Factor Analysis (factor + analysis)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Factor Analysis

  • component factor analysis
  • confirmatory factor analysis
  • exploratory factor analysis
  • parallel factor analysis
  • principal component factor analysis
  • principal factor analysis
  • risk factor analysis

  • Selected Abstracts


    Daniel F. Brossart
    The factor structure of the Personal Authority in the Family System Questionnaire (PAFS-Q) has been used in numerous studies, but the factor structure has not been examined since its development in 1984. This study examined the factor structure of the PAFS-Q. Findings suggest a six-factor solution with important differences from those reported when the PAFS-Q was developed. The main differences between this study and the original factor analysis are that this study found separate Mother and Father Intimacy factors instead of a single Intergenerational Intimacy factor and the original Spousal Fusion and Spousal Intimacy factors were not separate factors in the current study. Implications and future directions for research are also discussed. [source]

    Multi-way models for sensory profiling data

    Rasmus Bro
    Abstract One of the problems in analyzing sensory profiling data is to handle the systematic individual differences in the assessments from different panelists. It is unavoidable that different persons have, at least to a certain degree, different perceptions of the samples as well as a different understanding of the attributes or of the scales used for quantifying the assessments. Hence, any model attempting to describe sensory profiling data needs to deal with individual differences; either implicitly or explicitly. In this paper, a unifying family of models is proposed based on (i) the assumption that latent variables are appropriate for sensory data, and (ii) that individual differences occur. Based on how individual differences occur, various mathematical models can be constructed, all aiming at modeling simultaneously the sample-specific variation and the panelist-specific variation. The model family includes Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and PARAllel FACtor analysis (PARAFAC). The paper can be viewed as extending the latent variable approach commonly based on PCA to multi-way models that specifically take certain panelist-variations into account. The proposed model family is focused on analyzing data from quantitative descriptive analysis with fixed vocabulary, but it also provides a foundation upon which comparisons, extensions and further developments can be made. An example is given which shows that even for well-working data, models handling individual differences can shed important light on differences between the quality of the data from individual panelists. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Public thinking about poverty: why it matters and how to measure it

    Floyd H. Bolitho
    Meeting the Millennium Development Goals partly depends on not-profit organizations raising more funds, which in turn depends on having reliable and valid assessments of where donor and recipient perceptions are out-of-line. Across samples from a developed economy Australia (n,=,754), and a developing economy Mala,i (n,=,387), we explored the factor structure of the ,Causes of Third-World Poverty Questionnaire' (CTWPQ, D. Harper and colleagues, 1990). In addition to four core factors suggested through an original (N,=,89) sample from the UK (Blame [1] the Poor, [2] Nature, [3] Third World governments, and [4] International Exploitation), combined Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analyses (CFA) differentiate a possible fifth factor germane to the social marketing of aid, blame [5] Conflict. Australians and Mala,ians differed significantly on all five factors, with Mala,ians blaming poverty more on situations and less on the poor themselves, compared to Australian counterparts. Our findings are tentative because the CTWPQ item pool requires expanding to represent underlying constructs more fully. Nonetheless, instruments like the CTWPQ can in future be used to identify and monitor in-context psychosocial barriers to donation, enabling not-profit marketing organizations to raise funds more efficiently and effectively. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Imaginary Audience and Personal Fable: Factor Analyses and Concurrent Validity of the "New Look" Measures

    Luc Goossens
    This study examined key components of the "New Look" at the imaginary audience and personal fable constructs. Toward this end, data from four samples of Belgian high school students (N= 1,458) were analyzed. Confirmatory and exploratory factor analyses failed to confirm that the measures associated with the New Look theory, the New Imaginary Audience Scale, and the New Personal Fable Scale (NPFS), tapped a common underlying construct. Only the invulnerability and omnipotence subscales of the NPFS proved to be highly related. In line with the New Look theory, boys were found to believe more strongly in their own uniqueness, invulnerability, and omnipotence than were girls. Higher scores on the invulnerability and omnipotence subscales were associated with lower levels of depression and loneliness. Finally, each aspect of the personal fable seemed to have its own specific role in the process of separation , individuation. Implications of these findings for the New Look theory of the imaginary audience and the personal fable are discussed. Suggestions for future research are put forth, with particular emphasis on the role of the invulnerability/omnipotence complex in adolescent development and behavior and on the family resemblances among the various aspects of the personal fable. [source]

