Family Home (family + home)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Infants sleeping outdoors in a northern winter climate: skin temperature and duration of sleep

Marjo Tourula
Abstract Aim:, The aim of the study is to describe the relationships among thermal environment, skin temperatures and infants' daytime outdoor sleep duration in northern winter conditions. Methods:, This study is a cross-over observational study. Skin temperatures of three-month-old infants were recorded from seven skin sites continuously throughout outdoor (n = 34) and indoor sleep (n = 33) in the families' homes. The duration of the sleep was observed, and temperature and the air velocity of the environment were recorded. Results:, Skin temperatures increased towards the end of indoor sleeping, whereas they decreased during outdoor sleeping. The cooling rate of mean skin temperature (Tsk) increased in lower outdoor temperatures (rs = 0.628, p < 0.001) in spite of increased clothing. On some occasions, cold extremities were observed, suggesting slight deviations from thermoneutrality. Sleep time was 92 min longer in outdoors than in indoors. However, outdoor sleep duration was shortened when the cooling rate of Tsk increased (rs = 0.611, p < 0.001). Conclusion:, The longest sleep was recorded outdoors when the cooling rate of Tsk was minimal. Restriction of movements by clothing probably increases the length of sleep, and a cold environment makes swaddling possible without overheating. A decrease in ambient temperature increased the cooling rate, suggesting that the cold protection of the clothing compensated only partly for the increased heat loss. [source]

A wedding in the family: home making in a global kin network

Karen Fog Olwig
Rituals such as weddings and funerals are significant for transnational family networks as events where scattered relatives meet and validate shared kinship and common origins. They are particularly important when taking place at a family ,home' that has been a centre of social and economic relations and locus of emotional attachment. This article analyses a wedding on a Caribbean island involving a large global family network, which occurred at a critical point in the family's history. It became an occasion when members asserted their notions of belonging rooted in the ,home', not just as members of a common kin group, but as persons whose life trajectories had involved them in different social, economic and geographical contexts. Individually they had dissimilar interpretations and expectations of their place in the home, and these were played out at the wedding. The gathering allowed a display of family solidarity, but was also a site where differing views of individuals' contribution to the global household were expressed, and rights to belong in the family home and, by implication, the island were contested. [source]

Investigating Sexual Abuse: Findings of a 15-Year Longitudinal Study

Bob McCormack
Background, There is a lack of longitudinal large-scale studies of sexual abuse in intellectual disability services. Such studies offer opportunities to examine patterns in disclosure, investigation and outcomes, and to report on incidence and trends. Methods, All allegations of sexual abuse (n = 250) involving service users as victims or perpetrators of sexual abuse over a 15-year period in a large Irish community-based service were analysed based on the data extracted from extensive contemporaneous case notes. Results, Victims or families were the most common concern raisers of abuse. Following multidisciplinary investigation, almost half (47%) of all allegations of sexual abuse were confirmed (n = 118). In confirmed episodes, more than half the perpetrators were adolescents and adults with intellectual disabilities, while almost a quarter were relatives. The most common type of abuse was sexual touch, although 31% of episodes involved penetration or attempted penetration. The most common location was the family home, followed by the day service and public places. A notable feature was the variation in the incidence of abuse over the study period, largely caused by episodes of multiple abuse. Conclusions, The incidence of confirmed episodes of sexual abuse of adults with intellectual disabilities may be higher than previously estimated. There is an urgent need for statutory guidelines, which require reporting of adult abuse, and provide protection for bona fide whistle blowers, similar to existing child protection legislation. [source]

Mortality of Parents of People with Intellectual Disabilities

Andrew J. Hill-Smith
Background The experience of caring for a son or daughter with an intellectual disability has long been recognized as stressful. The long-term health costs for parents of people with intellectual disability have attracted some recent research attention, but mortality has not been studied. Methods The present authors examined mortality as measured by the standardized mortality ratio (SMR), and cause of death for parents of people with intellectual disability, identified through an intellectual disability register in Merton, south London. Results Although there was a trend for lower SMRs particularly for mothers, SMRs were not significantly different from unity. Subgroups of parents whose child was cared for predominantly in an institution, or in the family home were analysed and similarly showed no significant difference from unity. The same applied to cause of death analyses. Conclusions These findings offer some reassurance to parents of people with intellectual disability. There is an urgent need for further research in this area. [source]

