Distribution by Scientific Domains

Terms modified by Aims.

  • aims. to

  • Selected Abstracts

    Female Gender and the Risk of Rupture of Congenital Aneurysmal Fistula in Adults

    Salah A.M. Said MD
    ABSTRACT Aims., To delineate the risk factors for rupture of congenital aneurysmal fistulas in adult patients. Methods., We conducted a literature search of the Medline database using Pubmed search interface to identify reports dealing with rupture of congenital aneurysmal fistulas in an adult population. The search included the English and non-English languages between 1963 and 2005. Results., Fourteen adult patients (12 females) with serious and life-threatening complications secondary to aneurysmal fistulas were reported. Mean age was 62.9 years. The ethnic origins of these 14 patients were 9 Asian and 5 Caucasian. Most patients have had no other cardiac malformations. Five patients had a history of hypertension. One patient was asymptomatic. In 13 symptomatic patients, the clinical presentation was cardiac tamponade, pericardial effusion, syncope, heart failure, chest pain, dyspnea, fatigue, distal thromboembolic events with infarction, shock, and/or sudden death. Aneurysmal fistulas were identified in 10 patients; of these 6 were of the saccular type. Rupture occurred in 9 patients (8 females and 1 male). Eleven patients were treated surgically with 1 late death. Two male subjects experienced sudden unexpected cardiac death. Conclusion., Rupture of congenital aneurysmal fistulas occurred more often in females. Identified risk factors for rupture, hemopericardium, tamponade, and death were among others saccular aneurysm, Asian ethnic race, origin of the aneurysmal fistulas from the left coronary artery and a history of hypertension may play a role. In this article, we present a literature review of congenital aneurysmal fistulas associated with or without rupture and a case report of a woman with unruptured aneurysmal fistula. [source]

    Evaluating theories of alcohol-related aggression using observations of young adults in bars

    ADDICTION, Issue 6 2000
    Kathryn Graham
    Aims. The objective of the present study is to evaluate 36 explanations of alcohol-related aggression that have been proposed in the research literature in terms of their relevance to naturally-occurring incidents of aggression involving alcohol. Design. The study involved content analysis of descriptions of 105 incidents of aggression. Setting and participants. Bars frequented by young adults. Measurements. Step-by-step descriptions of incidents of aggression reported by researcher-observers based on 93 nights of observation in bars between midnight and 3 a.m. Findings. Some explanations relating to the effects of alcohol (e.g. focused on the present, reduced anxiety about sanctions or danger, heightened emotionality) and the environment (e.g. generally permissive environment, expectation by patrons that aggression will be tolerated) were found to be relevant to most incidents, while other explanations (e.g. crowding, release of pent-up anger) were directly relevant to only a few or no incidents. Incidents involving male-to-male aggression were more likely than incidents involving both males and females to be attributable to expectations, acceptance of aggression, power concerns, male honor and "macho" values. Principal components analysis identified five groupings of explanations: risk-taking effects of alcohol, cognitive impairment from alcohol, hyperemotional effects of alcohol, "macho" subculture, and permissive environment. Conclusions. The findings are consistent with a model of alcohol-related aggression that involves multiple contributing factors including alcohol effects and situational contexts. The greater relevance of certain explanations and the natural groupings of explanations point to directions for future research. [source]

    The Interleukin-1 RN Polymorphism and Helicobacter pylori Infection in the Development of Duodenal Ulcer

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 6 2004
    Ping-I Hsu
    ABSTRACT Background., The host genetic factors that determine the clinical outcomes for Helicobacter pylori -infected individuals remain unclear. Aims., To elucidate the relations among interleukin-1 locus polymorphisms, and H. pylori infection in the development of duodenal ulcers. Materials and methods., In a case,control study involving 168 control subjects and 147 patients with duodenal ulcer, biallelic polymorphisms of two interleukin-1 loci, IL-1B,511 and IL-1B+3954, as well as the penta-allelic variable number of tandem repeats of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist IL-1RN, were genotyped, and the H. pylori states of controls and patients were examined. Results.,Helicobacter pylori infection, male gender and the carriage of IL-1RN*2 independently increased the risk of duodenal ulcer with odds ratios of 6.4 (95% confidence interval, 3.7,11.0), 1.9 (95% confidence interval, 1.1,3.4) and 2.7 (95% confidence interval, 1.1,6.8), respectively. Statistical analysis revealed an interaction between IL-1RN*2 and H. pylori infection with the duodenal ulcer risk conferred by the H. pylori infection substantially increased (odds ratios, 22.6; 95% confidence interval, 5.9,86.5) by the carriage of IL-1RN*2. In addition, a synergistic interaction between IL-1RN*2 and blood group O existed. The combined risk of H. pylori infection, the carriage of IL-1RN*2 and blood group O for duodenal ulcer was 27.5 (95% confidence interval, 3.1,243.6). Conclusions., This work is the first to verify IL-1RN*2 as an independent factor that governs the development of duodenal ulcers. Our data indicate that H. pylori infection and IL-1RN*2 synergistically determine susceptibility to duodenal ulcer. The blood group phenotype is possibly a crucial determinant for the outcome of the impact of an interleukin-1 locus polymorphism on H. pylori -infected individuals. [source]

