Family Factors (family + factor)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Selected Abstracts

Partner Violence and Street Violence among Urban Adolescents: Do the Same Family Factors Relate?

Deborah Gorman-Smith
Few studies have evaluated how participation in violence that occurs on the streets as part of criminal or delinquent behavior relates to violence that occurs as part of dating or marital relationships (partner violence). Using longitudinal data from 141 African American and Latino male youth (15,19 years old), the relation between family characteristics and participation in one or both types of violent behavior was evaluated. The youth in this study were more likely to report use of violence in relationships if they were also participating in violence as part of other criminal behavior. However, there were distinct groups of offenders. Among those males reporting involvement in a dating or romantic relationship, four groups were identified: (1) those who had not participated in either type of violence, 57%; (2) those who had participated in partner violence only, 14%; (3) those who had participated in street violence only, 12%; and (4) those who had participated in both, 17%. Discriminate function analyses significantly differentiated the group who had participated in both types of violence from the nonviolent group, with the former group having poorer functioning families. These two groups were also differentiated from the partner violence-only and street violence-only groups. No differences were found between the partner violence-only and the street violence-only groups. Implications for intervention and prevention are discussed. [source]

Family factors in the intergenerational transmission of offending

David P. Farrington
Background,Convicted parents tend to have convicted children, but there have been few previous studies of transmission between three generations, especially including both records and interviews for hundreds of people. Method,In the Cambridge Study in Delinquent Development (CSDD), 411 south London males have been followed up from age 8 to age 48. These males (generation 2, G2) are compared with their fathers and mothers (generation 1, G1), and with their biological sons and daughters (generation 3, G3). Results,There was significant intergenerational transmission of convictions from G1 males to G2 males, and from G2 males to G3 males. Convictions of fathers still predicted convictions of sons after controlling for risk factors, but the predictive efficiency was reduced. Transmission was less from G1 females to G2 males, and from G2 males to G3 females. There was little evidence of intergenerational transmission from G1 to G3, except from grandmothers to granddaughters. Conclusions,The intergenerational transmission of offending may be mediated by family, socio-economic and individual risk factors. Intervention to reduce intergenerational transmission could target these risk factors. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Family correlates of adolescents' emotional/behavioural problems: evidence from a Greek school-based sample

G Giannakopoulos
Abstract Aim:, To investigate the associations of some family characteristics with adolescents' self-reported emotional/behavioural problems. Methods:, Questionnaires were administered to a Greek nation-wide random sample of adolescents (N = 1194) aged 11,18 years and their parents (N = 973) in 2003. The present analysis included the questionnaires completed by mothers and their offspring (639 families). Adolescents' emotional/behavioural problems, as measured by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire, were assessed in relation to family socioeconomic status and residence type, parental marital status, educational attainment and subjective mental health, family cohesion and parent,child relations. Results:, The analysis showed that parental marital status other than being married, poor parent,child relations and low levels of maternal subjective mental health were independently correlated with significantly more adolescents' emotional/behavioural problems. Conclusion:, Family factors are potential determinants of adolescent emotional/behavioural problems and therefore are potential targets for prevention and/or intervention. [source]

Psychosocial Factors Affecting Adults With Intellectual Disabilities With Psychiatric Disorders in Cali, Colombia

Miguel Ángel Verdugo
Abstract Increases in life expectancy have heightened concerns for people with intellectual disability (ID) who are growing old and who have be designated as "dually diagnosed",that is, who have, apart from their ID, a psychiatric disorder, and who because of this conjoint condition, are subjected to social exclusion due to three factors: old age, cognitive limitation, and mental illness. The objective of this study was to describe the psychosocial factors associated with the comorbidity between ID and psychiatric disorder of adults in the city of Cali, Colombia. Subjects were 50 dyads consisting of a carer and a person with ID. The Caregivers Questionnaire and the Integral Quality of Life Scale were adapted for use in the study. The analysis of information was based on three factors: person, family, and society. In the case of the personal factor, an adequate level of physical well-being and a good level of self-care were found in more than 60% of the adults with dual diagnosis, good adherence to treatment in 82%, and medium satisfaction in the individual-context relationship in 54%. With regard to the family factor, a high level of satisfaction of needs (84%) was found. Good family functioning was observed in 86%, while family participation in rehabilitation was reported to be between moderate and deficient in 60% of the cases. With respect to the social factor, cases of support between moderate and deficient were found in 68%, and a regular inclusion was observed in 48%. The authors conclude that the family functioning aspect appeared as the major protective factor, while the inclusion and social support were shown as the main risk factors. [source]