    Cocaine-Exposed Infant Behavior During Still-Face: Risk Factor Analyses

    Marilyn W. Lewis PhD
    Prenatal cocaine exposure and the role of gender were evaluated using risk factor analyses to determine whether 6-month-old cocaine-exposed male infants demonstrated greater disruptions in infant-caregiver socioemotional interactions during a Still-Face test. Overall, non-cocaine-exposed infants spent more time looking at toys, compared with cocaine-exposed infants; nonexposed female infants spent more time scanning the environment, compared with nonexposed male infants. When caregiver behavior during the Still-Face was evaluated, differences emerged in amount of time the caregiver spent vocalizing to the infant. She vocalized more to a cocaine-exposed infant compared with a nonexposed one; she reduced vocalizing more during the test if the cocaine-exposed infant was female. An exposure by gender interaction emerged in the amount of change in caregiver vocalizations; however, the overarching hypothesis that male cocaine-exposed infants are at higher risk than nonexposed male, nonexposed female, and cocaine-exposed female infants was not supported. Because this interaction was evident in this cohort at 24 months, future research is needed to determine at what age an interaction begins to emerge in this cohort. [source]

    A social support and social strain measure for minority adolescent mothers: a confirmatory factor analytic study

    C. B. Gee
    Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study is to examine the validity and structure of the Social Support Network Questionnaire (SSNQ), an interview for identifying the positive and negative aspects of individuals' social networks. Methods The sample consisted of 536 pregnant and parenting, African-American and Latina adolescents. Participants were recruited from an alternative school for pregnant and parenting adolescents in a large Midwestern city. Results Confirmatory Factor Analyses revealed the presence of three factors: perceived availability, satisfaction and social strain. All three factors demonstrated adequate internal consistency. Perceived availability and social strain were uncorrelated, implying that they are distinct dimensions. Social strain was the most consistent predictor of psychological well-being. Further, strain in relationships with the young women's male partners added unique variance to the prediction of both anxiety and depression. Conclusions The results of this study suggest that the SSNQ may be a useful tool in assessing both positive and negative aspects of pregnant and parenting adolescent mothers' social support networks. [source]

    Invasive exotic aoudad (Ammotragus lervia) as a major threat to native Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica): a habitat suitability model approach

    Pelayo Acevedo
    ABSTRACT The introduction of alien species to new environments is one of the main threats to the conservation of biodiversity. One particularly problematic example is that of wild ungulates which are increasingly being established in regions outside their natural distribution range due to human hunting interests. Unfortunately, we know little of the effects these large herbivores may have on the host ecosystems. This study deals with a first comparative analysis of the habitat requirements of two ungulate species that may be facing competition for resources in the south of Europe: the native Iberian ibex (Capra pyrenaica) and the exotic aoudad (Ammotragus lervia). The aoudad is a North African caprid introduced in 1970 as a game species in south-eastern Spain. It has adapted well, and populations have been freely expanding since then. Ecological Niche Factor Analysis is used to describe the realized niche of both species where their distribution ranges merge. Both species occupy marginal areas of rugged terrain in the region. Marginality is higher for the Iberian ibex, which also presents a higher tolerance of secondary environmental gradients than the aoudad. Highly suitable areas for each species are secondarily suitable for the other. Reclassified and cross-tabulated habitat suitability maps showing the areas of potential spatial coexistence and differences in ecological traits between both species are provided. The results obtained do not allow inferring resource competition between these species. However, current aoudad expansion could result in it invading the favoured habitats of the ibex. Inadequate hunting policy and monitoring, and increasing climatic resemblance of the study region to the native aoudad areas, due to a strong desertification process, are facilitating a high rate of expansion. We strongly recommend to eradicate or, at least, monitor these exotic populations, and promote active conservation practices, if one wants to preserve the unique natural resources present in this European region. [source]

    An Examination of Clothing Issues and Physical Limitations in the Product Development Process

    Katherine Carroll
    The purpose of this study was to explore physical limitations and clothing problems among working women with physical disabilities to determine whether types of physical limitations are linked to specific clothing problems. The sample included 117 working women with a variety of disabilities. Principle Components Factor Analysis and Multiple Regression were used to analyze the data. Three distinct factors emerged to represent clothing problems (called Design, Materials Performance, and Dressing) and four distinct factors emerged to represent physical limitations (called Limbs/Outer Extremities, Central Core/Torso, Central Nervous System, and Intellect, Vision and Hearing). Regression analysis showed that the physical limitations impact each of the three clothing factors. The study extends research by focusing on an underserved market segment and providing the apparel industry with a potential method of addressing the needs of that market. The study also contributes to interdisciplinary research by further developing an Inclusive Design model for apparel product development. [source]

    Ascertaining late-life depressive symptoms in Europe: an evaluation of the survey version of the EURO-D scale in 10 nations.

