Family Functioning (family + functioning)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences


Selected Abstracts


Family Secrets and Family Functioning: The Case of Donor Assistance

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2008
RONI BERGER PH.D.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adult offspring's perception of family functioning and of parental use of topic avoidance to maintain secrecy regarding the use of donor assistance to conceive. A cross-sectional design was used to study a convenience sample of 69 young adult donor offspring who completed a demographic questionnaire, a topic avoidance scale relative to each of their rearing parents, and the Beavers Self Report Family Instrument. Findings indicated that participants perceived both parents as avoiding the topic of donor assistance more than other topics, mothers as avoiding all topics less than fathers, and topic avoidance was negatively associated with family functioning. Mothers' general topic avoidance was the strongest predictor of family functioning. Parents' disclosing together was predictive of higher family functioning. Implications for practice and future research are suggested. RESUMEN El propósito de este estudio era examinar la relación entre la percepción que los hijos adultos tienen del funcionamiento familiar y de la práctica, por parte de los padres, de evitar ciertos temas para mantener en secreto el haber recurrido a un donante para concebir. Se utilizó un diseño transversal para estudiar una muestra de conveniencia de 69 adultos jóvenes hijos de donantes que rellenaron un cuestionario demográfico, una escala de evasión del tema sobre sus padres por separado y el Instrumento Familiar Beavers de Autoinformes (Beavers Self Report Family Instrument). Los resultados indicaron que los participantes percibían que sus padres evitaban el tema de la ayuda del donante más que otros temas, que las madres evitaban temas en general menos que los padres, y que la evasión de temas se veía negativamente asociada al funcionamiento familiar. La evasión por parte de las madres de temas en general era el factor pronóstico más fuerte del funcionamiento familiar. El afrontar el tema por parte del padre y la madre juntos era pronóstico de un funcionamiento familiar más alto. Se sugieren implicaciones para futuras prácticas e investigaciones. Palabras clave: secretos familiares, funcionamiento familiar, evasión de tema [source]


Assessment of Family Functioning in Caucasian and Hispanic Americans: Reliability, Validity, and Factor Structure of the Family Assessment Device

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2007
GREGORY A. AARONS PH.D.
The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Family Assessment Device (FAD) among a national sample of Caucasian and Hispanic American families receiving public sector mental health services. A confirmatory factor analysis conducted to test model fit yielded equivocal findings. With few exceptions, indices of model fit, reliability, and validity were poorer for Hispanic Americans compared with Caucasian Americans. Contrary to our expectation, an exploratory factor analysis did not result in a better fitting model of family functioning. Without stronger evidence supporting a reformulation of the FAD, we recommend against such a course of action. Findings highlight the need for additional research on the role of culture in measurement of family functioning. [source]


The Beavers Systems Model of Family Functioning

JOURNAL OF FAMILY THERAPY, Issue 2 2000
Robert Beavers
Family competence and family style are the two main dimensions of the Beavers Systems Model of Family Functioning. The competence dimension ranges from optimal through adequate, midrange and borderline to severely dysfunctional. The style dimension ranges from centripetal to centrifugal. When the two dimensions are combined, they diagramatically define nine distinct family groupings, three of which are relatively functional and six of which are thought to be sufficiently problematic to require clinical intervention. A family's status on the competence and style dimensions may be established with the Beavers interactional scales. The self-report family inventory may be used to evaluate family members' perceptions of their status on the competence dimension. The reliability and validity of the self-report instrument and observational rating scales have been documented in over thirty papers and books published by the Beavers research team since 1970. The model has proved useful in training, research and clinical work. [source]


Dimensions of Family Functioning: Perspectives of Low-Income African American Single-Parent Families

JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 3 2004
Linda L. McCreary
Family functioning is influenced by socioeconomic status, culture, family structure, and developmental stage, and is assessed primarily using instruments developed for middle-income European American two-parent families. These instruments may not validly assess low-income African American single-parent families. This qualitative study was conducted to provide rich descriptions of families and family functioning in order to inform research on this underrepresented group. Interviews were conducted with 20 low-income African American single mothers and 20 adult family members recruited from a large midwestern city. Content analysis revealed the essential dimensions of family functioning: Effective families provide emotional nurturing, communicate, do things together, help each other, and parent children appropriately. [source]