Risk factors for adult male criminality in Colombia

Joanne Klevens
Objectives This study sought to establish, in Colombia, the importance of factors alleged to be causes or correlates of adult criminality according to the published literature from other countries. Methods A comparison was made of arrested male offenders from ages 18 to 30 (n = 223) and similar community controls (n = 222) selected from five cities in Colombia as to their family background, exposure to abuse, family stressors, perceived care and history of childhood disruptive behaviour problems. Results Compared with neighbourhood controls from similar social classes, offenders were significantly more likely to report having had parents with less education, a mother under the age of 18 or over the age of 35 at time of birth, family members involved in crime, experiencing extreme economic deprivation, parental absence, family conflict, severe punishments, physical abuse, and maternal unavailability, rejection and lack of supervision. Prevalence of childhood disruptive behaviour problems was similar among offenders and controls. These findings appear to be independent of economic status, family size or type, birth order, or primary caregiver. Although the independent contribution of most of these factors is small, once all others have been controlled for, their cumulative effect is strong. Conclusions The findings obtained in this Latin American setting do not support the generalized view that adult antisocial behaviour is necessarily preceded by a history of childhood behaviour problems. However, they do add evidence for the importance of family factors in the risk for adult criminality. Copyright © 2001 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Collaborative care between professionals and non-professionals in the management of eating disorders: a description of workshops focussed on interpersonal maintaining factors

J. Treasure
Abstract The aim of this paper is to describe the content and processes involved in a series of workshops for carers of people with an eating disorder. These workshops were designed to equip carers with the skills and knowledge needed to be a ,coach' and help the person with an eating disorder break free from the traps that block recovery. The first hurdle is to overcome the unhelpful patterns of interpersonal processes between the person with an eating disorder and their carers. In both naturalistic studies and randomised controlled trials (RCT), family factors have been implicated either as moderators or mediators of outcome. High levels of expressed emotion (EE), misattributions about the illness or unhelpful methods of engaging with the eating disorder symptoms contribute to this effect. These workshops aim to reduce EE such as over protection. Carers are introduced to the transtheoretical model of change and the principles of motivational interviewing so that they can help rather than hinder change. They learn how to use reflective listening to reduce confrontation and how to sidestep resistance. Carers learn what is needed to help their daughter change by reflecting on the processes involved in changing their own behaviours in relationship with the person with eating disorders. Once they recognise that they may need to change then they can use their skills, information and insight to help change eating disorder symptoms. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

Does cannabis use encourage other forms of illicit drug use?

ADDICTION, Issue 4 2000
David M. Fergusson
Aims. To examine the relationship between cannabis use in adolescence and the onset of other illicit drug use. Method. Data were gathered over the course of a 21-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measures analysed included: (a) frequency of cannabis use and other illicit drugs from 15-21; (b) family, social, educational and behavioural backgrounds of cohort members prior to 15; and (c) adolescent life-style variables. Findings. (i) By 21, nearly 70% of cohort members and used cannabis and 26% had used other illicit drugs. (ii) In all but three cases, the use of cannabis had preceded the use of illicit drugs. (iii) Those using cannabis on more than 50 occasions a year had hazards of other illicit drug use that were 140 times higher than non-users. (iv)After adjustment for covariate factors, including childhood factors, family factors and adolescent life-style factors, cannabis use remained strongly related to the onset of other forms of illicit drug use. Those using cannabis on more than 50 occasions per year had hazards of other illicit drug use that were 59.2 times higher than non-users. Conclusions. Findings support the view that cannabis may act as a gateway drug that encourages other forms of illicit drug use. None the less, the possibility remains that the association is non-causal and reflects factors that were not adequately controlled in the analysis. [source]