    The SHARE project
    Abstract The reported prevalence of late-life depressive symptoms varies widely between studies, a finding that might be attributed to cultural as well as methodological factors. The EURO-D scale was developed to allow valid comparison of prevalence and risk associations between European countries. This study used Confirmatory Factor Analysis (CFA) and Rasch models to assess whether the goal of measurement invariance had been achieved; using EURO-D scale data collected in 10 European countries as part of the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) (n = 22,777). The results suggested a two-factor solution (Affective Suffering and Motivation) after Principal Component Analysis (PCA) in 9 of the 10 countries. With CFA, in all countries, the two-factor solution had better overall goodness-of-fit than the one-factor solution. However, only the Affective Suffering subscale was equivalent across countries, while the Motivation subscale was not. The Rasch model indicated that the EURO-D was a hierarchical scale. While the calibration pattern was similar across countries, between countries agreement in item calibrations was stronger for the items loading on the affective suffering than the motivation factor. In conclusion, there is evidence to support the EURO-D as either a uni-dimensional or bi-dimensional scale measure of depressive symptoms in late-life across European countries. The Affective Suffering sub-component had more robust cross-cultural validity than the Motivation sub-component. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Fuzzy-based purest wavelength selection from spectral data

    Seyed Kamaledin Setarehdan
    Abstract Wavelength selection is usually a useful and sometimes a necessary task in process monitoring using spectroscopic equipment. In this paper, a novel fuzzy-based purest wavelength selection algorithm from spectral data is presented. The proposed algorithm uses the pure component spectra of all chemical components within the mixture in a fuzzy logic framework to identify the set of the most important wavelengths (the set of the purest wavelengths) for a chemical component of interest. Both synthetic and real (Raman) spectral data sets were employed to evaluate the performance of the proposed algorithm. As a comparative study in the case of the real Raman data, the Evolving Window Factor Analysis (EWFA) technique is applied to both the original spectra and the selected set of the purest wavelengths for a component of interest. The resulting first singular value in EWFA is then compared to the reference concentration trend obtained using the conventional Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression model. The comparison confirms the high quality of the selected set of the purest wavelengths and the effectiveness of the proposed fuzzy-based algorithm. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Assessing suicide risk among callers to crisis hotlines: A confirmatory factor analysis,

    Tracy K. Witte
    Abstract Our goal was to investigate the factor structure of a risk assessment tool utilized by suicide hotlines and to determine the predictive validity of the obtained factors in predicting subsequent suicidal behavior. We conducted an Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA), an EFA in a Confirmatory Factor Analysis (EFA/CFA) framework, and a CFA on independent subsamples derived from a total sample of 1,085. Similar to previous studies, we found consistent evidence for a two-factor solution, with one factor representing a more pernicious form of suicide risk (i.e., Resolved Plans and Preparations; RPP) and one factor representing milder suicidal ideation (i.e., Suicidal Desire and Ideation; SDI). The RPP factor trended toward being more predictive of suicidal ideation at follow-up than the SDI factor. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol 66:1,24, 2010. [source]

    Using the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale Among Asian American College Students: An Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Justin C. Perry PhD
    In this study, an exploratory factor analysis of the People of Color Racial Identity Attitude Scale (PRIAS; Helms, 1995b) among a sample of Asian American college students (N = 225) was conducted. The factorial structure that emerged revealed mixed results in terms of consistency with the People of Color (POC) theory (Helms, 1995a). The measure's construct validity for Asian Americans may be improved through further scale development and revision. Directions for future research on the PRIAS are discussed. [source]

    Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Way of Coping Checklist-Revised (WCCL-R) in the Asian Context