Parental Adjustment, Family Functioning, and Posttraumatic Growth Among Norwegian Children and Adolescents Following a Natural Disaster

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 2 2010
Gertrud S. Hafstad
This study investigated the degree to which parental symptomatology and characteristics of the family environment related to posttraumatic growth (PTG) among children and adolescents who had been directly exposed to the 2004 tsunami in Thailand. One hundred five 6- to 17-year-olds (M = 11.9 years, SD = 3.3) and their parents (N = 67) were interviewed approximately 10 months and 2 years 5 months after the tsunami. The parents' self-reported PTG was a significant predictor of PTG in their children, suggesting that social processes play a role in the development of PTG in youth. Parental self-reported posttraumatic stress symptoms did not predict PTG in their children nor did youth's ratings of family cohesion, but parental tsunami-related sick leave related to lower levels of PTG reported by their children. Overall, these findings imply that elements of parents' functioning can affect children's positive adaptation after a disaster and highlight the need to assess potential parental influences and those of other sources of support in the child's environment after trauma. Attending to such factors holds salience for efforts to promote adaptation and facilitate PTG. [source]


Examining the Impact of Parental Risk on Family Functioning Among Homeless and Housed Families

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 3 2009
Kimberly S. Howard PhD
The present study used data from 132 families that were homeless and a comparison group of 434 housed families in order to compare family functioning across the two groups. Family functioning was assessed by family support workers when the families sought help from one of seven family service agencies in Washington, DC. Multiple regression models showed that there were few differences between homeless and housed families; a difference that did emerge showed that homeless families fared better than housed families in terms of children's developmental stimulation. However, when considering the compounding effects of additional family risk factors, adverse effects of homelessness were observed. As compared with housed families, homeless families with a history of parental mental illness had limited access to support networks and poorer interactions with their children. Poor financial and living conditions were observed among homeless families with histories of substance use. Policy implications and directions for future research are discussed. [source]


An Evaluation of a Volunteer-Support Program for Families At Risk

PUBLIC HEALTH NURSING, Issue 4 2004
Larni Kelleher R.N., MHPEd, MSc. (Hons.)
Abstract A descriptive comparative design was used to evaluate the Cottage Community Care Pilot Project, a family support/child protection initiative linking trained volunteers with "vulnerable" first-time parents. Fifty-eight eligible and consenting families enrolled in the program and formed the intervention group. A further 35 eligible families consented to participate in the evaluation and received assessments only and formed the comparison group. No differences were evident between the intervention and comparison groups on parenting readiness. For the intervention group (n = 25), improvements occurred in seven aspects of family functioning (items on the Scale of Family Functioning) when contrasted to the comparison group (n = 24). Two areas of family functioning were found to be statistically significant: access to social support (p = 0.02) and age appropriate expectations of infants (p < 0.001). Participants reported satisfaction with the program, and the study emphasized the need to include all families, not just those at risk. This evaluation supports the continued development of volunteer-support programs and the active role that public health nurses play in the growth and development of children in our communities. [source]


Sex Differences in Perceived Family Functioning and Family Resources in Hong Kong Families: Implications for Social Work Practice

ASIAN SOCIAL WORK AND POLICY REVIEW, Issue 3 2009
Joyce L.C. Ma
Although enhancing family functioning has become a rising concern of social workers in Chinese contexts such as Hong Kong, little has been known on perceived family functioning and family resources. To fill in this knowledge gap, this article reports part of the results of a telephone survey conducted in Hong Kong, aiming to identify the sex differences in these two areas. The results of the study have shown that Chinese women perceived better affective involvement, one of the crucial indicators of family functioning, than Chinese men. However, among the different family resources, men rated better physical and mental well-being whereas women's social connection was stronger than men's. Further analysis have shown that the linkage of three family resources (namely stress coping efficacy, time spent with family and income) to perceived family functioning was statistically significant irrespective of genders. Implications of this study for social work practice are discussed at the end of the article. [source]


Typologies of Family Functioning and Children's Adjustment During the Early School Years

CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 4 2010
Melissa L. Sturge-Apple
Guided by family systems theory, the present study sought to identify patterns of family functioning from observational assessments of interparental, parent,child, and triadic contexts. In addition, it charted the implications for patterns of family functioning for children's developmental trajectories of adjustment in the school context across the early school years. Two-hundred thirty-four kindergarten children (129 girls and 105 boys; mean age = 6.0 years, SD = 0.50 at Wave 1) and their parents participated in this multimethod, 3-year longitudinal investigation. As expected, latent class analyses extracted 3 primary typologies of functioning including: (a) cohesive, (b) enmeshed, and (c) disengaged families. Furthermore, family patterns were differentially associated with children's maladaptive adjustment trajectories in the school context. The findings highlight the developmental utility of incorporating pattern-based approaches to family functioning. [source]


Psychiatric disorders and family functioning in children and adolescents with functional abdominal pain syndrome

JOURNAL OF GASTROENTEROLOGY AND HEPATOLOGY, Issue 7pt1 2008
Ahmad Ghanizadeh
Abstract Background and Aim:, Functional abdominal pain syndrome (FAPS) is a functional gastrointestinal disorder. There is a heightened risk when conducting potentially dangerous and unnecessary medical investigations and procedures in children with FAPS. The aim of this study was to survey the rate of the psychiatric disorders and family functioning in children and adolescents with FAPS. Methods:, The subjects were a consecutive new sample of 45 children and adolescents with FAPS, 45 with an organic abdominal pain, and 45 pain-free comparison subjects aged 5,18 years that were interviewed using the Farsi version of K-SADS. Family functioning and the severity of pain were also studied. Results:, About 51.1% of patients with FAPS suffered from at least one psychiatric disorder. Psychiatric disorders in the FAPS patients studied included general anxiety disorder (8.9%), obsessive-compulsive disorder (11.1%), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (15.6%), separation anxiety disorder (24.4%), and major depressive disorder (15.6%). Except for generalized anxiety disorder and tic disorder, the other disorders were significantly more common in the FAPS group than in the two other control groups. Family functioning scores were not significantly different between groups. Discussion:, There is a high rate of psychiatric disorders in children and adolescents with FAPS in Iran, but our study found fewer incidences of disorders than previous reports have indicated. Family dysfunction difficulties in FAPS children are not more common than those in the control groups. [source]


Dimensions of Family Functioning: Perspectives of Low-Income African American Single-Parent Families

JOURNAL OF MARRIAGE AND FAMILY, Issue 3 2004
Linda L. McCreary
Family functioning is influenced by socioeconomic status, culture, family structure, and developmental stage, and is assessed primarily using instruments developed for middle-income European American two-parent families. These instruments may not validly assess low-income African American single-parent families. This qualitative study was conducted to provide rich descriptions of families and family functioning in order to inform research on this underrepresented group. Interviews were conducted with 20 low-income African American single mothers and 20 adult family members recruited from a large midwestern city. Content analysis revealed the essential dimensions of family functioning: Effective families provide emotional nurturing, communicate, do things together, help each other, and parent children appropriately. [source]


Family functioning at meals relates to adherence in young children with type 1 diabetes

JOURNAL OF PAEDIATRICS AND CHILD HEALTH, Issue 12 2009
Susana R Patton
Aims: This study examined associations between mealtime family functioning, dietary adherence and glycaemic control in young children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). We hypothesised that poorer family functioning would correlate with poorer dietary adherence and glycaemic control. Methods: Thirty-five families of children (M = 5.6 ± 1.5 years) with T1DM had meals videotaped in their home, which were coded for family functioning according to the McMaster Interaction Coding System. Children's dietary adherence was assessed according to deviations from the prescribed number of carbohydrate units per meal and recommended carbohydrate intake levels per day. Glycaemic control was measured via 14 days of self-monitoring of blood glucose levels. Results: Findings demonstrated significant negative associations between children's dietary adherence and two dimensions of family functioning: Task Accomplishment (r=,0.43, P= 0.03) and Behavioral Control (r=,0.54, P= 0.00). Affect Management correlated negatively with the percent of blood glucose levels below the normal range (r=,0.33, P= 0.05). Eleven families (31%) of young children with type 1 diabetes demonstrated mealtime family functioning in the unhealthy range. Conclusions: This was the first study to examine the relationship between mealtime family functioning and children's dietary adherence and glycaemic control in families of young children with T1DM. Previous research has found mealtime family functioning to be impaired in families of young children with T1DM when compared with families of children without diabetes. Research is needed to determine if family functioning and dietary adherence can be improved via specific family-based behavioural training around mealtimes. [source]


