Family Income (family + income)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Interrelations between maternal smoking during pregnancy, birth weight and sociodemographic factors in the prediction of early cognitive abilities

S. C. J. Huijbregts
Abstract Maternal prenatal smoking, birth weight and sociodemographic factors were investigated in relation to cognitive abilities of 1544 children (aged 3.5 years) participating in the Québec Longitudinal Study of Children's Development. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) was used to assess verbal ability, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) block design test to assess visuospatial ability, and the Visually Cued Recall (VCR) task to assess short-term memory. Prenatal smoking was related to performance on the WPPSI-R, the PPVT, and the VCR, although it did not independently predict any cognitive ability after maternal education was taken into account. Birth weight was a more robust predictor of all outcome measures and independently predicted VCR-performance. Birth weight interacted significantly with family income and maternal education in predicting visuospatial ability, indicating a greater influence of birth weight under relatively poor socio-economic conditions. Parenting and family functioning mediated associations between maternal education/family income and cognitive task performance under different birth weight conditions, although there were indications for stronger effects under relatively low birth weight. We conclude that investigations of moderating and mediating effects can provide insights into which children are most at risk of cognitive impairment and might benefit most from interventions. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Parent and caretaker knowledge about avulsion of permanent teeth

Marconi Eduardo Sousa Maciel Santos
Tooth avulsion, the most severe dentoalveolar lesion, is a dental emergency. The prognosis of avulsed teeth significantly depends on prompt and efficient action at the site of the accident, thus requiring that parents or caretakers be knowledgeable about the correct management of this situation. The objective of the present study was to assess the level of knowledge of parents or caretakers concerning the management of tooth avulsion and to investigate the association between level of knowledge and schooling, monthly family income and age. We interviewed 107 parents or caretakers using a 12-item questionnaire comprising objective questions whose answers received a score from 0 to 3. The results show that 99% of those interviewed would immediately seek professional help; however, 71% did not know what avulsion was. Only 3% would use milk as storage medium and 16% would attempt replantation of the avulsed tooth. The distribution of final means for the overall level of parent or caretaker knowledge was 44.63% for score 3, 15.88% for score 2, 17.99% for score 1 and 21.47% for score 0, showing a low level of knowledge concerning tooth avulsion. Schooling, monthly family income and age were not associated with the knowledge scores for any of the 12 questions. The level of parent and caretaker knowledge concerning the management of tooth avulsion is low, without association with age, schooling and monthly family income. [source]

A low incidence of Type 1 diabetes between 1977 and 2001 in south-eastern Sweden in areas with high population density and which are more deprived

B.-M. Holmqvist
Abstract Aims To explore how socioeconomic factors and population density may contribute to the geographical variation of incidence of Type 1 diabetes in children in south-eastern Sweden. Method All children diagnosed with Type 1 diabetes in south-eastern Sweden during 1977,2001 were defined geographically to their place of residence and were allocated x and y coordinates in the national grid. The population at risk and socioeconomic data were aggregated in 82 000 200-m squares and geocoded likewise. A socioeconomic index was calculated using a signed ,2 method. Rural,urban gradients were defined by overlay analysis in a geographic information system. Results The incidence during the past 25 years has been rising steadily, particularly in the last 6 years. The incidence was highest in areas with a high proportion of small families, of families with a high family income and better education, and this was found both at the time of diagnosis and at the time of birth. In the rural,urban analysis, the lowest incidence was found in the urban area with > 20 000 inhabitants, where there was also a higher frequency of deprivation. Conclusions Our findings indicate that geographical variations in incidence rates of Type 1 diabetes in children are associated with socioeconomic factors and population density, although other contributing factors remain to be explained. [source]

Childhood social disadvantage and smoking in adulthood: results of a 25-year longitudinal study

