Family Influence (family + influence)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Family influences on dysfunctional thinking in anxious children

Susan M. Bögels
Abstract Anxious children are found to interpret ambiguous stories in a negative way. The current study attempted to examine the possible influence of parental fear and parental interpretation bias on the maintenance of such an interpretation bias. Children varying in level of anxiety (n=25) and their parents, filled in a questionnaire to measure their own fears, and gave their interpretations concerning nine ambiguous stories, relevant for childhood ,interactional' anxieties: social anxiety, separation anxiety, and generalized anxiety. Then, parents were asked to talk with their children about three of the stories. After the family discussion the children had to give their final interpretations. Results indicated that parents' self-reported fear level and interpretation bias were associated with children's interpretation bias before the family discussion. However, no evidence was found for the idea that parents maintain or enhance the interpretation bias of their children. That is, irrespective of parental fear and parental interpretation bias, children interpreted the ambiguous stories as less negative after discussing them with their parents. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Family influences on commitment: Examining the family of origin correlates of relationship commitment attitudes

Daniel J. Weigel
Two studies were conducted to investigate the lessons about relationship commitment that people gain from their families of origin. In the first study, participants identified a story from their families of origin that characterized a number of themes about commitment. In the second study, these themes were further refined to reveal eight factors underlying these themes: dedication to partner, constraints on relationships, relationships are impermanent, disillusionment, family and gender influences, approaching relationships with caution, relationships take work, and divorce has negative consequences. Ratings of the themes varied by the occurrence of parental divorce, perceived parental marital happiness, and gender. Commitment lessons remembered from families of origin also were associated with the participants' reported level of commitment in their current relationships. Implications for current theory on commitment are discussed. [source]

The Phenomenon of Substantive Conflict in the Family Firm: A Cross-Generational Study

Peter S. Davis
This study investigates the influence that family members exert on the extent and frequency of substantive conflict within family firms across generations as a result of their familial relationship (distance) with the owner/manager of the firm and the positions these family members occupy in the family work group and social (non-work) group. Following Beckhard and Dyer (1983), the construct of substantive conflict was vested in four key issues pertinent to family firms: (1) ownership continuity or change; (2) executive leadership continuity or change; (3) power and asset distribution; and (4) management's vision for the role of the firm in society. The results establish a relationship between conflict in a family business and the composition of the family's work group, non-work (social) group, and the extensiveness of the family's social interactions. The relationships between conflict and family influence were found to be moderated by the generations (first, second, third, or later) among involved family businesses. [source]

"I Speak a Different Dialect": Teen Explanatory Models of Difference and Disability

Tamara C. Daley
What do teens with disabilities believe about their conditions, and what do they understand to be the causes, correlates, and consequences of disability? We elicited a cultural explanatory model (EM) of disability from longitudinal sample of 23 European American adolescents with varied cognitive disabilities and delay. We asked teens how they were similar to different from others; the name of this difference; its causes, severity, course, effects, associated problems and benefits; and need for treatment. IQ and type of disability strongly affected quality of responses only from the lowest functioning teens. A majority of teens had a reasonably rich and coherent EM, blending typical and disability themes of cultural knowledge and identity. The EM is a window into social context (schools, services, parents, and peers) as well as personal experience. Eliciting explanatory models from teens with disabilities is not only possible but also can enhance understanding of identity, family influence, and appropriate services, [disability; explanatory models; adolescence; culture] [source]

Modelling the origins of managerial ability in agricultural production,

Peter Nuthall
The efficiency of production from a farm's land, labour and capital is critically dependent on the ability of the farm manager. Yet, while there are studies correlating a wide range of manager-related variables with returns, and, therefore, probably ability, little understanding of the basic determinants of managerial ability exists. Questions such as ,what is the importance of a farmer's family experiences and training in determining the farmer's managerial ability?' need answering. The solution to this, and other, questions will enable determining ways of improving farmers' inherent ability developed both in early, and later, life. In that most decisions on a farm are made intuitively, in contrast to the use of a formal analysis, improving farmers' inherent ability will have a significant payoff. The research reported here uses data from a large stratified random survey of 740 developed farmers (29 per cent had tertiary education, 30 per cent had 4 or more years secondary education) to create a structural equation model of the determinants of managerial ability. The results suggest that a farmer's exposure to experiences is a significant factor in ability, as is the farmer's management style and the family influence on early life experience. [source]

Posttraumatic stress reactions in siblings after mutual disaster: Relevance of family factors

Egil Nygaard
In this study, the importance of family factors in the development of posttraumatic stress reactions in children after trauma is studied by comparing siblings and nonsiblings who experienced the tsunami in Southeast Asia in 2004 as tourists. Thirty-eight sibling pairs aged 6,17 years were interviewed using the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index. The sibling differences were similar to differences found in randomly selected children in the same sample, indicating that family influences may not be as important as anticipated. The results are an important contribution to our understanding of what contributes to and influences the development of posttrauma reactions in children. They also suggest the importance of conducting individual assessments even after mutually experienced trauma. [source]

Sociocultural influences on infant feeding decisions among HIV-infected women in rural Kwa-Zulu Natal, South Africa

Lucy N. Thairu msc
Abstract The promotion of exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months, followed by rapid transition to alternative food sources may be an important public health approach to the reduction of mother-to-child transmission of HIV through breastmilk. The basic ethical principle of ,informed choice' requires that HIV positive women are provided with adequate information about their options. However, information is only one factor that affects their decisions. The objective of this ethnographic study was to identify sociocultural influences on infant feeding decisions in the context of a large cohort study designed to assess the impact of a breastfeeding counselling and support strategy to promote exclusive breastfeeding on postnatal transmission of HIV in African women. Following an initial period of exploratory interviewing, ethnographic techniques were used to interview 22 HIV positive women about their views on infant feeding and health. Interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed and analysed with a text analysis program. Five themes of influences on feeding decisions emerged: (1) social stigma of HIV infection; (2) maternal age and family influences on feeding practices; (3) economic circumstances; (4) beliefs about HIV transmission through breastmilk; and (5) beliefs about the quality of breastmilk compared to formula. The study highlights the role of cultural, social, economic and psychological factors that affect HIV positive women's infant feeding decisions and behaviour. [source]

Relations among school assets, individual resilience, and student engagement for youth grouped by level of family functioning

Jill D. Sharkey
Given the importance of student engagement for healthy outcomes, research needs to investigate whether school-based assets promote student engagement beyond individual and family influences. Unfortunately, such research has been limited by a lack of valid instrumentation. After examining the psychometrics of the California Healthy Kids Survey Resilience Youth Development Module, we used this risk and resilience instrument with a randomly selected sample of 10,000 diverse 7th-, 9th-, and 11th-grade students to test a model of relations between school assets, individual resilience, and student engagement for students grouped by level of family assets. Although youth in the low family asset group reported lower student engagement, contrary to hypothesis, multigroup structural equation modeling revealed that school assets did not have a differential relation for low family asset youth compared to their high family asset peers. School assets were associated with student engagement for all groups, even accounting for individual resilience. Implications and future directions are provided. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]