Predictors of middle childhood psychosomatic problems: An emotion regulation approach

Berit Hagekull
Abstract Development of the psychosomatic problems picky eating and headache and stomachache complaints in middle childhood was investigated from an emotion regulation perspective. The role of negative emotionality and family emotion regulatory factors (attachment to mother and parental perceived control) was studied. The sample (N=87) was a predominantly middleclass, community sample. The study was longitudinal, based on data from several data collections between child age 11 months and 9 years. The results showed that headache and stomachache complaints were mainly predicted by early negative emotionality, and picky eating by the family factors. More negative emotionality, insecure attachment and less perceived control were related to more psychosomatic problems in linear and interaction models. The findings were interpreted as showing that by considering emotion regulation, a fruitful perspective for understanding the development of psychosomatic problems could be elaborated. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Depressive Symptoms and Associated Factors in Children With Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

Nancy LeBlanc PhD(c)
PROBLEM To compare depressive symptoms in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) to those in healthy children, and to explore the influence of individual and family factors on level of depression. METHODS Individual interviews with 68 children, ages 7 to 12 years, in order to complete the Children's Depression Inventory. FINDINGS Children with ADHD reported significantly more depressive symptoms than did children without ADHD; 14.7% of children with ADHD reached the threshold of a 19 point score, which suggests clinical depression. No significant effects of individual and family factors on level of depression were found. CONCLUSIONS Children with ADHD are more inclined to experience depressive symptoms than are healthy children. To plan appropriate interventions, nurses evaluating and working with children with ADHD should always consider a possible coexistence of depressive symptoms. [source]

Injury risk in young people with intellectual disability

J Sherrard
Abstract Epidemiological studies have established injury as a major public health problem for young people in the general population, but minimal population-based injury information exists on those with intellectual disability (ID). The present study investigated risk factors for injury to subjects in the Australian Child and Adolescent Development (ACAD) programme, which is examining emotional and behavioural problems in young people with ID. Extensive biopsychosocial data for the ACAD programme were collected at two time intervals (i.e. 1990,1991 and 1995,1996). Carer report of medically attended injury over one year was collected for the first time period (1995,1996) on a sample of 465 ACAD subjects (aged 5,29 years) representative of young people with ID (IQ < 70) to determine risk factors for injury using the ACAD biopsychosocial data. Psychopathology [odds ratio (OR) = 3.4] epilepsy (OR = 2.4) and an overly sociable temperament (OR = 2.2) are associated with injury in young people with ID. Social and family factors had minimal influence on injury risk in this population. Those who are highly disruptive, self-absorbed, anxious, have problems relating socially, have communication disturbance or have attention deficit hyperactivity symptoms are particularly at increased risk for injury. The present study demonstrates a largely under-recognized public health problem of a high unintentional injury risk for young people with ID, and identifies substantial and important risk factors for injury. Injury prevention programmes, with a particular focus on those with highly disturbed behaviours or epilepsy, are warranted in this population. [source]

Family Relationships and Adolescent Psychosocial Outcomes: Converging Findings From Eastern and Western Cultures

Julia Dmitrieva
This study investigated the role of parent,adolescent relationships in mediating the association between family-related negative life events and adolescent depressive symptoms and problem behaviors among 1,696 eleventh graders from the United States (n=201), China (n=502), Korea (n=497), and Czech Republic (n=496). Results indicated that perceived parental involvement and parent,adolescent conflict mediated the link between family-related life events and adolescent depressed mood. The path from family-related life events to adolescent problem behaviors was mediated by perceived parental involvement, parent,adolescent conflict, and perceived parental sanctions of adolescent misconduct. With the exception of minor cross-cultural differences in the magnitude of associations among variables, this study revealed considerable similarity in the association of family factors with adolescent internalizing and externalizing symptomatology. The findings contribute to the growing literature on culture-general developmental processes. [source]