    APPLIED PSYCHOLOGY, Issue 2 2010
    Sukanlaya Sawang
    Industrial employment growth has been one of the most dynamic areas of expansion in Asia; however, current trends in industrialised working environments have resulted in greater employee stress. Despite research showing that cultural values affect the way people cope with stress, there is a dearth of psychometrically established tools for use in non-Western countries to measure these constructs. Studies of the "Way of Coping Checklist-Revised" (WCCL-R) in the West suggest that the WCCL-R has good psychometric properties, but its applicability in the East is still understudied. A confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) is used to validate the WCCL-R constructs in an Asian population. This study used 1,314 participants from Indonesia, Sri Lanka, Singapore, and Thailand. An initial exploratory factor analysis revealed that original structures were not confirmed; however, a subsequent EFA and CFA showed that a 38-item, five-factor structure model was confirmed. The revised WCCL-R in the Asian sample was also found to have good reliability and sound construct and concurrent validity. The 38-item structure of the WCCL-R has considerable potential in future occupational stress-related research in Asian countries. La croissance de l'emploi dans l'industrie a été l'un des aspects les plus dynamiques de l'expansion en Asie, mais l'évolution actuelle des environnements de travail industriels a accru le stress des salariés. Malgré les recherches qui ont souligné que les valeurs culturelles affectaient la façon dont les gens faisaient face au stress, on ne peut que regretter la pénurie d'outils psychométriquement valides pour mesurer ces dimensions dans les pays non occidentaux. Les travaux occidentaux sur la "liste révisée des stratégies de faire-face" (WCCL-R) laissent entendre que cette échelle présentent des propriétés psychométriques positives, mais ses possibilités d'application en Asie n'ont pas été suffisamment étudiées. On a mis à l'épreuve par analyse factorielle les concepts de la WCCL-R sur une population asiatique. L'échantillon comprenait 1,314 sujets en provenance d'Indonésie, du Sri Lanka, de Singapour et de Thaïlande. Une première analyse factorielle exploratoire n'a pas confirmé la structure originelle. Toutefois, les analyses ultérieures débouchèrent sur un modèle à cinq facteurs et 38 items. On a aussi pu constater que la WCCL-R présentait une bonne fidélité, des concepts pertinents et une validité concurrente satisfaisante. La structure en 38 items de la WCCL-R recèle un potentiel considérable pour les recherches sur le stress professionnel dans les pays asiatiques. [source]

    Measuring Nausea in Emergency Department Patients via the Use of Exploratory Factor Analysis

    Robert L. Cloutier MD
    Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to evaluate the applicability of a previously studied multifactorial nausea scale in the emergency department (ED) setting via exploratory factor analysis (EFA). Methods:, Two studies evaluated the validity and factor structure of 18 nausea descriptors scored on 11-point Likert scales. Trained research volunteers administered the scale to 83 men and 123 women in the first sample and to 100 men and 230 women in the second sample. All patients were assessed at enrollment and again at 90 minutes to detect changes in symptom severity. An EFA in the first study used a maximum likelihood estimation method with a principal factor analysis. The second study narrowed the descriptors and evaluated the factor structure with a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Results:, Two factors were retained in the solution; one contained five items with descriptors of physical symptoms, and a second contained five items with psychological symptoms. CFA determined that the two five-item scales were stable and reliable measures of patient nausea experience. Conclusions:, The scales measure both physical and psychological symptoms of nausea, indicating that the experience is multidimensional. ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:e33,e39 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine [source]

    Development of the cognitive processing of trauma scale

    Rhonda M. Williams
    We developed a 17-item scale to measure cognitive processing of traumatic experiences in two samples of college students. The Cognitive Processing of Trauma Scale (CPOTS) measures five aspects of cognitive processing: (1) Positive Cognitive Restructuring, (2) Downward comparison, (3) Resolution, (4) Denial and (5) Regrets. Confirmatory Factor Analysis confirmed the factor structure of the scale, and reliability was further established by computing the internal consistency and test,retest reliability of each subscale. Discriminant and convergent validity for the CPOTS were demonstrated by correlating the subscales with two existing measures, the Impact of Event Scale and the Stress Related Growth Scale. The scale is recommended for use in empirical studies incorporating written or spoken disclosure about a trauma as an intervention, and should also be considered for clinical use in populations who have experienced a major stressor or trauma. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The metabolic syndrome and changing relationship between blood pressure and insulin with age, as observed in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples

    DIABETIC MEDICINE, Issue 11 2005
    A. E. Schutte
    Abstract Aims To determine the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome (MS) among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander peoples. A further objective was to investigate the relationships between fasting insulin and blood pressure (BP) within these groups with increasing age. Methods A cross-sectional population-based study included 369 Torres Strait Islanders (residing in Torres Strait and Far North Queensland), and 675 Aborigines from central Australia. Data necessary for classification of MS was collected, including fasting and 2-h glucose and insulin, urinary albumin and creatinine, anthropometric measurements, BP, serum lipids. Results The ATPIII criteria classified 43% of Torres Strait Islanders and 44% of Aborigines with MS, whereas 32 and 28%, respectively, had the MS according to WHO criteria. Agreement between the two criteria was only modest (kappa coefficient from 0.28 to 0.57). Factor analyses indicated no cluster including both insulin and BP in either population. Significant correlations (P < 0.05) [adjusted for gender, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference] were observed between BP and fasting insulin: a positive correlation for Torres Strait Islanders aged 15,29 years, and an inverse correlation for Aborigines aged 40 years and older. Conclusion Torres Strait Islanders and Aborigines had very high prevalences of the MS. Specific population characteristics (high prevalences of central obesity, dyslipidaemia, renal disease) may make the WHO definition preferable to the ATPIII definition in these population groups. The poor agreement between criteria suggests a more precise definition of the metabolic syndrome that is applicable across populations is required. This study showed an inverse relationship with age for the correlation of BP and fasting insulin. [source]

