes during interactions among 101 urban, low-income Africtan American families with children with persistent asthma. Caregivers (primarily female) were assessed on four dimensions (i.e., warmth/involvement, hostility, consistent discipline, relationship quality) in three videotaped interaction tasks (loss, conflict, cohesion). The results indicated that increased depressive symptoms were significantly associated with lower warmth/involvement and synchrony scores and greater hostility scores during the loss and conflict tasks. In the total sample, the highest levels of hostility and the lowest levels of warmth/involvement were found for the conflict task; nevertheless, caregivers with moderate/severe depressive symptoms showed a significantly greater increase in hostility from the loss to the conflict task than caregivers with minimal/mild depressive symptoms. The findings highlight the salience of considering task content in family observational process research to expand our understanding of depressed and nondepressed caregivers' abilities to modulate appropriately their behaviors and affect across various family interactions. Implications for improving asthma management for low-income children with persistent asthma are discussed, including the utility of multidisciplinary interventions that combine asthma education with family therapy. RESUMEN Síntomas de depresión en los responsables de los niños e interacción familiar observada en niños de familias de bajos ingresos que padecen asma crónica Este estudio examinó la relación entre los síntomas de depresión de los responsables de los niños y los comportamientos paternos y dinámicas familiares observados durante interacciones entre 101 familias afronorteamericanas, urbanas y de bajos recursos, con niños que padecen asma crónica. Los responsables de los niños (la mayoría mujeres) fueron evaluados en base a cuatro criterios: calidez/implicación, hostilidad, disciplina constante, y calidad de la relación) en tres tareas de interacción grabadas en cinta de video (pérdida, conflicto y cohesión). Los resultados demostraron que el aumento de los síntomas de depresión estaban relacionados de forma significativa con una menor puntuación en calidez/implicación y comprensión mutua, y una mayor puntuación en hostilidad durante las tareas de pérdida y conflicto. En la muestra total, los mayores niveles de hostilidad y menores niveles de calidez/implicación se encontraron en la tarea de conflicto; sin embargo, los responsables con síntomas de depresión de moderados a severos mostraron un aumento mucho mayor de la hostilidad, de la tarea de pérdida a la de conflicto, que los responsables con síntomas de mínimos a leves. Los resultados enfatizan la importancia de considerar el contenido de la tarea en la investigación observacional de familias para aumentar nuestra comprensión de las habilidades de los responsables de los niños, con o sin depresión, con el fin de modular de una manera apropiada su comportamiento y afecto en diferentes interacciones familiares. Las medidas para mejorar el control del asma en niños que padecen asma crónica y provienen de familias de bajos ingresos están en debate, incluida la utilidad de intervenciones multidisciplinarias que combinen formación sobre el asma con terapia familiar. [source]


Sacred Practices in Highly Religious Families: Christian, Jewish, Mormon, and Muslim Perspectives,

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2004
Loren Marks Ph.D.
Quantitative research examining linkages between family relationships and religious experience has increased substantially in recent years. However, related qualitative research, including research that examines the processes and meanings behind recurring religion-family correlations, remains scant. To address this paucity, a racially diverse sample (N=24) of married, highly religious Christian, Jewish, Mormon, and Muslim parents of school-aged children were interviewed regarding the importance of religious family interactions, rituals, and practices in their families. Mothers and fathers discussed several religious practices that were meaningful to them and explained why these practices were meaningful. Parents also identified costs and challenges associated with these practices. Interview data are presented in connection with three themes: (1) "practicing [and parenting] what you preach," (2) religious practices, family connection, and family communion, and (3) costs of family religious practices. The importance of family clinicians and researchers attending to the influence of religious practice in the lives of highly religious individuals and families is discussed. [source]


Family Transactions and Relapse in Bipolar Disorder,

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 1 2001
Irwin S. Rosenfarb Ph.D.
This study examined whether patient symptoms and relatives' affective behavior, when expressed during directly observed family interactions, are associated with the short-term course of bipolar disorder. Twenty-seven bipolar patients and their relatives participated in two 10-minute family interactions when patients were discharged after a manic episode. Results indicated that patients who showed high levels of odd and grandiose thinking during the interactions were more likely to relapse during a 9-month followup period than patients who did not show these symptoms during the family discussions. Relapse was also associated with high rates of harshly critical and directly supportive statements by relatives. Patients' odd thinking and relatives' harsh criticism were significantly more likely to be correlated when patients relapsed (r = .53) than when they did not relapse (r = .12). Results suggest that bipolar patients who show increased signs of residual symptomatology during family transactions during the post-hospital period are at increased relapse risk. The data also suggest that relatives of relapsing patients cope with these symptoms by increasing both positive and negative affective behaviors. Moreover, a bidirectional, interactional relationship between patients' symptoms and relatives' coping style seems to capture best the role of the family in predicting relapse in bipolar disorder. [source]