    Effect of H. pylori on the Expression of TRAIL, FasL and their Receptor Subtypes in Human Gastric Epithelial Cells and their Role in Apoptosis

    HELICOBACTER, Issue 5 2004
    Jan Hendrik Martin
    ABSTRACT Background and Aims., In the human stomach expression of TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL) and its receptors and the modulatory role of Helicobacter pylori are not well described. Therefore, we investigated the effect of H. pylori on the expression of TRAIL, FasL and their receptors (TRAIL-R1-R4, Fas) in gastric epithelial cells and examined their role in apoptosis. Materials and Methods., mRNA and protein expression of TRAIL, FasL and their receptors were analyzed in human gastric epithelial cells using RT-PCR, Western blot, and immunohistochemistry. Gastric epithelial cells were incubated with FasL, TRAIL and/or H. pylori, and effects on expression, cell viability and epithelial apoptosis were monitored. Apoptosis was analyzed by histone ELISA, DAPI staining and immunohistochemistry. Results., TRAIL, FasL and their receptor subtypes were expressed in human gastric mucosa, gastric epithelial cell primary cultures and gastric cancer cells. TRAIL, FasL and H. pylori caused a time- and concentration-dependent induction of DNA fragmentation in gastric cancer cells with synergistic effects. In addition, H. pylori caused a selective up-regulation of TRAIL, TRAIL-R1 and Fas mRNA and protein expression in gastric cancer cells. Conclusions., Next to FasL and Fas, TRAIL and all of its receptor subtypes are expressed in the human stomach and differentially modulated by H. pylori. TRAIL, FasL and H. pylori show complex interaction mediating apoptosis in human gastric epithelial cells. These findings might be important for the understanding of gastric epithelial cell kinetics in patients with H. pylori infection. [source]

    Incontinence: prevalence, management, staff knowledge and professional practice environment in rehabilitation units

    Geraldine McCarthy MSc
    Background., Bladder and bowel incontinence is a major health care problem, which adversely affects the lives of many individuals living at home or in health service facilities. Current approaches to continence care emphasize comfort, safety and reduction of risk, rather than detailed individualized assessment and management. The literature illustrates a gap between evidence and actual practice and emphasizes the context of care as being a key element for successful implementation of evidence based practice. Aims., To identify prevalence of bowel and bladder incontinence and its management, investigate continence knowledge and describe the professional practice environment within a rehabilitation unit for older people. Method., An integrated evaluation of continence prevalence, staff knowledge and the work environment was adopted. Results., Findings revealed a high incidence of incontinence (60% urinary, 3% faecal, 37% mixed) a lack of specific continence assessment and specific rationale for treatment decisions or continuation of care. The focus was on continence containment rather than on proactive management. Staff demonstrated a reasonable knowledge of incontinence causation and treatment as measured by the staff knowledge audit. The evaluation of the work environment indicated a low to moderate perception of control over practice (2.39), autonomy in practice (2.87), nurse doctor relationship (2.67) and organizational support (2.67). [source]

    How nursing home staff deal with residents who talk about death

    Barbro Wadensten PhD
    Aims., The overall aim of this study was to gain knowledge about how nursing staff treat and communicate with residents who talk about death and about their reasons for their treatment as well as to investigate how staff explain residents' reasons for talking about death. Background., Studies have established that nursing staff have problems in dealing with patients who talk about death and that staff do not know how they should relate to talking about death. Method., A qualitative explorative design. Interviews with staff were performed and analysed using a qualitative content analysis. Findings., Staff descriptions of their various ways of dealing with a situation in which residents talk about death could be divided into two qualitatively different main categories: ,allow and facilitate talk about death' and ,avoid talk about death'. The most common explanation provided by staff in all categories was that they acted the way they did because they did not know how to address discussions about death. Staff members' descriptions of residents' reasons for talking about death were quite different. Conclusions., The study indicates that nursing staff need to reflect on their own attitudes towards death and that they need to develop further. Their behaviour may depend on each staff member's individual attitudes and development. Nursing staff need training in and knowledge about how to communicate with residents who talk about death. This knowledge could be acquired through training, guidance and joint reflection in groups. [source]

