Family Environment (family + environment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Family Environment

  • family environment scale

  • Selected Abstracts

    Black Women and White Women: Do Perceptions of Childhood Family Environment Differ?

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2007
    Introduction: Few studies have examined racial differences in perceptions of childhood. Little is known about how Blacks perceive their own families, particularly the family environment that they experienced in childhood. Methods: A community sample of 290 women (55% White, 45% Black) from two-parent families, heterogeneous in age and social class, was examined using a self-administered questionnaire, including the Family Environment Scale (FES), followed by a focused interview. Siblings were used as collateral informants. Results: The psychometric properties of the FES showed remarkably little variation by race: The internal scale reliability, correlations between scales, and factor structures were quite similar. Although both White and Black women reported good childhood family environments, Black women when compared with White women rated their families of origin as more cohesive, organized, and expressive, and lower in conflict. Sibling responses corroborated these findings. Discussion: This study addresses a gap in the research literature and provides important evidence of strengths in Black family relationships as reported by a community sample of women. The psychometric properties of the FES, found to be strong for families of both races, lends support to our findings and those of other researchers who have used this measure. [source]

    Beyond Preadoptive Risk: The Impact of Adoptive Family Environment on Adopted Youth's Psychosocial Adjustment

    Juye Ji
    Adopted children often are exposed to preadoptive stressors,such as prenatal substance exposure, child maltreatment, and out-of-home placements,that increase their risks for psychosocial maladjustment. Psychosocial adjustment of adopted children emerges as the product of pre- and postadoptive factors. This study builds on previous research, which fails to simultaneously assess the influences of pre- and postadoptive factors, by examining the impact of adoptive family sense of coherence on adoptee's psychosocial adjustment beyond the effects of preadoptive risks. Using a sample of adoptive families (n = 385) taking part in the California Long Range Adoption Study, structural equation modeling analyses were performed. Results indicate a significant impact of family sense of coherence on adoptees' psychosocial adjustment and a considerably less significant role of preadoptive risks. The findings suggest the importance of assessing adoptive family's ability to respond to stress and of helping families to build and maintain their capacity to cope with stress despite the sometimes fractious pressures of adoption. [source]

    Implicit Family Process Rules in Eating-Disordered and Non-Eating-Disordered Families

    Kyle S. Gillett
    Family environment has been shown to be one of the factors related to the presence of eating disorders among young-adult females. Clinical experience and theories about eating disorders postulate that implicit family rules are an intricate part of family process that may have a great effect on the creation and maintenance of such problems. This study compared implicit family process rules (specifically rules pertaining to kindness; expressiveness and connection; constraining thoughts, feelings, and self; inappropriate caretaking; and monitoring) in families with a young-adult female diagnosed with an eating disorder,either anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, or eating disorder not otherwise specified,and families with a young-adult female without an eating disorder diagnosis. One hundred two families (51 eating disordered and 51 comparison) participated in the study. Mothers, fathers, young-adult female children, and siblings completed the Family Implicit Rules Profile (Harper, Stoll, & Larson, 2007). Results indicated that eating-disordered families are governed by a greater proportion of constraining family rules than are non-eating-disordered families. Additionally, eating-disordered youth reported a lower proportion of facilitative family rules and a higher proportion of constraining family rules than did parents and siblings. Theoretical, research, and clinical implications are discussed. [source]

    Prenatal and family risks of children born to mothers with epilepsy: effects on cognitive development

    Karl Titze PhD
    The offspring of mothers with epilepsy are considered to be at developmental risk during pregnancy from: (1) generalized maternal seizures (hypoxia); (2) teratogenicity of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs); and (3) adverse socio-familial conditions associated with having a chronically sick mother. Sixty-seven children of mothers with epilepsy and 49 children from non-affected mothers, matched for control variables, were followed from birth to adolescence (53 males, 63 females; mean age 14y 2mo, range 10-20y). Prediction of intellectual performance of these children during adolescence was calculated from the following variables: maternal generalized seizures, prenatal exposure to AEDs, and quality of family stimulation (HOME Inventory) assessed in children at 2 years of age. Children who were prenatally exposed to AEDs achieved lower IQs than control children at adolescence. This effect was moderately significant for children who had been exposed to monotherapy (6 IQ points lower), but was considerable in those exposed to polytherapy (12 IQ points lower). Generalized seizures during pregnancy, observed in half the mothers, did not exacerbate this effect. Relative to prenatal risk status, the quality of the family environment had varied effects on intellectual development. Children with prenatal risks appeared to be more vulnerable to environmental disadvantage than control children, but they also showed longer-lasting effects of environmental support. [source]