    Personality traits of Russians from the observer's perspective

    Jüri Allik
    Abstract Data were collected by the members of the Russian character and personality survey from 39 samples in 33 administrative areas of the Russian Federation. Respondents (N,=,7065) identified an ethnically Russian adult or college-aged man or woman whom they knew well and rated the target using the Russian observer rating version of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory, which measures neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness and conscientiousness. Factor analyses within samples showed that the factor structure of an international sample combining data from 50 different cultures was well replicated in all 39 Russian samples. Sex differences replicated the known pattern in all samples, demonstrating that women scored higher than men on most of the neuroticism, openness, agreeableness and conscientiousness facet scales. Cross-sectional analyses demonstrated consistent age differences for four factors: Older individuals compared to younger ones were less extraverted and open but more agreeable and conscientious. The mean levels of traits were similar in all 39 samples. Although in general personality traits in Russians closely followed the universal pattern, some reliable culture-specific effects were also found that future studies can help interpret. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Gender, Delinquent Status, and Social Acceptance as Predictors of the Global Self-Esteem of Teens

    William Scott Forney
    The combinations of gender, delinquent status, and social acceptance were examined as predictors of the global self-esteem of teens. Participants (N = 225) were aged 13 to 17 and included juvenile delinquents (n = 60) and high school students (n = 165) in one county in a southwest state. Factor analyses identified two dimensions of social acceptance (social verification, social interaction) and global self-esteem (self-respect, self-acceptance). Multiple regression analyses revealed the combination of gender (males) as a weak predictor and social verification as a strong predictor for self-acceptance and social interaction as a strong predictor for self-respect. Delinquent status did not predict global self-esteem. For these teens, the findings support the role of self-confirming feedback in the development of self-acceptance and the importance of socialization in forming self-respect. Implications for building self-esteem among teens are drawn for parents, high school teachers, and secondary schools. [source]

    Dietary patterns and risk for Crohn's disease in children

    Savio D'Souza MBBS
    Abstract Background: Some dietary foods are considered protective (vegetables and fruits), whereas others (fatty foods) are thought to enhance the risk for Crohn's disease (CD). The evidence, however, is inconsistent. Methods: We postulated that specific dietary patterns may influence the risk for CD. A case-control study was carried out. Newly diagnosed CD cases with population and/or hospital-based controls ,20 years were selected from 3 tertiary hospitals across Canada. Predisease diet was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) administered within 1 month of diagnosis. Factor analyses and unconditional logistic regression (adjusted) was used to determine gender-specific dietary patterns and assess associated risks for CD. Odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) were estimated. Results: A total of 149 cases and 251 controls were included. The mean age (range) of the cases was 13.3 (2.6-20 years). There were more boys (61.1%). Four dietary patterns each were observed among both boys and girls. Pattern 1 in girls, characterized by meats, fatty foods, and desserts, was positively associated with CD (OR 4.7, 95% CI 1.6,14.2). Pattern 2, common to both boys and girls, was characterized by vegetables, fruits, olive oil, fish, grains, and nuts and was inversely associated with CD in both genders (girls: OR 0.3, 95% CI 0.1,0.9; boys: OR 0.2, 95% CI 0.1,0.5). Conclusions: Our results suggest that specific dietary patterns could be associated with higher or lower risks for CD in children. Larger prospective studies are required to confirm these findings. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2007) [source]

    Developing a Chinese quality of life in dementia instrument for patients with early-to-moderate dementia: an exploratory test of validity