    Behaviour guidance in dental treatment of patients with autism spectrum disorder

    Background., Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder categorized into autism, pervasive developmental disorder , not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) and Asperger syndrome. Aims., To identify factors associated with the behaviour of patients with ASD in a dental setting, use of general anaesthesia (GA), and protective stabilization. Design., The dental charts of 395 patients with ASD patients and 386 unaffected patients were reviewed. The following data were analysed: ASD diagnosis, age, gender, residence, seizure disorder, additional diagnosis (mental retardation, cerebral palsy, self-injurious behaviour or pica), medications, caries prevalence and severity, dental treatment history, behaviour, and behaviour guidance technique(s) used. Results., Within both groups, younger patients were more uncooperative. ASD patients with autism were more uncooperative than patients with PDD-NOS; patients with an additional diagnosis were also more uncooperative. ASD patients with higher caries severity, who were uncooperative or female, were more likely to require GA. Use of protective stabilization was associated with lower caries severity, presence of seizure disorder, uncooperative behaviour, male gender, or residency in a group home/institution. Conclusions., Autism spectrum disorder patients with autism, younger age and an additional diagnosis were more uncooperative. Factors associated with the use of GA and protective stabilization in patients with ASD were also identified. [source]

    Intraoral condition in children with juvenile idiopathic arthritis compared to controls

    Aims. The aims of this study were to compare the periodontal conditions in children and adolescents with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) in comparison to age-matched healthy individuals, and to describe intraoral health in relation to medical assessments. Design. Forty-one JIA patients, 10,19 years old, were compared to 41 controls. Plaque, calculus, probing depth, bleeding on probing, clinical attachment loss, as well as mucosal lesions were registered. Marginal bone level was recorded on radiographs. A questionnaire was included. Data were analysed with chi-squared test, Fisher's exact test, and Mann,Whitney U -test (P < 0.05). Results. The JIA patients reported pain from jaws (P = 0.001), hands (P = 0.001), and oral ulcers (P = 0.015) more often than controls. They avoided certain types of food because of oral ulcers (P = 0.037). The frequencies of sites with plaque (32% vs. 19%, P = 0.013), calculus (11% vs. 5%, 5 = 0.034), bleeding on probing (26% vs. 14%, P < 0.01), and probing depth 2 mm (32% vs. 2%, P < 0.001) were higher among JIA patients. No sites with attachment loss or reduced marginal bone level were observed. Conclusions. These obtained results are probably because of joint pain, making it difficult to perform oral hygiene as well as the use of medication and general disease activity. [source]

    Root resorption in retained deciduous canine and molar teeth without permanent successors in patients with severe hypodontia

    K. Haselden
    Aims. The ability to predict the morbidity of retained deciduous teeth with no permanent successors, a characteristic of hypodontia, would be of considerable value in treatment planning, but is hampered by lack of data. Methods. This problem was studied using 356 orthopantomogram radiographs (OPGs) from the records of 249 patients who had attended a specialist hypodontia clinic, and had retained deciduous teeth with no permanent successors. Due to their clinical importance, canine and molar teeth were chosen for examination. Resorption was assessed subjectively by three experienced clinicians. Results. Un-weighted Kappa values for reproducibility were > 08, and for inter-observer error 060,083. Gender related differences were minimal. Regardless of gender or radiographic age, the lower canines appear to show the least amount of resorption and the upper first molars the most. The upper and lower second molars have particularly unpredictable life spans. Whilst the lower first molars have a predictable life span that is poor, the life span for the upper first molars is slightly worse. Conclusions. Lower canines have a predictable life span that appears to be good, as do upper canines, but of lesser duration than lower canines. Molars have poorer and less predictable life spans. [source]

    Nurses' experiences with telephone triage and advice: a meta-ethnography

    Rebecca J. Purc-Stephenson
    purc-stephenson r.j. & thrasher c. (2010) Nurses' experiences with telephone triage and advice: a meta-ethnography. Journal of Advanced Nursing66(3), 482,494. Abstract Aims., This study is a meta-ethnography of nurses' experiences with telephone triage and advice and factors that facilitate or impede their decision-making process. Background., Telephone triage and advice services are a rapidly expanding development in health care. Unlike traditional forms of nursing practice, telenurses offer triage recommendations and advice to the general public without visual cues. Data sources., Published qualitative research on telephone triage and advice were sought from interdisciplinary research databases (1980,2008) and bibliographical reviews of retrieved studies. Review methods., Our systematic search identified 16 relevant studies. Two researchers independently reviewed, critically appraised, and extracted key themes and concepts from each study. We followed techniques of meta-ethnography to synthesize the findings, using both reciprocal and refutational translation to compare similar or contradictory findings, and a line-of-arguments synthesis. Results., We identified five major themes that highlight common issues and concerns experienced by telenurses: gaining and maintaining skills, autonomy, new work environment, holistic assessment, and stress and pressure. A line-of-arguments synthesis produced a three-stage model that describes the decision-making process used by telenurses and highlights how assessments largely depend on the ability to ,build a picture' of the patient and the presenting health issue. Conclusion., Telenurses experience a range of common concerns and issues which either impede or facilitate the decision-making process. Although ,building a picture' of the patient is key to making assessments over the telephone, final triage decisions are influenced by balancing the conflicting demands of being both carer and gatekeeper to limited healthcare services. [source]

    Comparison of ventilator-dependent child reports of health-related quality of life with parent reports and normative populations