    Birthweight-discordance and differences in early parenting relate to monozygotic twin differences in behaviour problems and academic achievement at age 7

    Kathryn Asbury
    This longitudinal monozygotic (MZ) twin differences study explored associations between birthweight and early family environment and teacher-rated behaviour problems and academic achievement at age 7. MZ differences in anxiety, hyperactivity, conduct problems, peer problems and academic achievement correlated significantly with MZ differences in birthweight and early family environment, showing effect sizes of up to 2%. As predicted by earlier research, associations increased at the extremes of discordance, even in a longitudinal, cross-rater design, with effect sizes reaching as high as 12%. As with previous research some of these nonshared environmental (NSE) relationships appeared to operate partly as a function of SES, family chaos and maternal depression. Higher-risk families generally showed stronger negative associations. [source]

    Global use of alcohol, drugs and tobacco

    Abstract Humans have always used drugs, probably as part of their evolutionary and nutritional heritage. However, this previous biological adaptation is unlikely to be so in the modern world, in which 2 billion adults (48% of the adult population) are current users of alcohol, 1.1 billion adults (29% of the adult population) are current smokers of cigarettes and 185 million adults (4.5% of the adult population) are current users of illicit drugs. The use of drugs is determined largely by market forces, with increases in affordability and availability increasing use. People with socio-economic deprivation, however measured, are at increased risk of harmful drug use, as are those with a disadvantaged family environment, and those who live in a community with higher levels of substance use. Substance use is on the increase in low-income countries which, in the coming decades, will bear a disproportionate burden of substance-related disability and premature death. [source]

    Black Women and White Women: Do Perceptions of Childhood Family Environment Differ?

    FAMILY PROCESS, Issue 2 2007
    Introduction: Few studies have examined racial differences in perceptions of childhood. Little is known about how Blacks perceive their own families, particularly the family environment that they experienced in childhood. Methods: A community sample of 290 women (55% White, 45% Black) from two-parent families, heterogeneous in age and social class, was examined using a self-administered questionnaire, including the Family Environment Scale (FES), followed by a focused interview. Siblings were used as collateral informants. Results: The psychometric properties of the FES showed remarkably little variation by race: The internal scale reliability, correlations between scales, and factor structures were quite similar. Although both White and Black women reported good childhood family environments, Black women when compared with White women rated their families of origin as more cohesive, organized, and expressive, and lower in conflict. Sibling responses corroborated these findings. Discussion: This study addresses a gap in the research literature and provides important evidence of strengths in Black family relationships as reported by a community sample of women. The psychometric properties of the FES, found to be strong for families of both races, lends support to our findings and those of other researchers who have used this measure. [source]

    Genetic and environmental influences on Anxious/Depression during childhood: a study from the Netherlands Twin Register

    D. I. Boomsma
    For a large sample of twin pairs from the Netherlands Twins Register who were recruited at birth and followed through childhood, we obtained parental ratings of Anxious/Depression (A/D). Maternal ratings were obtained at ages 3 years (for 9025 twin pairs), 5 years (9222 pairs), 7 years (7331 pairs), 10 years (4430 pairs) and 12 years (2363 pairs). For 60,90% of the pairs, father ratings were also available. Multivariate genetic models were used to test for rater-independent and rater-specific assessments of A/D and to determine the genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in A/D at different ages. At all ages, monozygotic twins resembled each other more closely for A/D than dizygotic twins, implying genetic influences on variation in A/D. Opposite sex twin pairs resembled each other to same extent as same-sex dizygotic twins, suggesting that the same genes are expressed in boys and girls. Heritability estimates for rater-independent A/D were high in 3-year olds (76%) and decreased in size as children grew up [60% at age 5, 67% at age 7, 53% at age 10 (60% in boys) and 48% at age 12 years]. The decrease in genetic influences was accompanied by an increase in the influence of the shared family environment [absent at ages 3 and 7, 16% at age 5, 20% at age 10 (5% in boys) and 18% at age 12 years]. The agreement between parental A/D ratings was between 0.5 and 0.7, with somewhat higher correlations for the youngest group. Disagreement in ratings between the parents was not merely the result of unreliability or rater bias. Both the parents provided unique information from their own perspective on the behavior of their children. Significant influences of genetic and shared environmental factors were found for the unique parental views. At all ages, the contribution of shared environmental factors to variation in rater-specific views was higher for father ratings. Also, at all ages except age 12, the heritability estimates for the rater-specific phenotype were higher for mother ratings (59% at age 3 and decreasing to 27% at age 12 years) than for father ratings (between 14 and 29%). Differences between children, even as young as 3 years, in A/D are to a large extent due to genetic differences. As children grow up, the variation in A/D is due in equal parts to genetic and environmental influences. Anxious/Depression, unlike many other common childhood psychopathologies, is influenced by the shared family environment. These findings may provide support for why certain family therapeutic approaches are effective in the A/D spectrum of illnesses. [source]