Examining the Impact of Parental Risk on Family Functioning Among Homeless and Housed Families

AMERICAN JOURNAL OF ORTHOPSYCHIATRY, Issue 3 2009
Kimberly S. Howard PhD
The present study used data from 132 families that were homeless and a comparison group of 434 housed families in order to compare family functioning across the two groups. Family functioning was assessed by family support workers when the families sought help from one of seven family service agencies in Washington, DC. Multiple regression models showed that there were few differences between homeless and housed families; a difference that did emerge showed that homeless families fared better than housed families in terms of children's developmental stimulation. However, when considering the compounding effects of additional family risk factors, adverse effects of homelessness were observed. As compared with housed families, homeless families with a history of parental mental illness had limited access to support networks and poorer interactions with their children. Poor financial and living conditions were observed among homeless families with histories of substance use. Policy implications and directions for future research are discussed. [source]


Family functioning and juvenile chronic physical illness in Northern Russia

ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 2 2009
A Zashikhina
Abstract Aim: To study family functioning of adolescents with chronic physical illnesses and factors related to it. The following research questions were addressed: (i) if families with adolescents with chronic physical illnesses were at increased risk for problematic functioning compared to the healthy control families; (ii) was disease severity associated with family dysfunction; and (iii) did family functioning level differ in three disease groups (diabetes, asthma and epilepsy). Methods: Self-report family inventory and socio-economic status questions were individually completed by 148 adolescents with physical illnesses aged 13,16 years and their mothers; medical data were obtained from the files at the outpatient clinics. Comparative data were collected from a group of 301 schoolchildren. Results: Overall there were no differences found in functioning of families with physically ill adolescents compared to controls. Family functioning was significantly associated with the number of disease-specific (disease severity and duration) and non-disease (socio-economic status and family type) factors. Conclusion: In our study, families with physically ill adolescents showed considerable resilience and tolerance to the changes in habitual functioning of the family unit. While greater disease severity, longer disease duration, as well as single-parent household were the factors that contributed to the family dysfunction. [source]


Cannabis use and later life outcomes

ADDICTION, Issue 6 2008
David M. Fergusson
ABSTRACT Aim To examine the associations between the extent of cannabis use during adolescence and young adulthood and later education, economic, employment, relationship satisfaction and life satisfaction outcomes. Design A longitudinal study of a New Zealand birth cohort studied to age 25 years. Measurements Measures of: cannabis use at ages 14,25; university degree attainment to age 25; income at age 25; welfare dependence during the period 21,25 years; unemployment 21,25 years; relationship quality; life satisfaction. Also, measures of childhood socio-economic disadvantage, family adversity, childhood and early adolescent behavioural adjustment and cognitive ability and adolescent and young adult mental health and substance use. Findings There were statistically significant bivariate associations between increasing levels of cannabis use at ages 14,21 and: lower levels of degree attainment by age 25 (P < 0.0001); lower income at age 25 (P < 0.01); higher levels of welfare dependence (P < 0.0001); higher unemployment (P < 0.0001); lower levels of relationship satisfaction (P < 0.001); and lower levels of life satisfaction (P < 0.0001). These associations were adjusted for a range of potentially confounding factors including: family socio-economic background; family functioning; exposure to child abuse; childhood and adolescent adjustment; early adolescent academic achievement; and comorbid mental disorders and substance use. After adjustment, the associations between increasing cannabis use and all outcome measures remained statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions The results of the present study suggest that increasing cannabis use in late adolescence and early adulthood is associated with a range of adverse outcomes in later life. High levels of cannabis use are related to poorer educational outcomes, lower income, greater welfare dependence and unemployment and lower relationship and life satisfaction. The findings add to a growing body of knowledge regarding the adverse consequences of heavy cannabis use. [source]