    Jane Noyes
    Abstract Title. Comparison of ventilator-dependent child reports of health-related quality of life with parent reports and normative populations Aims., This paper is a report of the first study of ventilator-dependent child and parent ratings of health-related quality of life using a validated instrument, which was undertaken as part of a case study of costs and consequences. Background., Advances in medical care and technologies such as the ventilator have extended childhood illness trajectories beyond our current range of knowledge and experience. These advances and their effects reinforce the need for further research to determine health-related quality of life as an outcome of ventilator-dependency in childhood. Methods., The KINDL was administered to ventilator-dependent children aged 4,18 years and parents as part of an in-depth case study. Twenty-seven parents and 17 children (including 17 child-parent pairs) completed questionnaires. Data were collected between 2001 and 2004. Findings were compared with normative values derived from a representative sample of children of a similar age in the general population. Results., Ventilator-dependent children reported significantly lower overall health-related quality of life, and significantly lower scores on all domains except about their friends, compared with school children, and chronically ill children in respect of their disease. Parents and children rated children's overall health-related quality of life the same but parents reported significantly lower scores for their child's disease and relationships with friends. There was a positive correlation between children and parents in all areas apart from self-esteem and school. Conclusions., Both child and parent perspectives are needed to understand the impact of ventilator-dependency and associated co-morbidity on the child. As new interventions and models of service delivery emerge it will be important for nurses to understand the impact on the child by evaluating physical, emotional and social consequences. [source]

    Attitudes of intensive care nurses towards brain death and organ transplantation: instrument development and testing

    Jung Ran Kim BN MClinN DipN RN
    Aims., This paper reports the development and testing of an instrument assessing attitudes of Korean intensive care unit nurses. Background., Reluctance by healthcare professionals to identify brain-dead patients as a potential donor is one reason for a shortfall in transplantable organs in all countries. Organ donation from brain-dead patients is a particularly contentious issue in Korea, following recent legal recognition of brain death within the cultural context of Confucian beliefs. Method., A 38-item instrument was developed from the literature and key informant interviews, and validated by an expert panel and a pilot study. A survey was conducted with Korean intensive care unit nurses (n = 520) from October 2003 to January 2004. Principal component analysis with varimax rotation was used to determine construct validity. Item-to-total correlations and Cronbach's coefficient alpha were used to determine the scale's internal consistency and unidimensionality. Results., The scale demonstrated high internal consistency (alpha = 088). Principal component analysis yielded a four-component structure: Discomfort, Enhancing quality of life, Willingness to be a donor and Rewarding experience. Overall, Korean intensive care unit nurses showed positive attitudes towards organ transplantation, despite some mixed feelings. Conclusion., The attitude scale was reliable and valid for this cohort. Areas were identified where professional development may enhance positive attitudes towards organ transplantation from brain-dead donors. Effective education for intensive care unit nurses is necessary to increase the organ donor pool in Korea. Further research could test the instrument with other populations. [source]

    Nurses' attitudes towards adult patients who are obese: literature review

    Ian Brown BSc RGN RHV PhD PGCE
    Aims., This paper presents a review of all empirical studies focusing on nurses' attitudes towards adult overweight or obese patients, with the aim of clarifying the dimensions and patterns of these attitudes and the methods by which they have been studied. Background., Obesity has become a common condition and a major public health concern, but it is often associated with negative attitudes and discrimination. Nurses play a key role in providing support and care to patients who are obese. Methods., Electronic searches were carried out on seven databases from inception to December 2004, along with hand-searching of references in relevant studies. The search terms were built around obesity (and related terms), nursing (and its branches) and attitudes (and related terms). Eleven studies met the inclusion criteria. Data were extracted and summarized in tabular form and analysed in relation to the aims of this review during January 2005. Findings., There is relatively little research about nurses' attitudes towards obese patients, and the studies reviewed mostly have weaknesses of sampling and measurement. However, they do consistently suggest that a proportion of nurses have negative attitudes and beliefs, reflecting wider stereotypes within Western cultures. There is also a hint of a more complex mix of attitudes among nurses, some of which may counter the consequences of negative attitudes, but these have not been adequately investigated. A number of variables that influence attitudes of nurses can be identified, including age, gender, experience and the weight/body mass index of the nurse. Conclusion., Further research (both qualitative and quantitative) is needed with more rigorous sampling and, where appropriate, more consistency of measurement. A shift in focus towards the sets of attitudes (positive as well as negative) and behaviours that influence health service quality and outcomes for obese persons would be useful. [source]