    Environmental influences on reading-related outcomes: an adoption study

    Stephen A. Petrill
    Abstract Evidence from intervention studies, quantitative genetic and molecular genetic studies suggests that genetic, and to a lesser extent, shared environmental influences are important to the development of reading and related cognitive skills. The Northeast-Northwest Collaborative Adoption Projects (N2CAP) is a sample of 241 adoptive families, containing 354 children and their adoptive parents. Negative parent outcome child age interactions significantly predicted child outcomes, suggesting that shared environmental influences related to parent,offspring resemblance, although modest, are most salient in younger children. Additional analyses suggested that identified measures of the family environment largely accounted for these parent,offspring correlations. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The influence of family environment and child temperament on work/family role strain for mothers and fathers

    Marceline Lee
    Abstract This study examined the additive effect of structural variables, child characteristics, and the family environment on mothers' and fathers' work/family role strain. Differences between mothers and fathers on these variables were also examined. The sample consisted of 36 dualearner families whose children had been in daycare from infancy through 4 years of age. Structural variables included work schedules and time spent with child for mothers only, fathers only, and both parents together with child. Child characteristics included temperament and health. Family environment variables included different components of the family environment (conflict, cohesion, expressiveness, organization, and control) and parenting daily hassles. Results showed that mothers' time with child and caregiving for child were greater than fathers'. Mothers reported more expressiveness in the family and more daily hassles with children than fathers. Mothers' level of role strain was also significantly higher than fathers'. For mothers, role strain was associated with hours away from home, child sociability, family conflict, and daily hassles resulting in an R2 of 0.57. Fathers' role strain was associated with family expressiveness, organization, and their wives' daily hassles resulting in an R2 of 0.37. Data suggest that mothers' and fathers' role strain may be driven by somewhat different factors. For women, aspects of the family and the child and work hours accounted for a considerable portion of the variance while for men, only aspects of the family environment were associated with their level of role strain. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Caring for infant daughters and sons in dual-earner households: maternal reports of father involvement in weekday time and tasks

    Elizabeth E. Manlove
    Abstract This study focused on maternal reports of gender differences in weekday father involvement with 12-month-olds in 47 dual-earner households utilizing full time infant day care. Three involvement variables were considered: father's time alone with the infant; father's time available to the infant; and father participation in caregiving tasks. The results showed fathers to be available to sons significantly more than daughters. Fathers were also significantly more involved in caregiving tasks with sons than with daughters. There was no difference in father time alone with sons and daughters. Examination of these three involvement measures in relation to demographic, family environment, and infant temperament measures revealed that mothers' reported fathers as being available more to sons than to daughters. In addition, mothers reported fathers to be more available to temperamentally easy sons than to temperamentally difficult sons. Recommendations are made for future research. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Parent, child, and contextual predictors of childhood physical punishment

    Lianne J. Woodward
    Abstract Data gathered over the course of an 18-year longitudinal study of 1025 New Zealand children were used to: (a) develop a profile of the maternal, child, and contextual factors associated with differing levels of exposure to maternal physical punishment, and (b) identify the key predictors of maternal physical punishment as reported by young people at age 18. Results revealed the presence of clear linear associations between the extent of young people's reported exposure to physical punishment and a wide range of maternal, child, and contextual factors. The key predictors of physical punishment suggested that the psychosocial profile of those mothers at greatest risk of physically punishing or mistreating their child was that of a young woman with a personal history of strict parenting who entered motherhood at an early age, and who was attempting to parent a behaviourally difficult child within a dysfunctional family environment characterized by elevated rates of inter-parental violence and childhood sexual abuse. These findings were consistent with a cumulative risk factor model in which increasing risk factor exposure is associated with increasing levels of child physical punishment/maltreatment. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Infant temperament, pleasure in parenting, and marital happiness in adoptive families,