ADDICTION, Issue 3 2007
David M. Fergusson
ABSTRACT Aim To examine the associations between exposure to socio-economic disadvantage in childhood and smoking in adulthood. Design A 25-year longitudinal study of the health, development and adjustment of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measurements Assessments of childhood socio-economic disadvantage, smoking in adulthood and potential mediating pathways, including: parental education, family socio-economic status, family living standards and family income; smoking frequency and nicotine dependence at age 25 years; child IQ, educational achievement by age 18 years, conduct problems ages 14,16 years, parental smoking 0,16 years and peer smoking at 16 years. Findings Smoking at age 25 was correlated significantly (P < 0.0001) with increasing childhood socio-economic disadvantage. Further, indicators of childhood socio-economic disadvantage were correlated significantly (P < 0.0001) with the intervening variables of childhood intelligence, school achievement, conduct problems and exposure to parental and peer smoking; which in turn were correlated significantly (P < 0.0001) with measures of smoking at age 25. Structural equation modelling suggested that the linkages between the latent factor of childhood disadvantage and later smoking were explained largely by a series of pathways involving cognitive/educational factors, adolescent behavioural adjustment and exposure to parental and peer smoking. Conclusions The current study suggested that smoking in adulthood is influenced by childhood socio-economic disadvantage via the mediating pathways of cognitive/educational factors, adolescent behaviour and parental and peer smoking. [source]

Risk of harm among gamblers in the general population as a function of level of participation in gambling activities

ADDICTION, Issue 4 2006
Shawn R. Currie
ABSTRACT Aims To examine the relationship between gambling behaviours and risk of gambling-related harm in a nationally representative population sample. Design Risk curves of gambling frequency and expenditure (total amount and percentage of income) were plotted against harm from gambling. Setting Data derived from 19 012 individuals participating in the Canadian Community Health Survey,Mental Health and Well-being cycle, a comprehensive interview-based survey conducted by Statistics Canada in 2002. Measurement Gambling behaviours and related harms were assessed with the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Findings Risk curves indicated the chances of experiencing gambling-related harm increased steadily the more often one gambles and the more money one invests in gambling. Receiver operating characteristic analysis identified the optimal limits for low-risk participation as gambling no more than two to three times per month, spending no more than $501,1000CAN per year on gambling and investing no more than 1% of gross family income on gambling activities. Logistic regression modelling confirmed a significant increase in the risk of gambling-related harm (odds ratios ranging from 2.0 to 7.7) when these limits were exceeded. Conclusions Risk curves are a promising methodology for examining the relationship between gambling participation and risk of harm. The development of low-risk gambling limits based on risk curve analysis appears to be feasible. [source]

The Work-Family Interface: Differentiating Balance and Fit

Maribeth C. Clarke
Work-family fit has recently emerged in work and family literature, comparable to work-family balance in that it represents interactions between work and family and yet distinct because it precedes balance and other outcomes. This study explores the relationship between, predictive factors of, and interactive moderating effects of work-family fit and work-family balance. Data are from a survey of business graduate school alumni (n = 387). Findings indicate that fit and balance are two separate constructs. Fit is uniquely predicted by work hours, age, family income, and household labor satisfaction. Balance is uniquely predicted by frequency of family activities. Job satisfaction and marital satisfaction predicted both fit and balance. Analyses suggest that fit is based more on the structural aspects of work-family interactions, whereas balance appears to be based more on the psychological factors. Job satisfaction, marital satisfaction, and frequency of family activities moderated the relationship between fit and balance. [source]

Apply with Caution: Introducing UK-Style In-Work Support in Germany,

FISCAL STUDIES, Issue 1 2007
Peter Haan
Estimates of the labour supply effects of recent UK reforms in the area of direct taxes and benefits show that policy can have significant influence on the level of employment. We confirm this in a simulation of an in-work support system introduced into the German tax and benefit system. Our simulation results suggest that introducing in-work tax credits in Germany would increase the employment of single individuals by over 105,000 but would result in a reduction of labour supply among individuals living in couples by about 70,000, among both women and men. The result found for men is especially important as it is markedly different from all results for the UK, where the net response among men has always been found to be positive. Our estimation results call for a high degree of caution as far as ,importing' UK-style tax credits to Germany is concerned. In-work support based on family income would reinforce the existing work disincentives for secondary earners, reducing the employment levels of both men and women living in couples. [source]

The empirical relationship between community social capital and the demand for cigarettes