    Developing and validating a tool to measure parenting self-efficacy

    Sally Kendall BSc PHD RGN RHV
    Aims., This paper reports the development of a tool to measure parenting self-efficacy as an aid to evaluating parenting programmes. Background., Whilst there has been increasing interest in parenting programmes from parents, government and professionals, there is a lack of rigorous evaluation studies of their effectiveness, particularly their longer-term outcomes. Equally, there is little research evidence of the views and experiences of parents themselves. It is important to develop robust outcome measures which draw on well-developed theoretical constructs to measure parents' perceived abilities to manage their children based on their own views and experiences. Self-efficacy, a self-perception of one's ability to perform competently and effectively in a particular task or setting, may provide such a framework. Methods., Data from 12 focus groups conducted with parents and parenting programme facilitators informed the development of the tool. A thematic analysis of the focus group transcripts identified key items to be included in the self-efficacy instrument, and these were developed into 82 Likert-format statements. A multi-method approach was used to test the instrument for validity and reliability. Findings., Nine domain specific sub-scales of parenting were identified from the analysis of the focus group data. Internal reliability coefficients for the subscales ranged from 080 to 089, and the overall scale reliability was 094. External reliability coefficients ranged from rs = 058 (n = 19, P < 001) to rs = 088 (n = 19, P < 001). Conclusion., A valid and reliable tool to measure parenting self-efficacy has been developed, which will aid evaluation of parenting programmes. [source]

    The role of nurses in preventing adverse events related to respiratory dysfunction: literature review

    Julie Considine BN MN RN RM FRCNA
    Aims., This paper reports a literature review examining the relationship between specific clinical indicators of respiratory dysfunction and adverse events, and exploring the role of nurses in preventing adverse events related to respiratory dysfunction. Background., Adverse events in hospital are associated with poor patient outcomes such as increased mortality and permanent disability. Many of these adverse events are preventable and are preceded by a period during which the patient exhibits clearly abnormal physiological signs. The role of nurses in preserving physiological safety by early recognition and correction of physiological abnormality is a key factor in preventing adverse events. Methods., A search of the Medline and CINAHL databases was conducted using the following terms: predictors of poor outcome, adverse events, mortality, cardiac arrest, emergency, oxygen, supplemental oxygen, oxygen therapy, oxygen saturation, oxygen delivery, assessment, patient assessment, physical assessment, dyspnoea, hypoxia, hypoxaemia, respiratory assessment, respiratory dysfunction, shortness of breath and pulse oximetry. The papers reviewed were research papers that demonstrated a relationship between adverse events and various clinical indicators of respiratory dysfunction. Results., Respiratory dysfunction is a known clinical antecedent of adverse events such as cardiac arrest, need for medical emergency team activation and unplanned intensive care unit admission. The presence of respiratory dysfunction prior to an adverse event is associated with increased mortality. The specific clinical indicators involved are alterations in respiratory rate, and the presence of dyspnoea, hypoxaemia and acidosis. Conclusions., The way in which nurses assess, document and use clinical indicators of respiratory dysfunction is influential in identifying patients at risk of an adverse event and preventing adverse events related to respiratory dysfunction. If such adverse events are to be prevented, nurses must not only be able to recognise and interpret signs of respiratory dysfunction, but must also take responsibility for initiating and evaluating interventions aimed at correcting respiratory dysfunction. [source]

    Patients' evaluations of the quality of care: influencing factors and the importance of engagement

    Sophie H. Staniszewska BSc DPhil
    Aims., This paper reports a study exploring the process of patient evaluation and identifying the factors which influence this. Background., Patient experiences of health care have become a central focus for researchers, policymakers, clinicians and patient groups in many countries. While surveys of patient experiences have become increasingly common internationally, concerns about the validity of concepts such as satisfaction have cast doubt on the utility of their findings. These concerns reflect our limited understanding of patient evaluation and the factors that can influence this process. Methods., A qualitative design was adopted, using semi-structured interviews with a sample of outpatients in their homes in one county in England. In total, 41 patients participated in the study and were interviewed before their appointment. Of these patients, 37 were interviewed again after their appointment. Six of the latter were then re-interviewed 6 weeks after the appointment to explore whether evaluations had changed. Findings., Patient evaluation was influenced by a number of factors, including gratitude, faith, loyalty, luck and equity. The overall effect was to prompt positive evaluation, even when care was poor. These factors should be accounted for in the interpretation of patient experiences surveys. Patient experiences were further influenced by their sense of engagement with the system. A negative sense of engagement could have a major impact on the patient, resulting in disappointment or fear and a desire to leave the health care system, and in a negative evaluation of a specific aspect of care. Conclusions., Engagement may provide a more appropriate indicator of negative experience than dissatisfaction. The influence of these factors should be considered in future attempts to develop more sensitive and appropriate methods of eliciting patient experiences. [source]

    Relationship between two anxiety instruments in patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support