Effective Methods to Improve Recruitment and Retention in School-Based Substance Use Prevention Studies

Jean-Marie Bruzzese PhD
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Poor recruitment and high attrition may invalidate results of research studies. This paper describes successful recruitment and retention strategies in a school-based substance use prevention trial and explores factors associated with intervention attendance and retention. METHODS: A total of 384 parent-child dyads from 15 schools in the New York Metropolitan area participated in a control trial, testing the efficacy of parent-training to prevent youth substance use. Assessments were completed immediately post-intervention and 6-, 12-, and 24-month postintervention. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine which familial and study characteristics predicted attendance in the intervention and retention by parents and youth. RESULTS: 84% of intervention parents attended 4 of the 5 workshops; 83% of control parents attended their single workshop. Intervention attendance was predicted by parent job status, but this was not significant after controlling for other family factors. Retention rates ranged from 87% to 91% over the 2 years. No family characteristics predicted retention, but time since baseline and attendance at treatment workshops and the control workshop did. For children, age at baseline and ethnicity predicted retention, but this did not remain significant in the adjusted model. CONCLUSION: Intervention attendance was high and retention rates far exceeded the minimum standard of 70% retention in behavioral studies. Recruitment and retention strategies were effective for different family constellations. Efforts to maximize participation in both treatment and control interventions are critical to retention in longitudinal trials. [source]

Posttraumatic stress reactions in siblings after mutual disaster: Relevance of family factors

Egil Nygaard
In this study, the importance of family factors in the development of posttraumatic stress reactions in children after trauma is studied by comparing siblings and nonsiblings who experienced the tsunami in Southeast Asia in 2004 as tourists. Thirty-eight sibling pairs aged 6,17 years were interviewed using the UCLA Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Reaction Index. The sibling differences were similar to differences found in randomly selected children in the same sample, indicating that family influences may not be as important as anticipated. The results are an important contribution to our understanding of what contributes to and influences the development of posttrauma reactions in children. They also suggest the importance of conducting individual assessments even after mutually experienced trauma. [source]

Family, demographic and illness-related determinants of HRQL in children with brain tumours in the first year after diagnosis,

Anthony Penn MBBCh, MRCPCH
Abstract Aims To evaluate the relationship between parent- and child-report Health-Related Quality of Life (HRQL) and demographic, tumour and family variables in children with a brain tumour in the first year after diagnosis and to identify determinants of HRQL at 12 months. Procedure Longitudinal prospective study: Semi-structured interviews took place approximately 1, 6 and 12 months after diagnosis. HRQL was measured using the self- and parent-report PedsQL 4.0 Total Scale Score. Tumour and treatment variables considered included tumour site and grade, hydrocephalus at diagnosis, chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Family variables included measures of family function, family support and family stress, the primary carer's coping strategies and symptoms of depression and anxiety. Univariate analyses were used at all three time points, and to identify potential early predictors of HRQL at 1 year. Regression analysis was then used to identify the most important determinants of HRQL at 1 year. Results Thirty-five patients completed the 12-month interviews. There were consistent significant negative correlations between concurrent family impact of illness and parent and self-report HRQL, and positive correlations between concurrent family support and parent-report HRQL. Treatment with radio- or chemotherapy correlated with child-report HRQL only at some time points. Multivariate analysis showed infratentorial tumour site, and poor HRQL at 1 month best predicted poor self- and parent-report HRQL at 12 months. Conclusion Children with infratentorial tumours and poor HRQL early after diagnosis tend to have poor HRQL at 1 year. While family factors are important modulators of concurrent HRQL, they do not appear important in predicting HRQL. Pediatr Blood Cancer 2009;53:1092,1099. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Geographical mobility over the life course: motivations and implications