    Yi-Chen Chiu
    Aims., The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese Dementia Quality of Life instrument, which included testing the different pathways through theoretical quality of life domains (self-esteem, feelings of belonging and sense of aesthetics) to reach outcomes of positive and negative affect. Background., Perceived quality of life in dementia has been conceptualised based on dementia stages. However, the relationships among quality of life domains are unclear in patients with dementia with a Mini-Mental State Examination >10. Design., Cross-sectional study. Methods., Older people (n = 110) were consecutively recruited from memory disorder clinics and community wellness centres (controls). Of these participants, 27 were controls, 39 were diagnosed with questionable dementia and 44 with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. The instrument was back translated and validated. Results., The instrument has good overall internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 0·84,0·94). Item-total correlation coefficients, indicating construct validity, were all significant, except for one item. anova showed that controls, patients with questionable dementia and those with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease differed significantly in scores on Sense of Aesthetics subscale. Instrument total score and scores on three of five subscales (not Feelings of Belonging) differed significantly between control and dementia groups, but not between patients with questionable dementia and those with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. Factor analyses showed two inconsistencies with the instrument's prior conceptualisation, namely the Self-Esteem and Negative Affect subscales. The Positive Affect path model was supported but not the Negative Affect path model. Conclusions., This patient-reported Dementia Quality of Life instrument has acceptable psychometric properties in Taiwanese patients with dementia with a Mini-Mental State Examination score >10. Relevance to clinical practice., The Chinese Dementia Quality of Life instrument can be used to assess subjective quality of life in Taiwanese patients with dementia with a Mini-Mental State Examination score >10. [source]

    The Norwegian version of the American pain society patient outcome questionnaire: reliability and validity of three subscales

    Alfhild Dihle MSc
    Aims and objectives., To examine some psychometric properties of the Norwegian version of the American Pain Society's Patient Outcome Questionnaire (APS-POQ-N). Background., This study is part of an investigation of Norwegian orthopaedic surgical patients, where the overall aim is to evaluate the quality of postoperative pain management. Therefore, an adequate questionnaire on the quality of postoperative pain management was needed. Methods., The sample included 114 orthopaedic postoperative patients. The instrument consists of three main subscales, namely the modified Brief Pain Inventory (modified BPI subscale), the subscale on satisfaction with pain management (Satisfaction subscale) and the subscale on beliefs about pain management (Beliefs subscale), together with six single items about pain management. The reliability of these three main subscales was estimated using Cronbach's alpha coefficients and the construct validity was evaluated using principal-axis factor analysis with oblimin rotation. Results., Face and content validity of the APS-POQ-N were satisfactory, while the modified BPI and the Beliefs subscales showed acceptable internal consistency but the Satisfaction subscale did not. Factor analyses yielded a three-factor solution for the modified BPI, a one-factor solution for the Satisfaction subscale and a two-factor solution for the Beliefs subscale. Conclusions., The APS-POQ-N appears, in general, to be an acceptable method of evaluating postoperative pain management in orthopaedic postoperative patients. However, the alpha value of the Satisfaction subscale was low, and thus the subscale is not recommended for this purpose. Relevance to clinical practice., Reliable and valid instruments are important when performing clinical research. This instrument is applicable as an indicator of quality of postoperative pain management in clinical practice and research. [source]

    Re-Examining Whether and Why Acculturation Relates to Drinking Outcomes in a Rigorous, National Survey of Latinos

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 12 2005
    Sarah E. Zemore
    Abstract: Background: Fundamental limitations have hampered conclusions surrounding acculturation's effects among Latinos. This research re-examines associations between acculturation and alcohol use, addressing the most troubling of these limitations. The research also explores mediators of the association, and the dimensional structure of acculturation. Methods: Linear regressions and scale analyses were used to analyze data from Latino adults in the U.S. (825 women, 761 men) sampled in the 1995 National Alcohol Survey. Analyses used a standard, reliable acculturation scale and well-validated drinking measures; systematically accounted for demographic covariates; and analyzed men and women separately. Results: As expected, higher acculturation was positively associated with a higher probability of drinking (vs. abstinence) among women, and higher average volumes and more frequent drunkenness among female drinkers. Acculturation was unrelated to alcohol use among men. Also as expected, mediational analyses of average volume supported expectations that gender-specific drinking norms would mediate acculturation's effects (though norms did not explain acculturation's associations with either drinking status or frequency of drunkenness). Analyses investigating depressive symptoms showed no support for the acculturation-stress model. Factor analyses of the acculturation scale supported the hypothesized distinctions between linguistic acculturation, attitudinal acculturation, and the social environment of acculturation. Further, items implying more intimate exposure to Anglo culture (i.e., language use) were most strongly related to drinking outcomes among women, supporting the normative interpretation of acculturation's effects on drinking. Conclusions: Results underline acculturation's influence on alcohol consumption among Latina women, and highlight the role of drinking norms in mediating this association. Results also suggest a multidimensional view of acculturation. The article recommends further research on drinking norms and other potential mediators of acculturation's effects among Latina women. [source]