    Linda L. Chlan PhD RN
    Aims., The primary aim of this paper is to discuss the relationship between the Visual Analog Scale-Anxiety (VAS-A) and the Spielberger State Anxiety Inventory (SAI) in patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support. A secondary aim is to provide suggestions for the nurse-researcher to consider when selecting an instrument to measure anxiety. Background., Anxiety is a common experience for critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support. It is a challenge, however, for nurse-researcher to select an instrument to measure anxiety that is valid and reliable yet does not cause great response burden for participants. Visual analog scales may reduce response burden, but lack sound validation in research participants receiving mechanical ventilatory support. Methods., This study used a correlational design. A convenience sample of critically ill patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support (n = 200) were asked to rate their current level of anxiety on the 20-item Spielberger SAI and a 100-mm VAS-A. Results., Eight participants were unable to complete the Spielberger SAI; 100% completed the VAS-A. The two instruments were found to be significantly correlated at r = 050; P = 001. Conclusion., The VAS-A was found to be less burdensome for research participants than the Spielberger SAI, resulting in no missing data on the VAS-A. Findings from this study provide initial validation of the VAS-A as a justifiable instrument to measure anxiety in patients receiving mechanical ventilatory support. Researchers are advised to balance reliability and validity properties with response burden when selecting an instrument to measure anxiety in patients with communication challenges and energy limitations. [source]

    Primary mental health workers in child and adolescent mental health services

    Wendy Macdonald BSc PhD
    Background., The interface between primary care and specialist services is increasingly seen as crucial in the effective management of child and adolescent mental health (CAMH) problems. In the United Kingdom, a new role of primary mental health worker (PMHW), has been established in order to achieve effective collaboration across the interface through the provision of clinical care in primary care settings and by improving the skills and confidence of primary care staff. However, little is known about the development of this innovative role in service contexts. Issues raised during the early stages of implementation may have important implications for the preparation and development of professionals who undertake the role. Aims., The aim of this paper is to report on a study that examined key issues in implementation of the PMHW role in six health authorities in England. Methods., Case study evaluation was conducted, using thematic analysis of 75 qualitative interviews with key stakeholders from different professions (e.g. PMHWs, general practitioners, health visitors, psychiatrists and service managers) and representing different sectors (primary care, specialist services and community child health services). Findings., The study identified three models of organization (outreach, primary care-based and teams). Each was associated with different advantages and disadvantages in its effects on referral rates to specialist services and the development of effective working relationships with primary care providers. Problems associated with accommodation and effective integration of PMHWs with specialist services, and tensions caused by the two different roles that PMHWs could undertake (direct clinical care vs. consultation-liaison) were common across all sites. Conclusions., The PMHW role is an important development that may go some way towards realizing the potential of primary care services in CAMH. The implementation of new roles and models of working in primary care is complex, but may be facilitated by effective planning with primary care providers, clear goals for staff, and a long-term perspective on service development. [source]

    Resident-oriented care in nursing homes: effects on nurses

    Afke J.M.B. Berkhout PhD
    Background., In a resident-oriented care model the assignment of patients to primary nurses takes place. These primary nurses are responsible for the total nursing care of their patients and make use of the nursing process. According to job demand-control models, these enlarged and enriched jobs can be described in terms of autonomy, job demands and social support, and the presence of these work characteristics has a positive influence on workers' psychological and behavioural outcomes. Aims., This paper reports a study to investigate the extent to which the various features of resident-oriented care were implemented and its effects nurses' on work characteristics and on psychological and behavioural outcomes in three Dutch nursing homes. Methods., In a quasi-experimental design, experimental and control groups were followed over 22 months, using a pretest and two post-tests with questionnaires, interviews and qualitative observations. Results., The quantitative data showed significant increases in resident assignment, the two variables measuring the nursing process and, in the psycho-geriatric experimental group, on resident-oriented tasks. The qualitative data showed that a partly task-oriented division of labour was still used and that the planned delegation of coordination tasks to primary nurses was not fully achieved. Effects on work perceptions were limited. After implementation of the new system, the experimental group showed an increase in job autonomy. Conclusions., The intervention appeared to be only partly successful. Most of the expected results regarding work characteristics and psychological and behavioural outcomes did not materialize. Theoretical and methodological reflections are presented in the light of these findings. [source]

    Enhancing Delphi research: methods and results

    Holly Powell Kennedy PhD CNM FACNM
    Background., The Delphi method provides an opportunity for experts (panelists) to communicate their opinions and knowledge anonymously about a complex problem, to see how their evaluation of the issue aligns with others, and to change their opinions, if desired, after reconsideration of the findings of the group's work. Delphi studies have the potential to provide valuable information, yet few researchers have taken further steps to support or refine their findings. Without this step there is a potential threat to the applicability, or external validity, of the results. Aims., The purpose of this article is to present an argument for further inquiry to enhance and support Delphi findings, and specific approaches to this will be considered. Methods., Methods to enhance, expand, or refine Delphi study findings are described. Mixed method design within a Delphi study on midwifery practice is described, and a follow-up narrative study to examine the findings is presented. Findings., Selected results from the follow up narrative study are presented to convey how the narrative data clarified the Delphi findings. Together, the studies provide a more robust depiction of midwifery practice, process, and outcomes. Although there were similarities to the dimensions identified previously, there was a more dynamic focus and explanation of the interaction between the midwife, the woman who had received midwifery care, and the health care system. Study limitations., Lack of diversity in the sample and the midwives' familiarity with the author's past research represent a potential threat to the findings. Prolonged interviews and multiple narratives were gathered in an effort to control for this. Conclusion., Delphi studies are research exercises conducted by a panel of experts. Designing studies to further enhance, clarify, or refine their findings from the context of practice holds promise for their ability to influence clinical care. [source]