Timothy T. Brown
Abstract We show that the proportion of community social capital attributable to religious groups is inversely and strongly related to the number of cigarettes that smokers consume. We do not find overall community social capital or the proportion of community social capital attributable to religious groups to be related to the overall prevalence of smoking. Using a new validated measure of community social capital, the Petris Social Capital Index and three years (1998,2000) of US data on 39 369 adults, we estimate a two-part demand model incorporating the following controls: community-level fixed effects, price (including excise taxes), family income, a smuggling indicator, nonsmoking regulations, education, marital status, sex, age, and race/ethnicity. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The Within-Year Concentration of Medical Care: Implications for Family Out-of-Pocket Expenditure Burdens

Thomas M. Selden
Objective. To examine the within-year concentration of family health care and the resulting exposure of families to short periods of high expenditure burdens. Data Source. Household data from the pooled 2003 and 2004 Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) yielding nationally representative estimates for the nonelderly civilian noninstitutionalized population. Study Design. The paper examines the within-year concentration of family medical care use and the frequency with which family out-of-pocket expenditures exceeded 20 percent of family income, computed at the annual, quarterly, and monthly levels. Principal Findings. On average among families with medical care, 49 percent of all (charge-weighted) care occurred in a single month, and 63 percent occurred in a single quarter). Nationally, 27 percent of the study population experienced at least 1 month in which out-of-pocket expenditures exceeded 20 percent of income. Monthly 20 percent burden rates were highest among the poor, at 43 percent, and were close to or above 30 percent for all but the highest income group (families above four times the federal poverty line). Conclusions. Within-year spikes in health care utilization can create financial pressures missed by conventional annual burden analyses. Within-year health-related financial pressures may be especially acute among lower-income families due to low asset holdings. [source]

Factors Related to Helicobacter pylori Prevalence in an Adult Population in Brazil

HELICOBACTER, Issue 1 2007
Schlioma Zaterka
Abstract Background:, The prevalence of Helicobacter pylori is higher in developing countries. Sanitary facilities, crowding and ethnic group are some of the factors related to H. pylori infection. The aim of this study was to investigate in blood donors, free of dyspeptic symptoms, the prevalence and factors influencing H. pylori infection. Materials and Methods:, This study was conducted in São Paulo, a city known to have a mixed population coming from all over the country. A total of 1008 blood donors were initially included in the study. After a final revision of all the questionnaires, 993 were included in the final analysis (746 males). H. pylori status was checked by an ELISA test. The following associations to infection were analyzed: sex, age, ethnic group, previous upper gastrointestinal (GI) endoscopy, smoking, alcoholism, drug addiction, type of drinking water, crowding, sanitary facilities, and family income. Results:, Infection was observed in 496 of 746 male (66.5%) and in 156 of 247 female (63.2%) blood donors. Infection prevalence increased according to age group, regardless of sex. Prevalence was lower in White population than in non-White. No relationship was observed between infection and smoking, drug addiction, and alcohol. A positive relation was observed between infection and previous upper GI endoscopy, and type of drinking water, regardless if currently or during childhood. Crowding and lack of toilet in the house during childhood resulted in a higher infection rate. Lower familial income and educational level showed a positive association to infection. Conclusions:, Prevalence of H. pylori is higher in non-White population, independent of gender. A positive association was observed in aging, previous upper GI endoscopy, crowding, type of drinking water, lack of toilet during childhood, lower family income, and lower educational level. [source]

The Growing Importance of Family: Evidence from Brothers' Earnings

We examine between-brother correlation of earnings, family income, and wages from two cohorts of the National Longitudinal Surveys. Young brothers who entered the labor market in the 1970s had lower correlations of economic outcomes than did those who entered in the 1980s and early 1990s. Neither the rising brother correlation in education nor the rising return to schooling accounts for much of the increase in the brother correlation in earnings. These results suggest that family and community influences other than years of education that are shared by brothers have become increasingly important in determining economic outcomes. [source]

Interrelations between maternal smoking during pregnancy, birth weight and sociodemographic factors in the prediction of early cognitive abilities