The development of the family alliance from pregnancy to toddlerhood and children outcomes at 18 months

INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2006
N. Favez
Abstract This paper presents a longitudinal study of the development of family interactions from pregnancy to toddlerhood. Family interactions are increasingly acknowledged as a predictive factor for children's psychopathological outcomes. We used an observational setting, the Lausanne Trilogue Play, to evaluate the ,family alliance', namely, the quality of interactive coordination between family members. Families participated at the 5th month of pregnancy, and at 3- and 18-months after birth. The sample (N=39) consisted of non-referred primiparous families. Results show that (i) family alliance is stable during the first two years for most families: the quality of prenatal interactions between parents and a baby doll is thus predictive of the subsequent interactions with the actual child; (ii) there are links, but only a few, between family interactions and children outcomes reported by parents. Methodological issues (observation versus self-reported questionnaires) are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Violated wishes about division of childcare labor predict early coparenting process during stressful and nonstressful family evaluations,

INFANT MENTAL HEALTH JOURNAL, Issue 4 2008
Inna Khazan
Prior research has indicated that expectant parents overestimate the extent to which fathers will take part in the "work" of parenting, with mothers often becoming disenchanted when these expectations are violated following the baby's arrival. In this study, we examine the role of violated wishes concerning childcare involvement in accounting for variability in maternal and paternal marital satisfaction, and in early coparenting behavior as assessed during family-interaction sessions. The results indicate possible negative effects of violated wishes on the enacted family process and confirm previous findings regarding the effects of marital satisfaction. In addition, we uncovered differences in the way that violated maternal wishes are related to coparenting during playful and mildly stressful family interactions. [source]


THE EFFECTIVE USE OF ENACTMENTS INFAMILY THERAY: DISCOVERY-ORIENTED PROCESS STUDY

JOURNAL OF MARITAL AND FAMILY THERAPY, Issue 2 2000
Michael P. Nichols
In this investigation we examine the elements of enactments-in-session dialoguse used to observe and modify family interactions in sturctrual family therapy. Twenty-one videotaped segments of 18 therapy sessions with differnt familes were used to compile detailed descriptions of therapist techniques and client responses. Enactments were analyzed as consisting of three distinst phases-initiation, facilitation, adn closing-each of which required more numerous and complex interventions than are usually described in the clinical literautre. Judges were able to reliable describe therapist interventions that led to successful enactments as well as what therapists did or failed to do that led to unproductive outcomes. Clinical implications of these findings are discussed. [source]


We're Decent People: Constructing and Managing Family Identity in Rural Working-Class Communities

JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 2 2004
Margie L. Kiter Edwards
Using grounded theory methodology, I establish family identity management as an important type of invisible work that connects women's household-based domestic activities with community members' perceptions and treatment of them and their family members. Detailed observations of household routines and family interactions, as well as in-depth interviews with working-class women living in two rural trailer park communities, provide insight into the meanings women assign to this labor, and their motivations for performing this work. I describe the strategies that women use to accomplish the work, examine how the work supports family life and child development, and explain how the residential environment influences the organization and accomplishment of this work. [source]


Parental Behavior and the Quality of Adolescent Friendships: A Social-Contextual Perspective

JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 3 2002
Ming Cui
On the basis of an evolving social-contextual perspective, the authors predicted and found that socioeconomic advantage in terms of income and parental education promotes supportive and inhibits hostile parental behaviors toward an adolescent child (N= 221). These parental behaviors predicted similar actions by the child toward a close friend 4 years later. In turn adolescent supportiveness promoted close friendship ties, whereas hostility diminished the quality of friendships. The results support the notion that, to a significant degree, the quality of family interactions: (a) arises from the social context surrounding the family, (b) is transmitted across generations, and (c) has a demonstrable impact on the quality of adolescents' social ties outside the family. [source]