Claudia Geist
Abstract Studies of geographical mobility are typically divided into studies of residential mobility, which are assumed to be motivated by family factors, and studies of migration, which are assumed to be motivated by the opportunities for realising economic gains as a result of the move. We use a life course approach and data from the 1999,2005 March Annual Social and Economic Supplement of the Current Population Survey to investigate the age trajectories of both residential mobility and migration among American adults. We find that mobility trajectories and motivations for moves vary by economic status and family status; that quality of life motivations and family factors account for a substantial proportion of long-distance as well as short-distance moves; and that both residential mobility and migration are associated with an increased risk of economic instability and family and employment changes in the year following the move. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Practitioner Review: Beyond shaken baby syndrome: what influences the outcomes for infants following traumatic brain injury?

Rebecca Ashton
Background:, Traumatic brain injury (TBI) in infancy is relatively common, and is likely to lead to poorer outcomes than injuries sustained later in childhood. While the headlines have been grabbed by infant TBI caused by abuse, often known as shaken baby syndrome, the evidence base for how to support children following TBI in infancy is thin. These children are likely to benefit from ongoing assessment and intervention, because brain injuries sustained in the first year of life can influence development in different ways over many years. Methods:, A literature search was conducted and drawn together into a review aimed at informing practitioners working with children who had a brain injury in infancy. As there are so few evidence-based studies specifically looking at children who have sustained a TBI in infancy, ideas are drawn from a range of studies, including different age ranges and difficulties other than traumatic brain injury. Results:, This paper outlines the issues around measuring outcomes for children following TBI in the first year of life. An explanation of outcomes which are more likely for children following TBI in infancy is provided, in the areas of mortality; convulsions; endocrine problems; sensory and motor skills; cognitive processing; language; academic attainments; executive functions; and psychosocial difficulties. The key factors influencing these outcomes are then set out, including severity of injury; pre-morbid situation; genetics; family factors and interventions. Conclusions:, Practitioners need to take a long-term, developmental view when assessing, understanding and supporting children who have sustained a TBI in their first year of life. The literature suggests some interventions which may be useful in prevention, acute care and longer-term rehabilitation, and further research is needed to assess their effectiveness. [source]

Parents' and Partners' Life Course and Family Experiences: Links with Parent-Child Relationships in Different Family Settings

Judy Dunn
Life course and current family factors associated with individual differences in parent-child relationships were investigated in a sample of 467 children from 192 families, including stepfather, single-parent, stepmother, and complex stepfamilies ; informants were fathers, mothers, and children. Both positive and negative dimensions of father-child and mother-child relationships were linked to earlier life course experiences of parent and of partner, to current family factors, and to the quality of partner's relationship with the child. The pattern of associations between the adults' life course experiences meant that children were at risk for a "double dose" of less affectionate relationships in families in which parents had experienced early adversities. The significance of biological relatedness, family setting, and child-partner relationships was highlighted. [source]

Psychological therapies for bipolar disorder: the role of model-driven approaches to therapy integration

Steven H Jones
Objectives:, The psychological and social aspects of bipolar disorder are receiving increasing recognition. Recently, there have been promising developments in psychological interventions, but there is scope for further improvement of therapeutic outcomes. This paper argues for the use of more detailed psychological models of bipolar disorder to inform the further development of therapeutic approaches. Method:, Evidence for psychological, family and social factors in bipolar disorder is reviewed. The efficacy of current individual and family interventions are discussed. A model, which has potential to synthesize group and individual approaches, is outlined. Results:, Psychological, social and family factors have important influences on the onset, course and outcome of bipolar disorder. Interventions based on vulnerability stress models have proved effective. However, to enhance efficacy future developments need to be based on models that integrate current understandings of the multiple levels at which mood fluctuations occur. A particular recent model is discussed which leads to specific proposals for future intervention research. Conclusions:, Psychological and family approaches to BD have much potential. They clearly have a role in conjunction with appropriate pharmacological treatment. If this potential is to be fully realized future developments need to be based on psychological models that can accommodate the complexity of this illness. [source]