Almack's Assembly Rooms,A Site of Sexual Pleasure

Jane Rendell
This paper explores the gendering of architectural space by examining exchange rituals in spaces of courtship, such as assembly rooms, that provided places of public gathering outside the family home for making marriage arrangements. As a specific example, I take Almack's Assembly Rooms, King Street, St. James's, a place of aristocratic entertainment and leisure during the early nineteenth century. At Almack's, activities of exchange, consumption, and display were articulated in relation to courtship and marriage. Such activities were carefully controlled by the patrons whose concerns over the possible transgressions that aspects of private family life might indicate in public company, were represented as issues of the private in terms of exclusivity and intimacy, and the public in relation to display and masquerade. [source]

Cultural Perspectives Concerning Adolescent Use of Tobacco and Alcohol in the Appalachian Mountain Region

Michael G. Meyer MA
ABSTRACT:,Context:Appalachia has high rates of tobacco use and related health problems, and despite significant impediments to alcohol use, alcohol abuse is common. Adolescents are exposed to sophisticated tobacco and alcohol advertising. Prevention messages, therefore, should reflect research concerning culturally influenced attitudes toward tobacco and alcohol use. Methods: With 4 grants from the National Institutes of Health, 34 focus groups occurred between 1999 and 2003 in 17 rural Appalachian jurisdictions in 7 states. These jurisdictions ranged between 4 and 8 on the Rural-Urban Continuum Codes of the Economic Research Service of the US Department of Agriculture. Of the focus groups, 25 sought the perspectives of women in Appalachia, and 9, opinions of adolescents. Findings: The family represented the key context where residents of Appalachia learn about tobacco and alcohol use. Experimentation with tobacco and alcohol frequently commenced by early adolescence and initially occurred in the context of the family home. Reasons to abstain from tobacco and alcohol included a variety of reasons related to family circumstances. Adults generally displayed a greater degree of tolerance for adolescent alcohol use than tobacco use. Tobacco growing represents an economic mainstay in many communities, a fact that contributes to the acceptance of its use, and many coal miners use smokeless tobacco since they cannot light up in the mines. The production and distribution of homemade alcohol was not a significant issue in alcohol use in the mountains even though it appeared not to have entirely disappeared. Conclusions: Though cultural factors support tobacco and alcohol use in Appalachia, risk awareness is common. Messages tailored to cultural themes may decrease prevalence. [source]

Adults with intellectual disability in regional Australia: Incidence of disability and provision of accommodation support to their ageing carers

Diann Eley
Abstract Objective:,This project aimed to identify a population of adults with intellectual disability and their carers in a defined regional area of Australia to determine their prevalence in this setting, their current accommodation situation and their future accommodation needs. Design:,Mixed method cross-sectional design employed a survey to collect data from both quantitative (Likert type) and qualitative (free response) questions. Setting:,Regional town and its contiguous shires in Queensland. Participants:,Adults (over 18 years) with an intellectual disability and their primary carers. Main outcome measure:,Identification of adults with intellectual disability and a description of their accommodation situation and perceived needs. Results:,Adults with intellectual disability (n = 156) were male (60%), mean age of 37.2 years (range 18,79). Carers (n = 146) were female (78%), mean age of 61.5 years (range 40,91). The majority of adults with intellectual disability (56%) are cared for at home (mean age = 35 years). Mean age of those who live away from home was 39.8 years. The levels of support required by those living at home and those living away from home were not different, nor were the age ranges of their carers. Conclusions:,Findings show that the majority of primary carers are over the age of 50 years and continue to provide medium,high levels of support within the family home. The advancing age of both carers and the people they support, combined with the location of that support, is a major issue in the provision of adequate services for this population. [source]

Corporate Domesticity and Idealised Masculinity: Royal Naval Officers and their Shipboard Homes, 1918,39

