Family Function (family + function)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene, family function and maltreatment as predictors of destructive behaviour during male adolescent alcohol consumption

ADDICTION, Issue 3 2007
Kent W. Nilsson
ABSTRACT Aim To investigate possible interactions between a polymorphism in the monoamine oxidase A (MAO-A) gene promoter, family relations and maltreatment/sexual abuse on adolescent alcohol-related problem behaviour among male adolescents. Design, setting and participants A cross-sectional study of a randomized sample of 66 male individuals from a total population of 16- and 19-year adolescents from a Swedish county. Boys, who volunteered to participate answering an alcohol-related problem/behaviour questionnaire, were investigated with regard to interactions between such problems, family function, maltreatment and MAO-A genotype. Measurements MAO-A genotype, family relations history, history of being maltreated or abused and alcohol-related problem behaviour. Findings Boys with the short (three-repeat) variant of the MAO-A gene, who had been maltreated/abused or came from families with poor relations, showed significantly higher scores of alcohol-related problems. We also found that maltreatment/abuse independently showed the strongest relation to alcohol-related problems among boys in our model. Conclusions The results suggest that both maltreatment and MAO-A genotype may be useful for the understanding of male adolescent alcohol-related problem behaviour. [source]

Infant colic and maternal depression

Aimee E. Maxted
The combined impact of infant colic and maternal depression on infant, parent, and family difficulties was examined. The sample included 93 consecutive patients seen at an outpatient Colic Clinic. Most mothers had private insurance and completed high school. Infants were approximately 2 months of age. Questionnaires completed by the mother prior to treatment onset were used to measure depressive symptoms in the mothers, infant cry, sleep and temperament, characteristics, parenting stress, maternal self-esteem, social support, and family function. Moderate to severe depressive symptoms were reported by 45.2% of the mothers. More severe depressive symptoms in the mothers were related to fussy/difficult infant temperament, more parenting stress, lower parental self-esteem, and more family-functioning problems. Pediatric health care providers need to be aware that the combined effects of colic and maternal depression can be problematic for the family. 2005 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

Social Changes and Welfare Reform in South Korea: In the Context of the Late-coming Welfare State

Sung-won Kim
Abstract The Korean welfare state is facing diverse pressures and challenges due to changing economic, social, and demographic circumstances: prevalence of the service economy, labor market flexibility, weakened family function and increase of untraditional families, lowest fertility rate and the most rapid ageing of the population among OECD countries, and so forth. These challenges, which indicate new types of social risks, have been stimulating a series of discussions on welfare reform in Korea. The old social risks such as retirement, ill health, poverty, and unemployment have not disappeared because of insecure or inadequate welfare, and now these risks are even intertwined with the so-called new social risks. Thereby the Korean welfare state is facing complicated reform tasks. This study attempts to analyze the structure and context of these challenges in Korea, and to explore the various driving forces that have formulated Korean welfare reform in recent decades. Through the above analyses, this study will shed light the characteristics of welfare reform in Korea as a late-coming welfare state. [source]

Perspectives of Elderly People on Advance Directives in Japan

Miho Matsui
Purpose: To examine perspectives of Japanese elderly people on advance directives (ADs) and factors related to positive attitudes toward ADs. Method: The data were collected by a structured questionnaire from 313 of 565 older adult members of senior citizens' centers in two cities in Japan. Survey items pertained to demographic characteristics, terminal care preferences, and personal values, including autonomy, family function, and religious piety. Findings: Of the 313 elderly people who completed questionnaires, 72.9% had positive preferences for executing living wills. With regard to durable power of attorney for health care, 62.2% approved of it. The supporters of ADs were more likely to have had discussions about terminal care with family members or physicians, experience of a family member hospitalized for terminal illness or injury, preferences for life-sustaining treatments that were self-determined, and personal values such as religious piety. The relationship between positive preferences toward durable power of attorney for health care and sex, marital status, and living arrangements were significant. Conclusions: Most Japanese older adults in this study approved of ADs, and family structure was important to the acceptance of designating a proxy. Discussion about end-of-life care and respect for life-sustaining treatment preferences are important decisions, about the end of life. [source]