    Leslie D. Leve
    Temperamental characteristics have been related to later externalizing and internalizing behavioral outcomes. To assess the relationship between temperament and the early family environment, we measured infant temperament, pleasure in parenting, and marital happiness via parent report in 99 families with a nonrelative adoptive infant. Perceptions of child temperament were assessed using two subscales of the Infant Behavior Questionnaire (IBQ; Rothbart, 1981). Mothers and fathers who rated their adoptive child as showing more Distress to Limitations (on the IBQ) reported less pleasure in routine parenting activities; this effect was mediated by marital happiness for fathers. Mothers reported less pleasure in parenting with infants perceived to be more temperamentally fearful (on the IBQ). The bidirectional relationship between temperamental characteristics and pleasure in parenting is discussed. 2001 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

    The Twin Inventory of Relationships and Experiences (TIRE): psychometric properties of a measure of the non-shared and shared environmental experiences of twins and singletons

    Rene Carbonneau
    Abstract We examined longitudinally the psychometric properties of the Twin Inventory of Relationships and Experiences (TIRE), an instrument designed to assess non-shared and shared environmental experiences in twins and siblings. A community sample of 1,117 pairs of like-sex monozygotic and dizygotic twins, aged eight to 16, and their parents, was used. Results indicated that the TIRE provided constructs that are consistent across informants, gender and time. These dimensions showed good longitudinal stability within raters, and low to moderate inter-rater agreement; the results are consistent with those of other studies using different instruments to assess family environment. It is concluded that the TIRE may be used to assess dimensions of the non-shared environment of twins and siblings and their influence on children's development. Copyright 2001 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Victims of Domestic Violence: A Proposal for a Community Diagnosis Based on One of Two Domains of NANDA Taxonomy II

    Patricia Serpa de Souza Batista
    PURPOSE To explore and identify diagnostic components to amplify NANDA nursing diagnoses by modifying the root violence. Whereas violence is nondebatable as a diagnostic concept in nursing, other alternatives have not been identified in the two existing diagnoses. METHODS Using the case study method, this qualitative study sought to identify commonalties in a population of women who were "donnas da casa" (homemakers) in a small rural community of approximately 100 families, typical of the Brazilian northeast. The sample of 7 women was identified through a larger study that had been based on health needs of the community. Data were obtained through observation during a home visit and a semistructured interview based on NANDA Taxonomy II. Observations were focused on hygiene, manner of dress, home environment, and physical and emotional state. Data were analyzed by content and clustered into major categories. From these a profile of the women and another of the partners emerged. FINDINGS Subjects ranged in age from 33 to 43 years, and number of children between 3 and 7. One of the 7 women was literate; 5 were underweight; all were slovenly attired. They appeared sad and older than their age. The majority seemed relieved to unburden themselves to the interviewers as they went through a gamut of emotions such as sadness, anguish, and irritability expressed through crying, restlessness, changes in body language, and tone of voice. The shortage of beds was supplemented by hammocks and mats or cardboard. The women spoke of being confined to their home and of male partners who drank on weekends, thus leaving them with little money for necessities of life. There were accounts of beatings when the partner returned home after drinking, overt nonacceptance of children from previous marriages, and general destruction of the family environment. New children were regarded as just another mouth to feed. DISCUSSION The profiles pointed to the necessity of identifying a new nursing diagnosis that would be linked, only tangentially, by the root violence to the two diagnoses in NANDA Taxonomies I and II. This insight led us to consider that a new method of listing NANDA diagnoses, by root only, is imperative in the evolution of Taxonomy II. Proposed descriptors, Victims of (Axis 3) and Domestic (Axis 6) would be identified by Axes, thereby facilitating the process of classifying in the Domains and Classes. The two existing NANDA diagnoses, risk for other-directed violence and risk for self-directed violence, are proposed for classification in Class 3, Violence, in Domain 11 of Taxonomy II. Safety/Protection could, by virtue of their modification power, find anchor in another domain such as Domain 6, Self-Perception. CONCLUSIONS Although Safety/Protection seems the most logical domain for classification by root, the axes, dimensions of human responses, could pull the diagnosis in another direction, thereby dictating other nursing interventions and nursing outcomes [source]

    Psychopathology and young people with Down's syndrome: childhood predictors and adult outcome of disorder