S. C. J. Huijbregts
Abstract Maternal prenatal smoking, birth weight and sociodemographic factors were investigated in relation to cognitive abilities of 1544 children (aged 3.5 years) participating in the Québec Longitudinal Study of Children's Development. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) was used to assess verbal ability, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) block design test to assess visuospatial ability, and the Visually Cued Recall (VCR) task to assess short-term memory. Prenatal smoking was related to performance on the WPPSI-R, the PPVT, and the VCR, although it did not independently predict any cognitive ability after maternal education was taken into account. Birth weight was a more robust predictor of all outcome measures and independently predicted VCR-performance. Birth weight interacted significantly with family income and maternal education in predicting visuospatial ability, indicating a greater influence of birth weight under relatively poor socio-economic conditions. Parenting and family functioning mediated associations between maternal education/family income and cognitive task performance under different birth weight conditions, although there were indications for stronger effects under relatively low birth weight. We conclude that investigations of moderating and mediating effects can provide insights into which children are most at risk of cognitive impairment and might benefit most from interventions. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

The effects of early relational antecedents and other factors on the parental sensitivity of mothers and fathers

Diane Pelchat
Abstract This study examines the effect of early relational antecedents (ERA, i.e. the quality of parenting parents recalled receiving as children), parenting stress, marital stress, socio-economic factors and children's characteristics (gender and disability condition) on the parental sensitivity of mothers and fathers. The sample consisted of 116 mothers and 84 fathers of 117 eighteen month old children drawn from a larger longitudinal study on the adaptation of parents to a child with a disability. Thirty-four children were diagnosed with Down syndrome (DS), 51 with a cleft lip and/or palate (CLP), and 32 were non-disabled children. Multiple regression analyses reveal that mothers' sensitivity is best predicted by her level of education and family income, whereas fathers' sensitivity is best predicted by their ERA, marital stress, family income and the child's disability condition. Mothers with more education and a greater family income displayed a greater sensitivity to their children, as did fathers who perceive less marital stress, those with a greater family income and those who perceived their parents as less controlling. Also, fathers of children with DS displayed less sensitivity for their children than fathers of children with CLP or fathers of non-disabled children. These results concord with many studies about the importance of socio-economic factors, ERA, marital stress, parent's gender and children's factors in the understanding of parental sensitivity. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Sources of family income and expenditure on children's private, after-school education in Korea

Young Sook Chung
Abstract This paper examines the relationship between sources of family income and household expenditure on private, after-school education for children in secondary schools in Korea in the context of educational ,credentialism', which values evidence of college education highly. Data from a survey of 514 parents of secondary school students are used. Estimated ordinary least squares coefficients indicate that the wife's income, but not the husband's, was positively associated with the amount of spending on children's education at private, after-school programmes. This finding suggests that some married women with children in Korea seek employment in order to earn the money needed for their children's private, after-school education. [source]

The Quality of Life of Family Caregivers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan

Yueh-Ching Chou
Background, Taiwanese family carers of people with intellectual disabilities not only suffer from long-term stress but also need to cope with social difficulties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) among family carers of people with intellectual disabilities. Materials and methods, A census interview survey was conducted in Hsin-Chu City in Taiwan and included the primary family caregivers of 792 adults with intellectual disability who were living with their families. The survey packet contained the WHOQOL-BREF Taiwan-version scale with four core domains and the activities of daily life/instrumental activities of daily life (ADL/IADL) scales. Results, The mean score for ,physical' was highest and that for ,environment' was lowest. The strongest predictors of caregivers QOL were the caregiver's health status, their family income and the level of severity of the intellectual disability of the adult. Conclusions, The results of the study support the need to expand services and individualize support to families of adults with intellectual disability living in family homes. [source]

The association of metabolic syndrome with periodontal disease is confounded by age and smoking in a Korean population: the Shiwha,Banwol Environmental Health Study

Dong-Hun Han
Han D-H, Lim S-Y, Sun B-C, Paek D, Kim H-D. The association of metabolic syndrome with periodontal disease is confounded by age and smoking in a Korean population: the Shiwha,Banwol Environmental Health Study. J Clin Periodontol 2010; 37: 609,616. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01580.x. Abstract Aim: Because metabolic syndrome (MS) is pro-inflammatory and periodontitis is inflammatory, we issued the hypothesis that MS (the explanatory variable) is associated with periodontitis (the outcome variable). This study aimed to examine the link between MS and periodontitis among Koreans. Materials and Methods: From the Shiwha,Banwol Environmental Health Study, 1046 subjects aged 18 years or older were cross-sectionally surveyed. All participants underwent comprehensive dental and medical health examinations. The community periodontal index was used to assess periodontitis. Age, gender, monthly family income, smoking, drinking, frequency of daily teeth brushing, and physical activity were evaluated as confounders. Results: MS was strongly associated with periodontitis [odds ratio (OR): 1.7, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.22,2.37], and MS with more components had a higher association. The association was higher for elders aged 65 years or more, males, and smokers. MS including both high glucose and hypertension had a higher association with the OR of 2.19 (95% CI: 1.23,3.90) comparing with other types of MS. Conclusions: Our results suggested that MS might be associated with periodontitis and the association was confounded by age, gender, and smoking. MS with high glucose and hypertension showed the higher impact on this link. [source]