    Web search strategies and approaches to studying

    Nigel Ford
    This paper reports results from a project, which sought to investigate the relationship between study approaches and Web-based information seeking. Factor analyses were applied to data from over 500 queries submitting in response to three different search tasks to identify clusters of variables associated with three Web-based search strategies: Boolean, best-match, and combined. A consistent pattern emerged across the nine analyses in relation to a number of study approach variables. Boolean searching was consistently associated with a reproductive (as opposed to meaning-oriented) approach, anxiety (in the form of fear of failure), and high levels of active interest. Best-match was associated with the converse of all these measures. Combined searching was differentiated from both Boolean and best-match by being associated with poor time management. There was also some evidence of changes in strategy in relation to task complexity. A model is introduced which seeks to explain these results. This project was exploratory in nature, and the pattern of findings are proposed as prima facie evidence to support the notion that study approaches can influence choice of search strategies. The results are considered essentially as hypotheses for further systematic study, for which suggestions are made. [source]

    Patriotism, Nationalism, and Internationalism Among Japanese Citizens: An Etic,Emic Approach

    Minoru Karasawa
    The present study examined national attitudes among Japanese citizens. A National Identity Scale was developed and administered to a non,student sample (n = 385) and an undergraduate sample (n = 586) in a metropolitan area of Japan. The results revealed aspects that are common (i.e., etic) to different nationalities and those that are indigenous (i.e., emic) to Japanese people. Factor analyses identified etic factors of patriotism (i.e., love of the homeland), nationalism (belief in superiority over other nations), and internationalism (preference for international cooperation and unity). Attachment to the ingroup and ethnocentrism were thus shown to be separate dimensions. Distinct from these factors, commitment to national heritage emerged as an emic component of Japanese national identity. The discriminant validity of these factors was demonstrated in differential relationships with other variables, such as ideological beliefs and amount of knowledge. Commitment to national heritage was associated with conservatism, whereas internationalism was related to liberal ideology, a high level of media exposure, and knowledge of international affairs. Implications for the study of intergroup and international relations are discussed. [source]

    Compassion Fatigue and Psychological Distress Among Social Workers: A Validation Study

    Richard E. Adams PhD
    Few studies have focused on caring professionals and their emotional exhaustion from working with traumatized clients, referred to as compassion fatigue (CF). The present study had 2 goals: (a) to assess the psychometric properties of a CF scale, and (b) to examine the scale's predictive validity in a multivariate model. The data came from a survey of social workers living in New York City following the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center. Factor analyses indicated that the CF scale measured multiple dimensions. After overlapping items were eliminated, the scale measured 2 key underlying dimensions,secondary trauma and job burnout. In a multivariate model, these dimensions were related to psychological distress, even after other risk factors were controlled. The authors discuss the results in light of increasing the ability of professional caregivers to meet the emotional needs of their clients within a stressful environment without experiencing CF. [source]

    Behaviour problems in children with language impairment

    John Van Daal
    Background:, Language impairment is often associated with behaviour problems. However, detailed relations between different types of language impairment and specific behaviour problems in children have yet to be demonstrated. The present study attempted to do just this with an eye to the implications to identify foci for early intervention. Methods:, The language abilities of 71 five-year-old children with language impairment were assessed via the administration of an extensive battery of language tests. The children's behaviour profile was assessed via administration of the Child Behaviour Checklist. Results:, Factor analyses confirmed the presence of four language factors: speech, syntax, semantics and phonology. Forty percent of the children displayed serious significant behaviour problems. The most frequently occurring behaviour problems were: withdrawn behaviour, somatic complaints, thought problems and aggressive behaviour. Behaviour problems were associated with three of the four language factors but not strongly associated with speech problems. Conclusions:, Differential relations between specific types of language impairment and specific behaviour problems already exist at a young age. Phonological problems showed broad relations to problem behaviour; semantic language problems were especially related to internalizing behaviour problems. This finding suggests the need for specific therapies for both different types of language problems and different types of behaviour problems. [source]

    Analytic and Heuristic Processing Influences on Adolescent Reasoning and Decision-Making