    J. McCarthy
    Abstract There is a scarcity of follow-up studies into adult life of psychiatric disorder in young people with intellectual disability. The key aims of the present study were: (1) to determine the outcome of psychopathology present in childhood in individuals with Down's syndrome (DS); and (2) to look at childhood predictors of adult psychiatric disorder. Fifty-two young people with DS were identified from a sample of 193 subjects examined in childhood and adolescence for psychiatric and behaviour disorder. These young adults were interviewed for the presence of psychiatric disorder. No significant relationship was found between childhood mental disorder and psychiatric disorder in adult life for those individuals with DS. Early childhood factors of psychiatric disorder, challenging behaviour and family environment, except social background, did not predict adult psychopathology in young people with DS. Childhood disorder in individuals with DS has a good early prognosis with little evidence of continuity of the disorder into adult life. [source]

    Stable Postdivorce Family Structures During Late Adolescence and Socioeconomic Consequences in Adulthood

    Yongmin Sun
    Using four waves of panel data from 6,954 American young adults in the National Education Longitudinal Study, we compare the long-term socioeconomic consequences of growing up in two types of divorced families. Our findings show that the negative socioeconomic consequences of growing up in unstable postdivorce families are at least twice as large as those of staying in a stabilized postdivorce family environment through late adolescence. The study also finds that variations in parental resources during late adolescence partially explain the divorce effects on most attainment indicators. Further, parental divorce appears to affect the socioeconomic attainment of male and female offspring alike. Overall, the study underlines the importance of including postdivorce family dynamics in studying the effect of parental divorce. [source]

    The Role of Family and Home in the Literacy Development of Children from Low-Income Backgrounds

    Stacey A. Storch
    The authors of this chapter propose and test a model of individual differences in the development of emergent literacy. The model provides a means for evaluating the contribution of various aspects of the home environment to children's emerging literacy skills and helps to clarify the processes by which family environment and different domains of emergent literacy are related. [source]

    Parental Adjustment, Family Functioning, and Posttraumatic Growth Among Norwegian Children and Adolescents Following a Natural Disaster

    Gertrud S. Hafstad
    This study investigated the degree to which parental symptomatology and characteristics of the family environment related to posttraumatic growth (PTG) among children and adolescents who had been directly exposed to the 2004 tsunami in Thailand. One hundred five 6- to 17-year-olds (M = 11.9 years, SD = 3.3) and their parents (N = 67) were interviewed approximately 10 months and 2 years 5 months after the tsunami. The parents' self-reported PTG was a significant predictor of PTG in their children, suggesting that social processes play a role in the development of PTG in youth. Parental self-reported posttraumatic stress symptoms did not predict PTG in their children nor did youth's ratings of family cohesion, but parental tsunami-related sick leave related to lower levels of PTG reported by their children. Overall, these findings imply that elements of parents' functioning can affect children's positive adaptation after a disaster and highlight the need to assess potential parental influences and those of other sources of support in the child's environment after trauma. Attending to such factors holds salience for efforts to promote adaptation and facilitate PTG. [source]

    The Complexity of Trauma Types in the Lives of Women in Families Referred for Family Violence: Multiple Mediators of Mental Health

    Victoria L. Banyard PhD
    Responding to calls for further research about the impact of multiple types of trauma across the life span, this study examines the interconnections among types of trauma in childhood and adulthood in a convenience clinical sample of 283 women obtaining social services for family violence. In particular, variables including family of-origin dysfunction and other childhood risk factors, relationship victimization in adulthood, and the presence of adult resources were examined as mediators of links between child maltreatment and adult mental health symptoms. Variables were assessed at different time points, 3 years apart. Path analysis revealed that the conceptual model of multiple pathways between childhood family violence exposure and adult outcomes fit the data well. In particular, the link between child maltreatment and adult trauma symptoms was mediated by more proximal adult sexual and intimate partner violence and its association with childhood risk markers (e.g., negative family environment) and decreased markers of resources. This link was not significant for a more general index of mental health symptoms in adulthood. [source]

    Testing the Compensatory and Immunity Models of Children's Adaptive Behaviors: The Role of Appraisal

    Yo Jackson PhD
    The present article examines the relations of negatively appraised and total life events and potential protective factors with adaptive behavior in 432 children (ages 8,12). Appraisal and protective factors were hypothesized to moderate the relation between stress exposure and adaptive behavior. Several significant interactions emerged between events rated as negative and variables reflecting social support, positive family environment, and intelligence level on adaptive behavior. Contrary to past research, the buffering role of protective factors was optimized only when the appraisal of the event was considered. [source]