Rewards and Challenges of Using Ethnography in Family Research

FAMILY & CONSUMER SCIENCES RESEARCH JOURNAL, Issue 1 2007
Lara Descartes
Ethnography offers many potential benefits to family researchers, such as providing on-the-ground knowledge of the contexts that affect family functioning and processes. This article describes ethnographic methods and reviews how they have been and may be used in family research, whether alone or in combination with more traditional approaches. The author's fieldwork experiences are used to discuss some of the rewards and challenges of ethnography. The ways in which issues of personal identity and power may impact the relationship between the ethnographer and research participants are examined. Also discussed are the ways in which contemporary constructions of private and public space and time affect the ethnographic process. The goal of the article is to highlight the value of ethnography to family research and to increase awareness of some of the factors to be considered while planning such work. [source]


Advances in Latino Family Research: Cultural Adaptations of Evidence-Based Interventions

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2009
GUILLERMO BERNAL PH.D.
The stark contrast between frequent calls for research and practice that are applicable across a broad spectrum of cultural and ethnically diverse groups and the dearth of empirical knowledge about Latino families provided the impetus for this special issue on advances in Latino family research. A focus on empirically based practice frames the issue, focusing specifically on how concepts (expressed emotion, parenting style) can be used within interventions, how Latino parents perceive efforts to deliver evidence-based interventions, and how pilot projects that delivered culturally adapted interventions in three separate cities impacted family functioning. In all, the introduction highlights the complexities for researchers in meeting the needs of the field to ensure that effective interventions are applicable across cultural groups. Meeting the challenges is important to address the need of the growing Latino population. Advances in intervention research with ethnic minorities also stand to contribute to the advancement of intervention research broadly. This special issue provides examples of efforts that are underway to better understand what treatments work for Latino families, provided by whom, for what specific problems, and in which specific circumstances, paving the way to begin attempting to answer a challenge posed more than 40 years ago by Gordon Paul. RESUMEN El marcado contraste entre las frecuentes convocatorias para investigaciones y prácticas aplicables a un amplio espectro de grupos de distintas culturas y razas, y la escasez de conocimiento empírico sobre las familias latinas sirvieron como impulso para publicar este número especial sobre los avances en las investigaciones relativas a las familias latinas. La publicación está enmarcada en el análisis de la práctica sustentada empíricamente, centrándose específicamente en cómo los conceptos (emoción expresada, estilo de crianza de los hijos) pueden utilizarse dentro de las intervenciones, en cómo los padres latinos perciben las iniciativas de realizar intervenciones sustentadas empíricamente y en cómo los proyectos piloto que ofrecieron intervenciones adaptadas culturalmente en tres ciudades distintas influyeron sobre el desenvolvimiento familiar. En general, la introducción destaca las complicaciones que enfrentan los investigadores a la hora de responder a las necesidades del campo para garantizar que puedan aplicarse intervenciones eficaces a distintos grupos culturales. Resolver estas complicaciones es importante para responder a la necesidad de la población latina en aumento. Los avances en las investigaciones sobre intervenciones con minorías étnicas también contribuyen al avance de las investigaciones sobre intervenciones en general. La publicación especial ofrece ejemplos de iniciativas que están en marcha para comprender mejor qué tratamientos son eficaces para las familias latinas, quiénes deben proporcionarlos, para qué problemas específicos y en qué circunstancias específicas, allanando el camino para comenzar a responder un problema que planteó Gordon Paul hace más de 40 años. Palabras clave: Latinos/hispanos, familia, adaptación cultural, intervención, salud mental de los latinos [source]


Family Secrets and Family Functioning: The Case of Donor Assistance

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2008
RONI BERGER PH.D.
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between adult offspring's perception of family functioning and of parental use of topic avoidance to maintain secrecy regarding the use of donor assistance to conceive. A cross-sectional design was used to study a convenience sample of 69 young adult donor offspring who completed a demographic questionnaire, a topic avoidance scale relative to each of their rearing parents, and the Beavers Self Report Family Instrument. Findings indicated that participants perceived both parents as avoiding the topic of donor assistance more than other topics, mothers as avoiding all topics less than fathers, and topic avoidance was negatively associated with family functioning. Mothers' general topic avoidance was the strongest predictor of family functioning. Parents' disclosing together was predictive of higher family functioning. Implications for practice and future research are suggested. RESUMEN El propósito de este estudio era examinar la relación entre la percepción que los hijos adultos tienen del funcionamiento familiar y de la práctica, por parte de los padres, de evitar ciertos temas para mantener en secreto el haber recurrido a un donante para concebir. Se utilizó un diseño transversal para estudiar una muestra de conveniencia de 69 adultos jóvenes hijos de donantes que rellenaron un cuestionario demográfico, una escala de evasión del tema sobre sus padres por separado y el Instrumento Familiar Beavers de Autoinformes (Beavers Self Report Family Instrument). Los resultados indicaron que los participantes percibían que sus padres evitaban el tema de la ayuda del donante más que otros temas, que las madres evitaban temas en general menos que los padres, y que la evasión de temas se veía negativamente asociada al funcionamiento familiar. La evasión por parte de las madres de temas en general era el factor pronóstico más fuerte del funcionamiento familiar. El afrontar el tema por parte del padre y la madre juntos era pronóstico de un funcionamiento familiar más alto. Se sugieren implicaciones para futuras prácticas e investigaciones. Palabras clave: secretos familiares, funcionamiento familiar, evasión de tema [source]