Impact of the 1996 welfare reform on child and family well-being

Kyunghee Lee
This article examined the impact of the 1996 Welfare Reform, based on data from the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth. Using a sample of 1,681 single mothers living in poverty, this study compared the effects of economic well-being and home environment scores on their children during pre- and post-Welfare Reform years. Following the 1996 Welfare Reform, fewer mothers received cash payments, and those who did received lower payments, while more mothers worked at low-paying jobs. Negative impacts were more pronounced for less educated mothers. The effects of family income and home environment scores on children were different before and after the 1996 Welfare Reform. Maternal education moderated these associations. Instead of enforcing the current "work first" mandate, this research supports giving priority to maternal education to enhance child and family well-being in low-income families. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

New Perspectives on the Correlation of SAT Scores, High School Grades, and Socioeconomic Factors

Rebecca Zwick
In studies of the SAT, correlations of SAT scores, high school grades, and socioeconomic factors (SES) are usually obtained using a university as the unit of analysis. This approach obscures an important structural aspect of the data: The high school grades received by a given institution come from a large number of high schools, all of which have potentially different grading standards. SAT scores, on the other hand, can be assumed to have the same meaning across high schools. Our analyses of a large national sample show that, when pooled within-high-school analyses are applied, high school grades and class rank have larger correlations with family income and education than is evident in the results of typical analyses, and SAT scores have smaller associations with socioeconomic factors. SAT scores and high school grades, therefore, have more similar associations with SES than they do when only the usual across-high-school correlations are considered. [source]

Willingness to pay for a hearing aid: comparing the payment scale and open-ended question

Janneke P. C. Grutters MSc
Abstract Rationale & objectives, Different question formats elicit different willingness-to-pay (WTP) results, but there is no consensus on which method elicits the most valid WTP. In spite of the methodological controversies, WTP is a potentially valuable tool in health economics to value health services. Our general objective was to provide additional evidence on the validity of two WTP elicitation formats: the open-ended question and the payment scale. Methods, We elicited WTP for a hearing aid among hearing aid users (n = 108), using both a payment scale and an open-ended question. We compared the results from both formats. We tested criterion validity by comparing both formats with the actual out-of-pocket payment. Construct validity was tested by examining whether WTP was consistent with positive income elasticity. Results, The WTP results elicited with the payment scale and open-ended question were not statistically significantly different. Both formats showed good criterion validity, although the open-ended question showed a stronger association with the actual out-of-pocket payment. The open-ended format showed better construct validity, as it was influenced by family income. Conclusion, The results of the present study showed that the open-ended question was more valid than the payment scale question. We, therefore, recommend that in future WTP studies on hearing aids the open-ended question is used to directly elicit WTP values. The same recommendation may apply to other studies where respondents are familiar with costs or payments for the intervention under evaluation. [source]

How Dual Are Dual-Income Couples?

Documenting Change From 1970 to 200
Using Current Population Survey data for 1970, 1980, 1990, and 2001 (N =73,001), we document change in the prevalence of couples where (a) the wife contributes less than 40% of the family income, (b) income contributions are relatively equal, and (c) the wife's income contribution surpasses her husband's contribution. In 1970, close to 90% of couples had conventional earning arrangements: The husband was the sole provider in 56% of couples and contributed 60% or more of the income in an additional 31% of couples. By 2001, husbands were still the sole (25%) or major provider (39%) in a majority (64%) of couples but wives shared equally in providing income in 24% of couples, more than double the 9% in 1970. Additionally, wives as primary (or sole) earners increased from 4% to 12%. We investigate the associations between income provisioning within dual-income families and ongoing cohort replacement by younger couples, women's increased human capital, life course processes, couple's labor supply, and race. Our findings suggest that wives' increased human capital and couple's labor supply were strongly associated with increased female breadwinning patterns, but age cohort replacement processes and life stage factors also played a role in explaining change over time. [source]