    Childhood problem behaviors and injury risk over the life course

    Markus Jokela
    Background:, Childhood externalizing and internalizing behaviors have been associated with injury risk in childhood and adolescence, but it is unknown whether this association continues to hold in adulthood. We examined whether externalizing and internalizing behaviors expressed in childhood predict injuries in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Methods:, The participants were from the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 11,537). Problem behaviors were assessed by teachers at ages 7 and 11. Injuries were reported by the participants' parents (at ages 7, 11, 16) and by the participants (at ages 23, 33, 42, and 46). Data on injury severity were available at ages 23 and 33, and on types of injuries at ages 23, 33, and 42. Measures of childhood family environment included father's social class, family size, and family difficulties. Adult psychological distress, treated as a potential mediating factor, was assessed at ages 23, 33, and 42. Results:, Externalizing behavior predicted increased injury risk: one SD increase in externalizing score was associated with 10,19% increase in the rate of injuries in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. In contrast, internalizing behavior decreased injury rate by 3,9% in adolescence and adulthood. Externalizing behavior was associated with various types of injuries, including injuries in traffic, at home, at work, and from violent assaults, while internalizing behavior predicted decreased injury risk particularly in sports, in traffic, and at home. These associations were largely independent of childhood family environment and adult psychological distress. Conclusions:, The findings suggest that childhood problem behaviors predict injury risk over the life course from childhood to midlife, with externalizing behaviors increasing and internalizing behaviors decreasing this risk. [source]

    Social contextual links to emotion regulation in an adolescent psychiatric inpatient population: do gender and symptomatology matter?

    Molly Adrian
    Background:, The regulation of emotion is essential for adaptive functioning. However, delineating the pathways of emotion regulation (ER) processes that lead to psychological adaptation remains under-studied, with mixed evidence for the specificity vs. generality of ER deficits in relation to specific forms of psychopathology. To examine this issue, this study investigated links among ER, social-contextual factors (family, peer), and psychological adjustment (internalizing, externalizing). Method:, Participants were 140 adolescents (71% female, 83.3% Caucasian, M age = 16.03 years) who were consecutive psychiatric admissions over a one-year period. Adolescents completed measures on family environment and peer relationship experiences. Both adolescents and parents reported on adolescents' characteristic patterns of ER and psychopathology. Results:, Discriminant analyses revealed that two functions, ER skills and impulsivity/lability, differentiated among adolescents who were elevated in internalizing symptoms only, in externalizing symptoms only, in both domains, or in neither domain. Regarding social contextual variables, family cohesion was associated with adaptive ER behaviors for girls along the internalizing dimension and all adolescents reporting externalizing behaviors. Relational victimization predicted difficulties with ER in both symptom domains for all adolescents. Within the internalizing domain, friendship support was related to adaptive ER. Conclusion:, Facets of ER do differentiate between global indices of internalizing and externalizing behaviors and suggest that both general and specific factors contribute to adolescents' unique learning history with emotions and characteristic patterns for managing emotions. [source]

    A behavioural genomic analysis of DNA markers associated with general cognitive ability in 7-year-olds

    Nicole Harlaar
    Background:, Five DNA markers (single-nucleotide polymorphisms, SNPs) have recently been found to be associated with general cognitive ability (,g') in a sample of 7414 7-year-old twins. These children have also been studied at 2, 3, 4, and 7 years of age on measures of cognitive and language development and behaviour problems; family environment was also assessed. Methods:, We used these data to conduct a behavioural genomic analysis of the five SNPs and a composite of them (,SNP set') that explored developmental, multivariate, and genotype,environment (GE) issues. Results:, The ,g' SNP set identified at 7 years yielded significant associations with ,g' as early as 2 years. In multivariate analyses at 7 years, the ,g' SNP set was more strongly associated with verbal than nonverbal ability and with reading more than mathematics performance. GE correlations were found between the SNP set for ,g' at 7 years and preschool proximal measures of the family environment (chaos and discipline) rather than distal measures (maternal education and father's occupational class), suggesting evocative rather than passive GE correlation. Significant GE interactions were found for discipline, education and occupation in which the association between the SNP set and ,g' at 7 years is stronger in low-risk environments. Conclusions:, Although the effect sizes of the five SNP associations are very small, behavioural genomic analyses using a ,g' SNP set illustrate how developmental, multivariate and GE questions can be addressed as more DNA associations are identified for complex traits such as ,g'. [source]