Assessment of Family Functioning in Caucasian and Hispanic Americans: Reliability, Validity, and Factor Structure of the Family Assessment Device

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2007
GREGORY A. AARONS PH.D.
The purpose of this study was to examine the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Family Assessment Device (FAD) among a national sample of Caucasian and Hispanic American families receiving public sector mental health services. A confirmatory factor analysis conducted to test model fit yielded equivocal findings. With few exceptions, indices of model fit, reliability, and validity were poorer for Hispanic Americans compared with Caucasian Americans. Contrary to our expectation, an exploratory factor analysis did not result in a better fitting model of family functioning. Without stronger evidence supporting a reformulation of the FAD, we recommend against such a course of action. Findings highlight the need for additional research on the role of culture in measurement of family functioning. [source]


Coherent Accounts of Coping with a Chronic Illness: Convergences and Divergences in Family Measurement Using a Narrative Analysis

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 4 2003
BARBARA H. FIESE Ph.D.
Researchers and clinicians have shown increasing interest in family narratives as an avenue for accessing the family meaning-making process. In this study, we examine the convergences and divergences between narrative assessment, family self-report, and verbal accounts of family climate. Sixty-two families with a child with pediatric asthma were interviewed about the impact that asthma had on family life. These interviews were coded for narrative coherence, relationship expectations, and engagement with the interviewer. Primary caregivers were also interviewed using the Five Minute Speech sample (FMSS) and completed self-report assessments of family functioning (Family Assessment Device [FAD] Impact on the Family Scale [IOF]). Contrary to prediction. Narrative coherence was higher in those cases where Emotional Over-involvement (EOI) was present on the FMSS. Narrative coherence and engagement with the interviewer were positively related to self-report of family problem solving, communication, and affective responsiveness as measured on the FAD. Divergences and convergences between different types of family measurement are discussed in light of meaning-making processes associated with coping with a chronic illness. [source]


Family Predictors of Antisocial Behavior in Adolescence

FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2003
Maja Dekovi, Ph.D.
The goal of the present study was to examine the combined and unique ability of different aspects of family functioning to predict involvement in antisocial behavior in a large nonclinical (community) sample of adolescents. Distinction was made between global (e.g., family socio-economic status), distal (dispositional characteristics of parents), contextual (family characteristics), and proximal (parent-child interaction) factors that operate within families. Results show that proximal factors were significant predictors of antisocial behavior, independent of their shared variance with other factors. Consistent with the hypothesized mediational model, the effects of distal and contextual factors appear to be mostly indirect: after their association with proximal factors was taken into account, these factors were no longer significantly related to antisocial behavior. The implications of these findings for planning of developmentally appropriate interventions for ado-lesents and their families are discussed. [source]


Families and Health: An Empirical Resource Guide for Researchers and Practitioners

FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 4 2009
Christine M. Proulx
As evidence mounts indicating that the quality of family relationships affects family member health and that the health of family members influences the quality of family relationships and family functioning, it becomes crucial for family scientists to determine and understand the mechanisms underlying these associations. An empirical resource guide for researchers and practitioners focusing on the complex relationships between family relationships, context, health, intervention, and treatment is presented. [source]


Foster Family Characteristics and Behavioral and Emotional Problems of Foster Children: A Narrative Review,

FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 1 2001
John G. Orme
The purpose of this article is to review the literature on the foster family characteristics that are thought to contribute to the behavioral and emotional problems of foster children. The review is shaped by an understanding of the personal and familial factors associated with children's problem behaviors in the general population. These factors include parenting, the family home environment, family functioning, marital functioning, family demography, child temperament, parents' mental health, and social support. Limitations within the existing research on these foster family characteristics are noted, and suggestions for future research are provided. [source]


Interrelations between maternal smoking during pregnancy, birth weight and sociodemographic factors in the prediction of early cognitive abilities

INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 6 2006
S. C. J. Huijbregts
Abstract Maternal prenatal smoking, birth weight and sociodemographic factors were investigated in relation to cognitive abilities of 1544 children (aged 3.5 years) participating in the Québec Longitudinal Study of Children's Development. The Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test (PPVT) was used to assess verbal ability, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-Revised (WPPSI-R) block design test to assess visuospatial ability, and the Visually Cued Recall (VCR) task to assess short-term memory. Prenatal smoking was related to performance on the WPPSI-R, the PPVT, and the VCR, although it did not independently predict any cognitive ability after maternal education was taken into account. Birth weight was a more robust predictor of all outcome measures and independently predicted VCR-performance. Birth weight interacted significantly with family income and maternal education in predicting visuospatial ability, indicating a greater influence of birth weight under relatively poor socio-economic conditions. Parenting and family functioning mediated associations between maternal education/family income and cognitive task performance under different birth weight conditions, although there were indications for stronger effects under relatively low birth weight. We conclude that investigations of moderating and mediating effects can provide insights into which children are most at risk of cognitive impairment and might benefit most from interventions. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Perceptions of constructive and destructive conflict within and across family subsystems

INFANT AND CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 5 2003
Christina M. Rinaldi
Family members' (mothers, fathers, siblings) perceptions of the frequency and types of constructive and destructive conflict strategies used within and across the three family subsystems (marital, parent,child, sibling) were investigated. Participants included 60 fifth- and sixth-grade, middle-class white children, their closest-in-age sibling, and both parents. Each family member rated their perceptions of conflict resolution strategies employed in marital, parent,child, and sibling relationships. Overall, family members demonstrated agreement on the frequency and types of conflict within the three family subsystems and generally reported employing similar conflict tactics across different subsystems. Additionally, parent,child conflict strategies were partially linked to both constructive and destructive sibling and marital conflict. These results are best understood in light of both the shared family perspective view and the spillover hypothesis of family dynamics (Margolin et al., 1996; Minuchin, 1988). Implications for examining conflict strategies within and across subsystems are discussed within the context of recent theory on family functioning. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Workaholism in organizations: concepts, results and future research directions

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF MANAGEMENT REVIEWS, Issue 1 2000
Ronald J. Burke
This review examines the literature on workaholism in organizations. Although the topic of workaholism has received considerable attention in the popular press, relatively little research has been devoted to increasing our understanding of it. Workaholism is acknowledged to be a stable individual characteristic, though how it is distinguished from other characteristics is often unclear. The review addresses the following areas: types of workaholics, definitions of workaholism, measures of workaholism, the prevalence of workaholism, validating job behaviors, antecedents of workaholism, work outcome consequences, health consequences, extra-work satisfactions and family functioning, evaluating workaholism components, possible gender differences, reducing workaholism and future research directions. Research programs begun by Robinson and his colleagues and by Spence and Robbins, though having different emphases, serve as useful starting points for future research efforts. [source]


Relational problems and psychiatric symptoms in couple therapy

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF SOCIAL WELFARE, Issue 4 2005
Ann-Marie Lundblad
This article describes couples attending family counselling in Sweden. The study group is compared with clinical groups and non-clinical groups. Self-rating instruments were com-pleted by 317 women and 312 men to evaluate the following: marital satisfaction (DAS), expressed emotion (QAFM), family climate (FC), psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90) and sense of coherence (SOC). This group had several problems: marital relationships, disrupted family functioning, dyadic interactions characterised by criticism and open arguments, and multiple psychological symptoms. The women were espe-cially discontent in the relationship, and they exhibited higher symptom strain and lower sense of coherence than the men did. Compared with non-clinical populations, this group was severely distressed and was similar to in-patient families in child psychiatric clinics. The low sense of coherence of the individuals in the group under study means that their sense of having a meaningful life and their ability to comprehend and manage problems were severely compromised. Adequate and comprehensive treatment within the framework of social pro-grammes should be made available to these couples and others in a similar situation. [source]