Changes in Wives' Income: Effects on Marital Happiness, Psychological Well-Being, and the Risk of Divorce

Stacy J. Rogers
We investigate the effects of increases in married women's actual income and in their proportion of total family income on marital happiness, psychological well-being, and the likelihood of divorce. We use data from a sample of 1,047 married individuals (not couples) in medium-duration marriages, drawn from a five-wave panel survey begun in 1980 and continuing to 1997. Structural equation modeling is used to assess the impact of increases in married women's absolute and relative income from 1980 to 1988 on the marital happiness and well-being of married men and women in 1988. Event history analysis is used to determine how these changes affect the risk of divorce between 1988 and 1997. We find that increases in married women's absolute and relative income significantly increase their marital happiness and well-being. Increases in married women's absolute income generally have nonsignificant effects for married men. However, married men's well-being is significantly lower when married women's proportional contributions to the total family income are increased. The likelihood of divorce is not significantly affected by increases in married women's income. Nevertheless, increases in married women's income may indirectly lower the risk of divorce by increasing women's marital happiness. [source]

Factors Associated with Dental Caries Experience in 1-Year-Old Children

John J. Warren DDS
Abstract Objectives: Dental caries in early childhood is an important public health problem. Previous studies have examined risk factors, but they have focused on children during the later stages of the disease process. The purpose of this study was to assess the factors associated with caries in children aged 6 to 24 months as part of a cross-sectional analysis. Methods: Two hundred twelve mothers with children 6 to 24 months of age were recruited from Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children clinic sites in southeastern Iowa for participation in a longitudinal study of dental caries. Baseline assessments included detailed questions regarding the children's beverage consumption, oral hygiene, and family socioeconomic status. Dental caries examinations using the d1d2-3f criteria and semiquantitative assessments of salivary mutans streptococci (MS) levels of mother and child were also conducted. Counts of the number of teeth with visible plaque were recorded for maxillary and mandibular molars and incisors. Results: Of the 212 child/mother pairs, 187 children had teeth. Among these children, the mean age was 14 months, and 23 of the children exhibited either d1, d2-3, or filled lesions. Presence of caries was significantly associated with older age, presence of MS in children, family income <$25,000 per year, and proportion of teeth with visible plaque. Conclusions: Results suggest that not only microbial measures, including MS and plaque levels, are closely associated with caries in very young children, but that other age-related factors may also be associated with caries. Continued study is necessary to more fully assess the risk factors for caries prevalence and incidence in preschool children. [source]

The economic impact of severe asthma to low-income families

ALLERGY, Issue 3 2009
R. Franco
Background:, To estimate the direct and indirect costs of severe asthma and the economic impact of its management to low-income families in Salvador, Brazil. Methods:, One hundred and ninety-seven patients with severe asthma and referred to a state-funded asthma center providing free treatment were evaluated. At registration, they were asked about family cost-events in the previous year and had a baseline assessment of lung function, symptoms and quality of life. During the subsequent year, they were reassessed prospectively. Results:, One hundred-eighty patients concluded a 12-month follow-up. Eighty-four percent were female patients, and the median family income was US$ 2955/year. Forty-seven percent of family members had lost their jobs because of asthma. Total cost of asthma management took 29% of family income. After proper treatment, asthma control scores improved by 50% and quality of life by 74%. The income of the families increased by US$ 711/year, as their members went back to work. The total cost of asthma to the families was reduced by a median US$ 789/family/year. Consequently, an annual surplus of US$ 1500/family became available. Conclusions:, Family costs of severe asthma consumed over one-fourth of the family income of the underprivileged population in a middle-income country. Adequate management brings major economic benefit to individuals and families. [source]

Mexican-origin parents' involvement in adolescent peer relationships: A pattern analytic approach

Kimberly A. Updegraff
The cultural backgrounds and experiences of Mexican-origin mothers and fathers (including their Anglo and Mexican cultural orientations and their familism values) and their socioeconomic background (parental education, family income, neighborhood poverty rate) are linked to the nature of their involvement in adolescent peer relationships. [source]