    The prediction of disruptive behaviour disorders in an urban community sample: the contribution of person-centred analyses

    Keith B. Burt
    Background:, Variable- and person-centred analyses were used to examine prediction of middle childhood behaviour problems from earlier child and family measures. Method:, A community sample of 164 families, initially recruited at antenatal clinics at two South London practices, was assessed for children's behaviour problems and cognitive ability, maternal mental health, and the family environment when the children were 4 years old. At age 11, children, mothers, and teachers reported the child's disruptive behaviour, and mothers and children were interviewed to identify cases of disruptive behaviour disorders (DBD). Results:, Neither social class nor ethnicity predicted the child's disruptive behaviour at age 11. Rather, path analyses and logistic regression analyses drew attention to early behavioural problems, maternal mental health and the child's cognitive ability at 4 as predictors of disruptive behaviour at age 11. Cluster analysis extended these findings by identifying two distinct pathways to disruptive symptoms and disorder. In one subgroup children who showed intellectual difficulties at 4 had become disruptive by 11. In a second subgroup mothers and children both showed psychological problems when the child was 4, and the children were disruptive at age 11. The person-centred approach also revealed a high-functioning group of cognitively able 4-year-olds in supportive environments, at especially low risk for DBD. Conclusions:, Combining variable- and person-centred analytic approaches can aid prediction of children's problems, draw attention to pertinent developmental pathways, and help integrate data from multiple informants. [source]

    Temperament and stress response in children with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome

    ARTHRITIS & RHEUMATISM, Issue 10 2003
    Paola M. Conte
    Objective To examine temperament, stress response, child psychological adjustment, family environment, pain sensitivity, and stress response differences between children and adolescents with juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome (JPFMS), children with arthritis, and healthy controls. Parental psychological adjustment was also measured. Methods Subjects included 16 children with JPFMS, 16 children with arthritis, and 16 healthy controls. Participants completed the Dimensions of Temperament Survey-Revised (DOTS-R), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, Children's Depression Inventory, Family Environment Scale (FES), Sensitivity Temperament Inventory for Pain (STIP), and Youth Self-Report. Responsiveness to an acute stressor was assessed by measuring salivary cortisol levels before and after venipuncture. Parents were asked to complete the parent versions of the DOTS-R, FES, STIP, Child Behavior Checklist, and Symptom Checklist-90-Revised. Results Children and adolescents with JPFMS demonstrated more temperamental instability, increased levels of depression and anxiety, less family cohesion, and higher pain sensitivity compared with the other 2 groups. Parents of children with JPFMS, in rating themselves, also reported higher levels of anxiety and depression, and lower overall psychological adjustment compared with parents of children in the other groups. Conclusion These results suggest that a psychobiologic perspective may contribute to an increased understanding of JPFMS in children and adolescents, facilitating an approach to investigating the interaction of factors that appear to place a child at risk for development of a pain syndrome. Because temperamental instability, sensitivity to pain, vulnerability to stress, psychological adjustment, family context, and parental psychopathology are individual risk factors, the interaction of these factors may explain the breadth of symptoms associated with this pain syndrome, as well as its severity. [source]

    Barriers to physical activity participation in older Tongan adults living in New Zealand

    Gregory S Kolt
    Objectives:,To identify perceived barriers to physical activity participation in older Tongan adults living in New Zealand. Methods:,Focus groups with 24 sedentary older Tongans to examine the role of physical activity in Tongan culture, perceived barriers to and benefits of physical activity participation, and how to encourage physical activity participation. Data were analysed using a descriptive qualitative methodology. Results:,The perceived role of physical activity centred on traditional ways of living, recreational and outdoor pursuits, and house chores and activities of daily living. Physical activity barriers included education and motivation, physical environment, family environment, physical and health issues and cultural expectations. Social, psychological, cognitive and health benefits of physical activity were identified, and it was suggested that the government, medical/health practitioners and church leaders were all important in encouraging increased participation. Conclusions:,Community-based programmes may be one way of encouraging physical activity in this population. [source]

    Effects of parental perception of neighbourhood deprivation and family environment characteristics on pro-social behaviours among 4,12 year old children