Factors associated with resilience of school age children with cancer

Dong H Kim
Aim: To identify factors associated with resilience of school age children with cancer. Methods: The participants were 74 children, 10,15 years old who were diagnosed with cancer at least 6 months prior to data collection. The instruments used were; a self-reported questionnaire on resilience, Family Adaptability and Cohesion Evaluation Scale III, measurements of relationship with friends and teachers. Descriptive, Pearson correlation and multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the data. Results: The average score for resilience was 98.49 (range: 32,128). There was no statistically significant relationship with resilience for age, gender, religion, existence of siblings, mother's age, academic performance, duration of illness or type of cancer. In bivariate analysis, family adaptability and cohesion (r= 0.535, P < 0.001), relationship with friends (r= 0.520, P < 0.001) and teachers (r= 0.318, P < 0.01) were significantly related to resilience. However, the results of multiple regression analysis showed that only family function (,= 0.257, P < 0.05) and relationship with friends (,= 0.581, P < 0.01) were significantly associated with resilience. Conclusions: School age children with cancer who reported higher family function and positive relationships with friends showed higher resiliency than their counterparts. Thus, it is important to help the families of children with cancer to enhance family function and help children to adjust to school re-entry by maintaining ties with school friends and teachers during treatment. Development of counselling programmes for parents to promote family adaptation and cohesion and educational programmes for classmates and teachers are recommended. [source]

Mice lacking cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p19Ink4d show strain-specific effects on male reproduction

Gregory M. Buchold
Abstract p19Ink4d is a member of the INK4 family of cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitors, which are important negative regulators of the G1-phase cyclin-dependent kinases CDK4 and CDK6. On a mixed C57BL/6,,129P2/OlaHsd background, mice deficient for p19Ink4d exhibited defects in male reproductive function including testicular atrophy, alteration in serum follicle stimulating hormone, qualitative increase in germ cell apoptosis, and delayed kinetics of meiotic prophase markers (Zindy et al., 2001. Mol Cell Biol 21:3244,3255; Zindy et al., 2000. Mol Cell Biol 20:372,378). In this study, a quantitative assessment of these aspects of reproductive capacity demonstrated relatively mild deficits in p19Ink4d,/, males compared to controls. These effects did not dramatically worsen in older males although some seminiferous tubule defects were observed. Following marker-assisted backcrossing into the C57BL/6 background, p19Ink4d,/, males did not display defects in testis weights, sperm numbers, serum FSH, germ cell apoptosis, or kinetics of selected meiotic prophase markers. These studies indicate that a reduction in Ink4 family function by the loss of p19Ink4d is sufficient to induce mild reproductive defects in male mice with a mixed genetic background, but not in the C57BL/6 genetic background. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 74: 1008,1020, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Family, demographic and illness-related determinants of HRQL in children with brain tumours in the first year after diagnosis,

Anthony Penn MBBCh, MRCPCH
Abstract Aims To evaluate the relationship between parent- and child-report Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) and demographic, tumour and family variables in children with a brain tumour in the first year after diagnosis and to identify determinants of HRQL at 12 months. Procedure Longitudinal prospective study: Semi-structured interviews took place approximately 1, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. HRQL was measured using the self- and parent-report PedsQL 4.0 Total Scale Score. Tumour and treatment variables considered included tumour site and grade, hydrocephalus at diagnosis, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Family variables included measures of family function, family support and family stress, the primary carer's coping strategies and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Univariate analyses were used at all three time points, and to identify potential early predictors of HRQL at 1 year. Regression analysis was then used to identify the most important determinants of HRQL at 1 year. Results Thirty-five patients completed the 12-month interviews. There were consistent significant negative correlations between concurrent family impact of illness and parent and self-report HRQL, and positive correlations between concurrent family support and parent-report HRQL. Treatment with radio- or chemotherapy correlated with child-report HRQL only at some time points. Multivariate analysis showed infratentorial tumour site, and poor HRQL at 1 month best predicted poor self- and parent-report HRQL at 12 months. Conclusion Children with infratentorial tumours and poor HRQL early after diagnosis tend to have poor HRQL at 1 year. While family factors are important modulators of concurrent HRQL, they do not appear important in predicting HRQL. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009;53:1092,1099. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Correlates of the categories of adolescent attachment styles: Perceived rearing, family function, early life events, and personality

