Family Difficulties (family + difficulty)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Childhood autism spectrum disorder in the Barwon region: A community based study

F Icasiano
Objective: To establish a community database for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) to determine prevalence and identify subgroups based on key intellectual, clinical and family parameters. Methods: Data were collected for children previously diagnosed with an ASD in the Barwon region using parental interview and review of the child's paediatric and psychological records. Preschool diagnoses were typically made by specialist psychologists and school-age diagnoses made by a multidisciplinary team. Results: One hundred and seventy-seven children in the Barwon region were identified as having ASD (82% response rate). The prevalence of ASD was one per 255 children aged two to 17 years. The prevalence increased 10 fold over a 16-year period and this increase was relatively even across all levels of child intellectual functioning. Forty-two percent of children were intellectually disabled (IQ < 70) and performance IQ was significantly higher than verbal IQ but typical block design-comprehension subtest patterns were not common. Nine sibling pair families were identified, 24% were labelled as having attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), 6% had epilepsy, and 18.3% were macrocephalic where data were available. Family difficulty was associated with the degree of obsessions/rituals, frequency and intensity of anger/aggression, and ADHD but overall was not associated with the child's intellectual status. Conclusions: The relatively rapid increase in prevalence is consistent with overseas studies and suggests significant changes in diagnostic criteria, increasing community awareness and the need for support at all levels of intellectual functioning. Increased occurrence in siblings and relatives gives further evidence for a genetic cause. [source]

Infant colic and maternal depression

Aimee E. Maxted
The combined impact of infant colic and maternal depression on infant, parent, and family difficulties was examined. The sample included 93 consecutive patients seen at an outpatient Colic Clinic. Most mothers had private insurance and completed high school. Infants were approximately 2 months of age. Questionnaires completed by the mother prior to treatment onset were used to measure depressive symptoms in the mothers, infant cry, sleep and temperament, characteristics, parenting stress, maternal self-esteem, social support, and family function. Moderate to severe depressive symptoms were reported by 45.2% of the mothers. More severe depressive symptoms in the mothers were related to fussy/difficult infant temperament, more parenting stress, lower parental self-esteem, and more family-functioning problems. Pediatric health care providers need to be aware that the combined effects of colic and maternal depression can be problematic for the family. 2005 Michigan Association for Infant Mental Health. [source]

The work of health visitors and school nurses with children with psychological and behavioural problems

Philip Wilson
Abstract Title., The work of health visitors and school nurses with children with psychological and behavioural problems Aim., This paper is a report of a study to describe the workload of health visitors and school nurses in relation to children and young people with psychological, emotional or behavioural problems, and to identify perceived challenges, obstacles and sources of satisfaction associated with this aspect of their work. Background., There is little published information on the work performed by non-specialist community nurses with children and young people who have psychological, emotional and behavioural problems. Method., We analysed data from a survey conducted in 2002 , 2003 of 1049 Scottish professionals working with children and young people. Data included quantitative responses and free-text describing the cases seen by respondents. Responses from a sub-sample of 71 health visitors and 100 school nurses were analysed using a combination of descriptive statistics and analysis of themes emerging from the text. Findings., Although community-based nurses saw a relatively small number of children with psychological, emotional or behavioural problems each week, dealing with these problems took up a disproportionate amount of time. The commonest types of problem were self-harm, externalizing behaviours and family difficulties. Few respondents had received specific training in child and adolescent mental health but most expressed a wish to receive such training. Conclusion., The work of health visitors and school nurses in caring for children with mental health problems is substantial and important. Development of their public health role should not be at the expense of this important contribution. There is a need for rigorous evaluation of nursing mental health interventions among children and young people. [source]

Childhood problem behaviors and injury risk over the life course

Markus Jokela
Background:, Childhood externalizing and internalizing behaviors have been associated with injury risk in childhood and adolescence, but it is unknown whether this association continues to hold in adulthood. We examined whether externalizing and internalizing behaviors expressed in childhood predict injuries in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. Methods:, The participants were from the 1958 British birth cohort (n = 11,537). Problem behaviors were assessed by teachers at ages 7 and 11. Injuries were reported by the participants' parents (at ages 7, 11, 16) and by the participants (at ages 23, 33, 42, and 46). Data on injury severity were available at ages 23 and 33, and on types of injuries at ages 23, 33, and 42. Measures of childhood family environment included father's social class, family size, and family difficulties. Adult psychological distress, treated as a potential mediating factor, was assessed at ages 23, 33, and 42. Results:, Externalizing behavior predicted increased injury risk: one SD increase in externalizing score was associated with 10,19% increase in the rate of injuries in childhood, adolescence, and adulthood. In contrast, internalizing behavior decreased injury rate by 3,9% in adolescence and adulthood. Externalizing behavior was associated with various types of injuries, including injuries in traffic, at home, at work, and from violent assaults, while internalizing behavior predicted decreased injury risk particularly in sports, in traffic, and at home. These associations were largely independent of childhood family environment and adult psychological distress. Conclusions:, The findings suggest that childhood problem behaviors predict injury risk over the life course from childhood to midlife, with externalizing behaviors increasing and internalizing behaviors decreasing this risk. [source]