    Nursing needs of acutely ill older people

    Karen Hancock BSc PhD
    Background., Investigating older acutely ill hospitalized patients' nursing needs and quality of care is paramount, given the growing pressure on nurses to provide increasingly intensive levels of care to a growing older population while at the same time working with reduced staffing levels. Aims., The aims of this study were to determine: (1) important aspects of nursing care as perceived by older patients, their family member/carer who observed care during hospitalization, and nurses; (2) satisfaction levels of patients, family/carers and nurses on nursing care received; and (3) mismatches between nursing care priorities and satisfaction with nursing care. Methods., Two hundred and thirty-two acutely ill patients aged over 65 years, 99 carers/family members and 90 nurses completed the Caregiving Activities Survey, which measures importance of and satisfaction with various aspects of nursing care. Qualitative data, which qualified responses to survey items, were also obtained from participants. Results., Patients, carers and nurses perceived that carrying out doctors' orders was the most important aspect of nursing care, followed by physical care, psychosocial care and discharge planning. Nurses and carers rated physical care, psychosocial care and discharge planning more highly than patients. Physical care was rated highly by patients in terms of importance, but rated moderately in terms of satisfaction. Carers' and patients' ratings of satisfaction with physical care were lower than nurses' ratings of opportunities to provide it. The importance of discharge planning was rated highly by nurses but all groups were only moderately satisfied with this aspect of care. Study limitations., The findings do not apply to acutely ill older patients with confusion, mental illness or more than early stage dementia. Conclusions., Patients, nurses and family/carers were generally in agreement about the relative importance of particular aspects of nursing care. Nurses may need to communicate more effectively with older patients and their family carers about the particular roles they will play during the patient's hospital episode, the expectations they have of patients in the process of healing and recovery, and the reasons for the actions they take in aiding this process. The findings are useful in making nurses more aware of the expectations and needs of older hospital patients and their carers. They provide evidence for developing both new models of nursing care for this patient group, and nursing education programmes. [source]

    Patients' experiences of hip fracture

    Graeme Archibald BA MSc RN
    Background., Hip fracture is a major cause of mortality and morbidity, particularly among older people, but there is little information on how individuals experience this. Aims., This study was conducted to explore the experiences of individuals who had suffered a hip fracture. The aim was not to produce generalizable findings but, rather, to generate a rich description of the experience of incurring and recovering from a hip fracture, to inform nursing practice. Method., Phenomenological methodology was used. A purposeful sample of five older patients was interviewed, following a stay in a community hospital for rehabilitation after surgical repair of a hip fracture. The unstructured interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analysed for significant statements and meanings. Findings., Four major themes emerged: the injury experience, the pain experience, the recovery experience and the disability experience. The injury experience consisted of storytelling, recalling the experience of the injury itself. The pain experience consisted of coping with the pain. The recovery experience involved the operation, beginning the struggle of recovery, and regaining independence. The disability experience consisted of the disability itself, depending on others, and being housebound. Conclusions., Pain management, meeting psychological and physical needs for nursing care, planning for discharge, and ensuring a reasonable quality of life are areas for nursing care development. Consideration of appropriate settings for rehabilitation is needed and there should be further investigation into improving quality of life after discharge. [source]

    Horizontal violence: experiences of Registered Nurses in their first year of practice

    Brian G. McKenna BA MHSc RCpN
    Background.,Interpersonal conflict among nurses (traditionally called ,horizontal violence' or ,bullying') is a significant issue confronting the nursing profession. However, there is a dearth of research focusing on horizontal violence experienced by new graduate nurses. Aims.,In order to assess the priority for preventive intervention programmes, the aims of this study were to determine the prevalence of horizontal violence experienced by nurses in their first year of practice; to describe the characteristics of the most distressing incidents experienced; to determine the consequences, and measure the psychological impact, of such events; and to determine the adequacy of training received to manage horizontal violence. Method.,An anonymous survey was mailed to nurses in New Zealand who had registered in the year prior to November 2000 (n = 1169) and 551 completed questionnaires were returned (response rate 47%). Information was requested on the type and frequency of interpersonal conflict; a description of the most distressing event experienced; the consequences of the behaviour; and training to manage such events. The Impact of Event Scale was used to measure the level of distress experienced. Results.,Many new graduates experienced horizontal violence across all clinical settings. Absenteeism from work, the high number of respondents who considered leaving nursing, and scores on the Impact of Event Scale all indicated the serious impact of interpersonal conflict. Nearly half of the events described were not reported, only 12% of those who described a distressing incident received formal debriefing, and the majority of respondents had no training to manage the behaviour. Conclusions.,First year of practice is an important confidence-building phase for nurses and yet many new graduates are exposed to horizontal violence, which may negatively impact on this process. The findings underscore a priority for the development of effective prevention programmes. Adequate reporting mechanisms and supportive services should also be readily available for those exposed to the behaviour. [source]

