Family Dysfunction (family + dysfunction)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


Margaret A. Zahn
This article summarizes some of the literature reviewed by the Girls Study Group, which is a federally funded project aimed at assessing the causes of girls' delinquency as well as evaluating programs to address it. The literature reveals that a number of factors such as family dysfunction, involvement with antisocial peers, and living in disadvantaged neighborhoods are correlated with delinquency for both boys and girls. Some factors, however, are gender sensitive, meaning that either girls are more exposed to a given risk factor than boys or react somewhat differently to a given risk factor. Girls have higher rates of exposure to sexual assault, which is associated with delinquency and, although more research is needed, they are more affected by the impacts of early puberty, when it is coupled with harsh parenting and disadvantaged neighborhoods. This article discusses some implications of the research on correlates of delinquency for programming for girls and makes recommendations for program selection. [source]

Risk factors for psychopathology in children with intellectual disability: a prospective longitudinal population-based study

J. L. Wallander
Abstract Background This study examined risk factors for the development of psychopathology in children with intellectual disability (ID) in the developmental, biological, family and social-ecological domains. Methods A population sample of 968 children, aged 6,18, enrolled in special schools in the Netherlands for educable and trainable ID were assessed at Time 1. A random 58% were re-contacted about 1 year later, resulting in a sample of 474 at Time 2. Results Psychopathology was highly consistent over 1 year. Risk factors jointly accounted for significant, but small, portions of the variance in development of psychopathology. Child physical symptoms, family dysfunction and previous parental mental health treatment reported at Time 1 were uniquely associated with new psychopathology at Time 2. Conclusions Prevention and early intervention research to find ways to reduce the incidence of psychopathology, possibly targeting family functioning, appear important. [source]

The validity of the family relationships index as a screening tool for psychological risk in families of cancer patients

Ben Edwards
The Family Relationships Inventory (FRI) has been proposed as a measure of psychological risk however its validity has only been tested in one cross-sectional study against another measure of family functioning where patients had less than six months to live. The current study presented longitudinal data on the validity of the FRI in identifying family dysfunction, and clinical levels of depression and anxiety in 48 families where the patient had been recently diagnosed. Over the three phases, the FRI identified all families at risk of family dysfunction, 88% or more families with one or more members with clinical depression and 78% or more with a member with clinical levels of anxiety. The FRI was also far more sensitive in identifying families with a member with clinical levels of depression and anxiety than the General Functioning (FAD-GF) scale of the Family Assessment Device. Although other measures of screening adequacy (such as specificity), suggested that the FRI identified too many false positives, the higher sensitivity of the FRI makes it preferable to the FAD-GF as a screening measure for families at risk of a poor psychological outcome in the oncology setting. However, because of the FRI's poor specificity, further follow-up of those families that are identified as being at some risk of a poor psychological outcome should be undertaken before referral to a mental health professional is warranted. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Depression and anxiety symptoms: onset, developmental course and risk factors during early childhood

Sylvana M. Côté
Background:, Depressive and anxiety disorders are among the top ten leading causes of disabilities. We know little, however, about the onset, developmental course and early risk factors for depressive and anxiety symptoms (DAS). Objective:, Model the developmental trajectories of DAS during early childhood and to identify risk factors for atypically high DAS. Method:, Group-based developmental trajectories of DAS conditional on risk factors were estimated from annual maternal ratings (1½ to 5 years) in a large population sample (n = 1759). Results:, DAS increased substantially in two of the three distinct trajectory groups identified: High-Rising (14.7%); Moderate-Rising (55.4%); and Low (29.9%). Two factors distinguished the High-Rising group from the other two: Difficult temperament at 5 months (High-Rising vs Moderate-Rising: OR = 1.32; 95% CI = 1.13,1.55; High-Rising vs Low: OR = 1.31, CI = 1.12,1.54) and maternal lifetime major depression (High-Rising vs Moderate-Rising: OR = 1.10; CI = 1.01,1.20; High-Rising vs Low: OR = 1.19; CI = 1.08,1.31). Two factors distinguished the High-Rising group from the Low group: High family dysfunction (OR = 1.24; CI = 1.03,1.5) and Low parental self-efficacy (OR = .71; CI = .54,.94). Conclusions:, DAS tend to increase in frequency over the first 5 years of life. Atypically high level can be predicted from mother and child characteristics present before 6 months of age. Preventive interventions should be experimented with at risk infants and parents. [source]

Linking family dysfunction to suicidal ideation: Mediating roles of self-views and world-views

Sylvia Xiaohua Chen
Research on suicide has documented various factors predicting suicidal ideation. The present study focused on the pathways emanating from one of the external, environmental forces (i.e. family dysfunction) through internal responses (beliefs about oneself and about the world), to suicidal ideation among Hong Kong Chinese. Using structural equation modelling, we tested the mediating roles of depressive self-views (including stress perception, depressive cognition and negative self-esteem) as well as two dimensions of social axioms (social cynicism and negative reward for application). Multi-group analysis showed that the mediation model was invariant across both males and females. Being socialized into a problematic family of origin affected multiple aspects of one's assessments of both oneself and one's world which, in turn, lead to greater suicidal ideation. Our findings provide important implications for assessing suicidal risk and guiding interventions in clinical treatment. [source]

Auditory Hallucinations in Nonpsychotic Children: Diagnostic Considerations

Peter Mertin
Background:, Auditory hallucinations in childhood and adolescence are not necessarily an indication of psychosis, but are more frequently associated with a range of other mental health problems. Although not specifically linked to abuse as an aetiological factor, the literature reporting on hallucinations in children alludes to a range of family dysfunction and disruption. Method:, This study reports on the auditory hallucinations of 13 children referred to a community-based child and family mental health service exhibiting a variety of emotional and behavioural difficulties. The presence of the hallucinations was generally revealed during the course of the initial assessment. Results:, None of the children were considered psychotic at initial presentation; however, all were experiencing high levels of stress and/or anxiety in their lives. Following the initial assessments children were given diagnoses ranging from generalised anxiety disorder, through adjustment disorder, to posttraumatic stress disorder. The hallucinations gradually disappeared over the course of therapy. Two case studies describe the hallucinations and family histories in more detail. Conclusions:, The present study adds further confirmation of the presence of auditory hallucinations in nonpsychotic children. The clinical presentation of the children in the present study indicates an association between hallucinations and high levels of stress and anxiety, suggesting that mental health professionals should enquire more routinely about auditory hallucinations, particularly with those children from abusive and violent backgrounds. [source]

Family functioning and juvenile chronic physical illness in Northern Russia

A Zashikhina
Abstract Aim: To study family functioning of adolescents with chronic physical illnesses and factors related to it. The following research questions were addressed: (i) if families with adolescents with chronic physical illnesses were at increased risk for problematic functioning compared to the healthy control families; (ii) was disease severity associated with family dysfunction; and (iii) did family functioning level differ in three disease groups (diabetes, asthma and epilepsy). Methods: Self-report family inventory and socio-economic status questions were individually completed by 148 adolescents with physical illnesses aged 13,16 years and their mothers; medical data were obtained from the files at the outpatient clinics. Comparative data were collected from a group of 301 schoolchildren. Results: Overall there were no differences found in functioning of families with physically ill adolescents compared to controls. Family functioning was significantly associated with the number of disease-specific (disease severity and duration) and non-disease (socio-economic status and family type) factors. Conclusion: In our study, families with physically ill adolescents showed considerable resilience and tolerance to the changes in habitual functioning of the family unit. While greater disease severity, longer disease duration, as well as single-parent household were the factors that contributed to the family dysfunction. [source]