GENDER & HISTORY, Issue 3 2009
Quintin Colville
This article explores the interrelationship of masculine identity and corporate domesticity through the example of Royal Naval officers and the quarters they occupied on board ship during the 1920s and 1930s. Through a case study of a surviving warship, it establishes the linkages of this environment to a wider upper-middle-class world of public school common rooms, gentlemen's clubs and family homes. It analyses the role of this shipboard domesticity in defining the idealised and class-specific persona of the naval officer: constructed through foregrounding approved qualities (such as dutifulness, restraint and self-discipline), and suppressing characteristics considered problematic (for instance, introspection, individualism and intellectualism). The article also evaluates the tensions generated by these impersonal and unreachable standards, and the simultaneous ability of the naval home to support corporate and individual behaviours at odds with the officer ideal. The final section explores the gendered nature of these spaces. It argues that while the shipboard home was essentially a male one, the dynamic it engineered between rival ,male' and ,female' domesticities was invariably relational. Officers' communal quarters were routinely used to support and intensify oppositional understandings of masculinity and femininity. Nonetheless, attempts to dispute these boundaries and to internalise feminised qualities of sentiment, attachment and dependency can be detected in the privatised domesticity of the cabin. [source]

Congregate care for infants and toddlers: Shedding new light on an old question

Brenda Jones Harden
With the advent of the "crack" epidemic and the concurrent decrease in available foster homes for young children, the placement of infants and toddlers in residential congregate care settings has resurfaced in some of the larger urban areas of the United States. Despite the controversy surrounding this type of placement, current research on congregate care settings is almost nonexistent. The present study examines the congregate care facilities that were established in an urban area in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States, as a response to the placement crisis for young children in foster care. In addition, the study compares the development of a group of children placed in these settings with a group who were placed in foster home settings. Findings suggest that congregate care facilities differ in their appropriateness for young children based on the number of children in the home and the practice philosophy of the group home. The study documented that children reared in foster family homes fared better than their group-reared counterparts on a variety of variables, including mental development and adaptive skills. In contrast, children reared in congregate care facilities were similar to foster home-reared children regarding observed and reported behavior problems. Implications of these finding for policies and practices related to congregate care placements are discussed. 2002 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

The Quality of Life of Family Caregivers of Adults with Intellectual Disabilities in Taiwan

Yueh-Ching Chou
Background, Taiwanese family carers of people with intellectual disabilities not only suffer from long-term stress but also need to cope with social difficulties. The aim of this study is to evaluate the quality of life (QOL) among family carers of people with intellectual disabilities. Materials and methods, A census interview survey was conducted in Hsin-Chu City in Taiwan and included the primary family caregivers of 792 adults with intellectual disability who were living with their families. The survey packet contained the WHOQOL-BREF Taiwan-version scale with four core domains and the activities of daily life/instrumental activities of daily life (ADL/IADL) scales. Results, The mean score for ,physical' was highest and that for ,environment' was lowest. The strongest predictors of caregivers QOL were the caregiver's health status, their family income and the level of severity of the intellectual disability of the adult. Conclusions, The results of the study support the need to expand services and individualize support to families of adults with intellectual disability living in family homes. [source]

Access to dental care among adults with physical and intellectual disabilities: residence factors

A Pradhan
Abstract Background:, There is limited information about access and barriers to dental care among adults with disabilities. Methods:, A mailed questionnaire survey of carers of 18,44-year-old South Australians with physical and intellectual disabilities (care recipients; n = 485) in family homes, community housing and institutions. Bivariate associations were tested using chi-square tests. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 per cent confidence intervals (CI) were estimated for irregular dental visits (IDV). Results:, Carers from family homes and community housing were more likely to report problems in obtaining dental care than those at institutions (p < 0.001). Lack of dentists with adequate skills in special needs dentistry (SND) was the most frequently reported problem for carers from family homes and community housing. IDV were less likely (p < 0.01) for care recipients in institutions and community housing than in family homes. After adjusting for care recipients' age, gender and disability, odds of IDV was lower in community housing (OR = 0.2, 95% CI = 0.1, 0.3) and in institutions (OR = 0.1, 95% CI = 0.04, 0.3) relative to family homes. Conclusions:, Care recipients in institutions and community housing had better access to dental care than those at family homes. The shortage of dentists in SND and treatment costs needs to be addressed. [source]