Nao Tanaka phd
Aims:, To identify the psychosocial correlates of adolescents. Methods:, Unmarried university students (n = 4226) aged 18,23 years were examined in a questionnaire survey. Results:, Four clusters of people (indifferent, secure, fearful, and preoccupied) identified by cluster analysis were plotted in 2-D using discriminant function analysis with the first function (father's and mother's Care, Cooperativeness, and family Cohesion on the positive end and Harm Avoidance and father's and mother's Overprotection on the negative end) representing the Self-model and the second function (Reward Dependence and experience of Peer Victimization on the positive end and Self-directedness on the negative end) representing the Other model. Conclusions:, These findings partially support Bartholomew's notion that adult attachment is based on the good versus bad representations of the self and the other and that it is influenced by psychosocial environments experienced over the course of development. [source]

Study of the Factors Affecting Health-Related Quality of Life in Adolescents After Liver Transplantation

R. M. Taylor
The aim of the study was to identify factors affecting health-related quality of life (HRQL) in adolescents after liver transplantation. HRQL was measured using the CHQ-CF87 in 55 adolescents, aged 12,18 years. Factors associated with HRQL included allograft morbidity, psychological and family-related variables measured through standardized questionnaires. The domains of the CHQ-CF87 were reduced using factor analysis to give physical, psychological and social domains. Impacting factors were identified through stepwise, multiple regression analysis. Adolescents had significantly lower HRQL in every domain except for role/social-behavior and family cohesion compared to the general population. Adolescents experienced median 18 (range 4,31) symptoms related to immunosuppression, 40(75%) had one or more chronic illnesses related to immunosuppression and 12(22%) had a history of emotional difficulties. Self-esteem and emotional health were similar to the general population but behavior and aspects of family function were lower. Following regression analysis, the factors associated with HRQL were: age at transplant, secondary chronic illness, symptom distress, headaches, history of emotional difficulties, self-esteem and family conflict. These explained 57% of the variance in physical function, 61% of psychological function and 39% of social function. HRQL is significantly reduced in adolescents after transplantation, which could be related to immunosuppression and psychosocial factors. [source]

Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase and mental retardation,

Yi-Ping Hsueh PhD
Calcium/calmodulin-dependent serine protein kinase (CASK) belongs to the membrane-associated guanylate kinase protein family. The members of this protein family function as multiple domain adaptor proteins originally identified at cell junctions and synapses. Insertional mutations or targeted disruption of the CASK gene in mice results in neonatal lethality, indicating an important role for CASK in development. Recently, several reports have also indicated that mutations in the human CASK gene result in X-linked malformations of the brain and mental retardation. At the molecular level, many studies indicate that CASK is critical for synapse formation at both presynaptic and postsynaptic junctions, and in the regulation of gene expression. The known molecular functions of CASK explain, at least partially, mental retardation and brain developmental defects in patients. In this review, recent findings about CASK are summarized and discussed. Ann Neurol 2009;66:438,443 [source]

Parents' views of their child's health and family function in paediatric inflammatory bowel disease

H Lindfred
Abstract Aim:, The aim of this study was to explore parents' views and agreement of their child's current and future health, as well as the family's functioning in daily life with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods:, In this study, 119 parents (65 mothers and 54 fathers) of 66 adolescents (11,16 years) with IBD completed a questionnaire regarding their views of their child's IBD and health-related behaviour. Results:, The majority of the parents held a positive view of their child's current health status. However, the parents voiced a range of worries about their children's future health and life situation such as fear about the side effects of medication, concerns for future schooling, social life and employment options. Within the families, the parental pairs had more similar views about their child's current health status than about their future health. Factors that affected the parents' views consisted of cohabitation status, i.e. parents not living together, and severe disease course, both correlated with a more negative view of the child's current health and family functioning. Conclusion:, The majority of the parents in this study had a largely positive view of their child's current health status, but they expressed concerns about their child's future health. Knowledge about parents' thoughts may be of importance for healthcare teams supporting families with IBD. [source]