Multiple imputation for national public-use datasets and its possible application for gestational age in United States Natality files

Jennifer D. Parker
Summary Multiple imputation (MI) is a technique that can be used for handling missing data in a public-use dataset. With MI, two or more completed versions of the dataset are created, containing possibly different but reasonable replacements for the missing data. Users analyse the completed datasets separately with standard techniques and then combine the results using simple formulae in a way that allows the extra uncertainty due to missing data to be assessed. An advantage of this approach is that the resulting public-use data can be analysed by a variety of users for a variety of purposes, without each user needing to devise a method to deal with the missing data. A recent example for a large public-use dataset is the MI of the family income and personal earnings variables in the National Health Interview Survey. We propose an approach to utilise MI to handle the problems of missing gestational ages and implausible birthweight,gestational age combinations in national vital statistics datasets. This paper describes MI and gives examples of MI for public-use datasets, summarises methods that have been used for identifying implausible gestational age values on birth records, and combines these ideas by setting forth scenarios for identifying and then imputing missing and implausible gestational age values multiple times. Because missing and implausible gestational age values are not missing completely at random, using multiple imputations and, thus, incorporating both the existing relationships among the variables and the uncertainty added from the imputation, may lead to more valid inferences in some analytical studies than simply excluding birth records with inadequate data. [source]

Maternal age and preterm births in a black population

Edem E. Ekwo
Babies born to teenagers aged 15,19 years have a substantial risk of dying within the first year of life. Although associated socio-demographic factors may account for an increase in the risk of adverse reproductive outcomes for teenagers, there is a concern that young maternal age may also be a biological risk factor. We examined the effects of maternal age of primiparous black women on the incidence of preterm births using data from 6072 black women delivering between 1989 and 1995 at an urban perinatal network of 17 hospitals and health centres serving residents in a well-defined geographical area. Maternal age was grouped as: 15, 16,17, 18,19, 20,24, 25,29 or 30 years age groups. The 20,24 age group with the highest number of births and lowest preterm rate was used as the reference age. Preterm birth was defined as delivery < 37 completed weeks of gestation. Of the 6072 infants born to the cohort, 1170 (19.3%) were preterm. The unadjusted odds for a preterm birth for the 15-year-olds (odds ratio [OR] = 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.69,1.36), for the 16- to 17-year-olds (OR = 1.21; CI = 0.94, 1.57) and for the 18- to 19-year olds (OR = 1.15, CI = 0.92, 1.43) were not significantly different from that for the reference group. The risk for the 25-to 29-year-old mothers was 1.26 times [CI = 1.05, 1.50] and for the > 30-year-old mothers 1.28 times [CI = 1.07, 1.52] that for the reference group. Adjustments using logistic regression analysis for the effects of maternal smoking, drug abuse during pregnancy, insurance status, having prenatal care and median family income from census tract of residence did not result in a significantly increased risk for preterm birth or low birthweight for the teenage groups compared with the reference group. We conclude that primiparous teenage black mothers do not have an inherent biologically increased risk for preterm births. [source]

Effects of ethnicity and socioeconomic status on body composition in an admixed, multiethnic population in Hawaii

Daniel E. Brown
This study determined ethnic differences in anthropometric measures of a sample of adults in Hawaii, examining the effects of differing degrees of ethnic admixing and socioeconomic status (SES) on the measures. Adults who had attended elementary school in Hawaii underwent anthropometric measurements and answered questionnaires about their educational attainment, income, age, cultural identity, ethnic ancestry, and health. Individuals reporting Asian American cultural identity had significantly lower mean body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) than others, whereas those with Hawaiian/Pacific Islander cultural identity had significantly higher BMI and WC. Educational attainment, but not reported family income and age, was significantly related to BMI and WC, and differences in educational attainment accounted for the increased mean BMI and WC in Hawaiian/Pacific Islanders, but did not account for the lower mean BMI and WC among Asian Americans. Higher percentage of Asian ancestry was significantly correlated with lower BMI and WC, whereas higher percentage of Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ancestry was significantly correlated with increased BMI and WC. Differences in education accounted for the significantly increased BMI in participants with a higher percentage of Hawaiian/Pacific Islander ancestry, but did not entirely account for the lower BMI in individuals with a higher percentage of Asian American ancestry. These results suggest that the high rate of obesity and its sequelae seen in Pacific Islanders may be more a result of socioeconomic status and lifestyle than of genetic propensity, whereas the lower rates of obesity observed in Asian American populations are less directly influenced by socioeconomic factors. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Family migration and physical growth in Merida, Yucatan, Mexico