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 3 2001
    Paul A. Klaczynski
    The normative/descriptive gap is the discrepancy between actual reasoning and traditional standards for reasoning. The relationship between age and the normative/descriptive gap was examined by presenting adolescents with a battery of reasoning and decision-making tasks. Middle adolescents (N= 76) performed closer to normative ideals than early adolescents (N=66), although the normative/descriptive gap was large for both groups. Correlational analyses revealed that (1) normative responses correlated positively with each other, (2) nonnormative responses were positively interrelated, and (3) normative and nonnormative responses were largely independent. Factor analyses suggested that performance was based on two processing systems. The "analytic" system operates on "decontextualized" task representations and underlies conscious, computational reasoning. The "heuristic" system operates on "contextualized," content-laden representations and produces "cognitively cheap" responses that sometimes conflict with traditional norms. Analytic processing was more clearly linked to age and to intelligence than heuristic processing. Implications for cognitive development, the competence/performance issue, and rationality are discussed. [source]

    Separation Anxiety in Parents of Adolescents: Theoretical Significance and Scale Development

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2001
    Ellen Hock
    Parents of adolescents commonly face separation-related issues associated with children's increasing independence and imminent leave-taking. The aims of this investigation were (1) to develop a reliable and valid measure of parental emotions associated with separation and (2) to validate the measure by relating it to other attributes (attachment relationship quality, parent , child communication, and parent , adolescent differentiation) assessed in mothers, fathers, and their adolescents. The newly constructed, 35-item Parents of Adolescents Separation Anxiety Scale (PASAS) was administered to 686 parents of teenagers in grades 6, 8, 10, and 12 or college-bound freshmen and seniors. Factor analyses supported formation of two subscales: Anxiety about Adolescent Distancing (AAD) and Comfort with Secure Base Role (CSBR); both subscales showed distinctive patterns of change with child age. Parents' reports indicated that healthy adult attachment styles were associated with lower AAD and higher CSBR scores; children of parents who had higher AAD scores reported lower quality of attachment to both mothers and fathers. [source]

    The development and standardization of the Children Activity Scales (ChAS-P/T) for the early identification of children with Developmental Coordination Disorders

    S. Rosenblum
    Abstract Background Previous studies have emphasized the importance of early identification of children with Developmental Coordination Disorder (DCD) to prevent the development of secondary academic, emotional and social manifestations of the disorder. The aim of this study was to develop a valid parent and teacher questionnaire , the Children Activity Scales for parents (ChAS-P) and for teachers (ChAS-T) , to identify children aged 4,8 years at risk for DCD and to examine the reliability and validity of these questionnaires. Methods The questionnaires' content and face validity were established, and then cut-off scores were determined based on responses of 355 teachers and 216 parents. Internal consistencies were also calculated. Factor analyses were performed, and construct validity was determined by examining the questionnaires' ability to discriminate between 30 children aged 5,6.5 years diagnosed with DCD and 30 typically developing children. Concurrent validity was examined by comparing questionnaire scores with those of the Movement Assessment Battery for Children (M-ABC). Results High values were obtained for internal consistency (0.96,0.94) for the ChAS-T and the ChAS-P respectively. Factor analysis revealed four distinct factors within the ChAS-P and three within the ChAS-T, reinforcing the theoretical validity of the items selected and appropriateness for identifying DCD. Construct validity was indicated by finding significant differences between the groups' scores on the ChAS-T and the ChAS-P. Significant correlations between the children's scores on the questionnaires and those of the M-ABC confirmed their concurrent validity. Conclusions Initial results suggest that the ChAS-T and Chas-P are reliable tools to identify children at risk for DCD. [source]

    Psychometric properties of the Beck Depression Inventory-II with incarcerated male offenders aged 18,21 years

    Emma J. Palmer
    Background,The Beck Depression Inventory , Second Edition (BDI-II) is a self-report measure of depression. Studies have shown it to have good psychometric properties with adult and adolescent clinical and non-clinical populations. However, this research has mostly been conducted with North American samples. Aims/hypotheses,To examine the psychometric characteristics of the BDI-II with male young adult offenders in the UK. Methods,The BDI-II was administered to 117 incarcerated male young adult offenders aged 18,21 years from the UK. Results,The BDI-II showed good internal consistency and concurrent validity. Factor analysis revealed two factors, relating to cognitive-affective items and somatic items. The items loading on the two factors were very similar to those found in a North American adolescent (13,17 years) psychiatric inpatient sample. Conclusions and implications for future research,The findings suggest that the BDI-II can be used with confidence in young adult male offenders. It would be useful to confirm its psychometric properties in other offender samples and establish offender population norms. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]