    Andre M. N. Renzaho
    Abstract Objective: To assess the effect family environment stressors (e.g. poor family functioning and parental psychological distress) and neighbourhood environment on child prosocial behaviour (CPB) and child difficulty behaviour (CDB) among 4-to-12 year old children. Methods: Analysis of the 2006 Victorian Child Health and Wellbeing Survey (VCHWS) dataset derived from a statewide cross-sectional telephone survey, with a final total sample of 3,370 children. Results: Only family functioning, parental psychological distress, child gender, and age were associated with CPB, explaining a total of 8% of the variance. Children from healthily functioning families and of parents without any psychological distress exhibited greater prosocial behaviours than those from poorly functioning families and of parents with mental health problems. Neighbourhood environment was not found to contribute to CPB. A total of eight variables were found to predict CDB, explaining a total of 16% of the variance. Poor family and parental psychological functioning as well as poor access to public facilities in the neighbourhood were associated with conduct problems in children. Conclusion: Our results point to the importance of the family environment in providing a context that fosters the development of empathic, caring and responsible children; and in buffering children in exhibiting behaviour difficulties during the formative years of life. Programs aimed at promoting prosocial behaviours in children need to target stressors on the family environment. [source]

    Kangaroo Mother Care, home environment and father involvement in the first year of life: a randomized controlled study

    ACTA PAEDIATRICA, Issue 9 2009
    R Tessier
    Abstract Aims:, This study tested the hypothesis that Kangaroo Mother Care creates a climate in the family, which enhances infants' performance on the developmental quotient scale. Setting:, The largest social security hospital in Colombia with a neonatal intensive care unit. Subjects:, At 12 months of corrected age, 194 families in the Kangaroo Mother Care group and 144 families in the Traditional Care group were available for analysis. Interventions:, Infants were kept 24 h/day in an upright position, in skin-to-skin contact until it was no longer tolerated by the infants. Babies in the Traditional Care were kept in incubators on the Minimal Care Unit until they satisfied the usual discharge criteria. Outcome measures:, The Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME), Father Involvement and Developmental Quotient (Griffiths) scores. Results:, 1) Kangaroo mothers created a more stimulating context and a better caregiving environment than mothers in the Traditional Care group; 2) this environment was positively correlated to father involvement and 3) the family environment of male infants was most improved by Kangaroo Mother Care. Conclusion:, Kangaroo Mother Care has a positive impact on home environment. The results also suggest, first, that both parents should be involved as direct caregivers in the Kangaroo Mother Care procedure and secondly, that this intervention should be directed more specifically at infants who are more at risk at birth. The Kangaroo Mother Care intervention could be an excellent means to ensure parents' mature involvement in the future of their children. [source]

    Implications of family environment and language development: comparing typically developing children to those with spina bifida

    B. Vachha
    Abstract Introduction This study examines the effect of family environment on language performance in children with myelomeningocele compared with age- and education-matched controls selected from the same geographic region. Methods Seventy-five monolingual (English) speaking children with myelomeningocele [males: 30; ages: 7,16 years; mean age: 10 years 1 month, standard deviation (SD) 2 years 7 months] and 35 typically developing children (males: 16; ages 7,16 years; mean age: 10 years 9 months, SD 2 years 6 months) participated in the study. The Comprehensive Assessment of Spoken Language (CASL) and the Wechsler tests of intelligence were administered individually to all participants. The CASL measures four subsystems: lexical, syntactic, supralinguistic and pragmatic. Parents completed the Family Environment Scale (FES) questionnaire and provided background demographic information. Standard independent sample t -tests, chi-squared and Fisher's exact tests were used to make simple comparisons between groups for age, socio-economic status, gender and ethnicity. Spearman correlation coefficients were used to detect associations between language and FES data. Group differences for the language and FES scores were analysed with a multivariate analysis of variance at a P -value of 0.05. Results For the myelomeningocele group, both Spearman correlation and partial correlation analyses revealed statistically significant positive relationships for the FES ,intellectual,cultural orientation' (ICO) variable and language performance in all subsystems (P < 0.01). For controls, positive associations were seen between: (1) ICO and lexical/semantic and syntactic subsystems; and (2) FES ,independence' and lexical/semantic and supralinguistic tasks. Conclusions The relationship between language performance and family environment appears statistically and intuitively sound. As in our previous study, the positive link between family focus on intellectually and culturally enhancing activities and language performance among children with myelomeningocele and shunted hydrocephalus remains robust. Knowledge of this relationship should assist parents and professionals in supporting language development through activities within the natural learning environment. [source]