The effectiveness of a programme of enhancing resiliency by reducing family boundary ambiguity among children with epilepsy

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 9-10 2010
Pei-Fan Mu
Aim and objectives., The aim of the study was to examine the effect of a programme designed to reduce family boundary ambiguity in families who care for children with epilepsy. Background., When parents are caring for an epileptic child, they may experience unclear perceptions about whether the child is psychologically included in the family and develop unclear expectations regarding role performance in the family. Some studies have identified boundary ambiguity as a possible antecedent to relationship problems that are associated with negative outcomes in the areas of parental well-being and family functioning. There is a need to develop family nursing interventions that will reduce family boundary ambiguity when the family is caring for children with epilepsy. Design., A pretest, post-test, one group, quasi-experimental design was used in this study. Methods., This study was made up of three phases: first, the establishing of a parental needs checklist and the development of a parental education information handbook; second, the carrying out of a family assessment including the analysis of the meaning of their experiences and needs and the construction of an educational dialogue and finally, an outcomes evaluation after three months. Seventeen mothers participated in the study. Results., The study found that there were statistically significant improvements in family boundary ambiguity and maternal depression was reduced. Conclusions., This study illustrates nursing intervention that involves the integrating of phenomenological principles into the nursing care process. Specifically, Husserlian phenomenology is able to be helpful to nursing practice, especially the concepts of intentionality, intersubjectivity, empathy and bracketing. Relevance to clinical practice., This study supported the conceptual framework involved in the construction of the meaning of the situation, the enhancement of mastery over the situation and reconstruction of identity. These items are resiliency factors that provided a mechanism that helps to reduce boundary ambiguity when a family is caring for a child with epilepsy. [source]


Concept development of family resilience: a study of Korean families with a chronically ill child

JOURNAL OF CLINICAL NURSING, Issue 5 2004
Insook Lee RN
Aims., To clarify and delineate the concept of family resilience in the context of the chronic illness of a child. This study also investigated the concept of family resilience in relation to family functioning in order to compare and contrast family resilience and family functioning. Design and method., Three phases of the hybrid model of concept development were applied: theoretical, fieldwork and final analytical. In the theoretical phase, a working definition of family resilience was developed by a literature review. The fieldwork phase comprised in-depth interviews with 11 parents with a chronically ill child, in the paediatric oncology unit of a university hospital in South Korea. The qualitative data obtained from the interviews were analysed to find attributes of family resilience. The final analytical phase compared and interpreted the findings from the theoretical and fieldwork phases in order to clarify and refine the concept of resilience. Results., The definition of family resilience was of an enduring force that leads a family to change its functioning dynamics in order to solve problems encountered. Twenty-one conceptual attributes of family resilience emerging from this study were differentiated into four dimensions: (i) intrinsic family characteristics, (ii) family member orientation related to family characteristics, (iii) responsiveness to stress and (iv) external orientation. Conclusions., Family resilience is an enduring force that leads a family to change its dynamics of functioning in order to solve problems associated with stresses encountered. This conceptualization led to the development of a model of family coping that incorporates both family resilience and family functioning, as the property and as the process of change, respectively. Relevance to clinical practice., In order to build a family that functions better under stress, it is necessary for nurses to focus more attention on family resilience, especially in terms of the development of intervention strategies to strengthen family resilience. [source]


The empirical and theoretical base of family therapy and multiple family day therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa

JOURNAL OF FAMILY THERAPY, Issue 2 2005
Ivan Eisler
There is growing empirical evidence that family therapy is an effective treatment for anorexia nervosa, particularly in adolescence. This is in spite of the fact that the theoretical model from which most of the empirically based treatments are derived appears flawed. This paper provides a brief overview of the research evidence from treatment studies and studies of family functioning. It suggests that the main limitation of earlier theoretical models is their focus on aetiology rather than on an understanding of how families become organized around a potentially life-threatening problem. An alternative conceptual model is presented, and its application to family therapy and multiple-family therapy for adolescent anorexia nervosa is described. The treatment approach focuses on enhancing the families' own adaptive mechanism and mobilizing family strengths. [source]