Hugo Azcorra
Merida city in Yucatan, Mexico, has received rural-to-urban migration for decades, with most immigrants settling in the city's southern neighborhoods. Exposure of immigrants to new environmental and sociocultural conditions can generate biological responses, including changes in physical growth pattern at early age. We performed a study to identify and measure the effects of family migration into south Merida on growth in 4- to 6-year-old children, measuring weight, height, sitting height, and calculated arm muscle and fat areas of 445 children: 228 natives (116 females) and 217 immigrants (118 females) and collecting family social and demographic data. Statistical analysis focused on determining differences in growth, socioeconomic, and biological variables by migratory condition and generating multiple regression models for each growth measurement. No univariate statistical differences (P > 0.05, Student's t- test) were observed in growth between studied children. Multiple regression analyses showed age, sex, mother's height, birth order, birth weight, family income, zone of residence, diet, and febrile episodes had an effect on growth. Neither the migration variable used above nor any other definition of migrant had a significant effect on growth. The lack of differences in growth between immigrant and native children is probably due to similarity in socioeconomic conditions of their families. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Cultural consonance and adult body composition in urban Brazil

William W. Dressler
In previous research in Brazil, we found socioeconomic and gender differences in body mass and percent body fat, consistent with a model in which individuals in higher socioeconomic strata, especially women, could achieve a cultural ideal of body size and shape. In this article, using new data, we examine these processes more precisely using measures of cultural consonance. Cultural consonance refers to the degree to which individuals approximate, in their own beliefs and behaviors, the shared prototypes for belief and behavior encoded in cultural models. We have found higher cultural consonance in several domains to be associated with health outcomes. Furthermore, there tends to be a general consistency in cultural consonance across domains. Here we suggest that measures of body composition can be considered indicators of individuals' success in achieving cultural ideals of the body, and that cultural consonance in several domains will be associated with body composition. Using waist circumference as an outcome, smaller waist size was associated with higher cultural consonance in lifestyle (, = ,0.311, P < 0.01) and higher cultural consonance in the consumption of high prestige foods (, = ,0.260, P < 0.01) for women (n = 161), but not for men (n = 106), controlling for age, family income, tobacco use, and dietary intake of protein and carbohydrates. Similar results were obtained using the body mass index and weight as outcomes, while there were no associations with height. These results help to illuminate the cultural mediation of body composition. Am. J. Hum. Biol., 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Immigrants as crime victims: Experiences of personal nonfatal victimization

Krista Wheeler MS
Abstract Background Immigrants to the United States are disproportionately victims of homicide mortality in and outside the workplace. Examining their experiences with nonfatal victimization may be helpful in understanding immigrant vulnerability to violence. Methods We compared the annual prevalence of nonfatal personal victimization experienced by immigrant and US-born adults by sociodemographics, employment, occupation, industry, smoking, alcohol and drug use using data from Wave 1 National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and Related Conditions. Results The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults [3.84% (95% CI: 3.18,4.63) vs. 4.10% (95% CI: 3.77,4.44)]. Lower percentages of victimization experienced by immigrants were seen among the unmarried, those age 30,44 years, and among residents of central city areas as compared to those groups among the US-born. For immigrants entering the US as youth, the victimization prevalence declines with greater years of residency in US. Multivariate logistic regression models suggest that, the odds of victimization was significantly associated with age, family income, marital status, central city residency, smoking, and drug use while employment status was not a significant factor. Immigrant workers with farming/forestry occupations might face a higher risk of being victims of violence than their US-born counterparts. Conclusions The prevalence of victimization among immigrants was comparable to that among US-born adults. Employment status and industry/occupation overall were not significant risk factors for becoming victims of violence. Am. J. Ind. Med. 53:435,442, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]