    Nursing care of dead bodies: a discursive analysis of last offices

    Beverleigh Quested BN MN RN DipAppSc
    Background.,Nurses care for patients before they are born, after they have died and during the lifetime in between. This paper explores nursing care of the patient after they have died including the actions by nurses in preparation of the body, the covering with a shroud, and the transfer to the mortuary. Aims.,The analysis of a procedure manual excerpt Last Offices, which directs care of the dead patient aims to explore nursing care practices in regard to dead patients, as well as the impact of the health care institution and society at large on these care practices. Method.,An acute care teaching hospital located in a major Australian city was approached and permission was granted to access their procedure and policy manuals. The Last Offices excerpt of the procedure manual was discursively analysed. Findings.,It is the contention of this paper that, through their care, nurses enact the transition between life and death, and from person to corpse. Furthermore, nurses mediate the move from embodied person to becoming dead, and in so doing traverse the cultural, ontological and epistemological breaks that death entails. [source]

    Exploring nursing outcomes for patients with advanced cancer following intervention by Macmillan specialist palliative care nurses

    Jessica Corner BSc PhD RGN OncCert
    Background.,Little information exists about the outcomes from nursing interventions, and few studies report new approaches to evaluating the complex web of effects that may result from specialist nursing care. Aims.,The aim of this study was to explore nursing outcomes for patients with advanced cancer that may be identified as resulting from the care of a Macmillan specialist palliative care nurse. Methods/instruments.,Seventy-six patients referred to 12 United Kingdom Macmillan specialist palliative care nursing services participated in a longitudinal study of their care over 28 days. Patients were interviewed and completed the European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Scale and the Palliative Care Outcomes Scale at referral, and 3, 7 and 28 days following referral to a Macmillan specialist palliative care nursing service. A nominated carer was interviewed at baseline and 28 days. Notes recorded by Macmillan specialist palliative care nurses in relation to each patient case were analysed. Findings.,Significant improvements in emotional (P = 003) and cognitive functioning (P = 003) were identified in changes in patients' European Organization for Research on Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Scale scores, and in Palliative Care Outcomes Scale patient anxiety scores (P = 0003), from baseline to day 7. Analysis of case study data indicated that overall positive outcomes of care from Macmillan specialist palliative care nursing intervention were achieved in 42 (55%) cases. Study limitations.,Sample attrition due to patients' deteriorating condition limited the value of data from the quality of life measures. The method developed for evaluating nursing outcomes using data from patient and carer interviews and nursing records was limited by a lack of focus on outcomes of care in these data sources. Conclusions.,A method was developed for evaluating outcomes of nursing care in complex situations such as care of people who are dying. Positive outcomes of care for patients that were directly attributable to the care provided by Macmillan specialist palliative care nurses were found for the majority of patients. For a small number of patients, negative outcomes of care were identified. [source]

    John Heron's six-category intervention analysis: towards understanding interpersonal relations and progressing the delivery of clinical supervision for mental health nursing in the United Kingdom

    Graham Sloan BSc DipN RMN RGN DipCogPsychotherapy
    John Heron's six-category intervention analysis: towards understanding interpersonal relations and progressing the delivery of clinical supervision for mental health nursing in the United Kingdom Aims.,This paper provides a critique of how Heron's six-category intervention analysis framework has been adopted by nursing in the United Kingdom (UK) as a theoretical framework in nursing research and model for clinical supervision. From this, its merits as an analytic framework and model for clinical supervision in nursing are discussed. Background.,Heron's six-category intervention analysis has been acknowledged as a means by which nursing could develop its therapeutic integrity. It has also been used as a theoretical framework in nursing research focusing on nurses' perceptions of their interpersonal style. More recently descriptions of this framework have been proposed as a structure for clinical supervision. However, its use as a theoretical framework to underpin research investigating the interpersonal skills of nurses and as a model of clinical supervision must firstly be scrutinized. Findings.,Returning to Heron's original description and comparing this with its current adoption in the UK, misconceptions of this framework can be identified. Its value as an analytic tool investigating interpersonal relations in nursing has still to be evaluated. Furthermore, nursing's emphasis on certain intervention categories has undermined the potential potency of this framework and its contribution as a model for clinical supervision in nursing. Conclusion.,We argue that Heron's six-category intervention analysis as a framework to investigate the interpersonal competence of nurses, particularly mental health nurses, requires investigation. This, in turn, would provide an opportunity to challenge the framework's theoretical standpoint. In addition to its value as an analytic tool, all six categories of Heron's framework have equal relevance to its contribution in nursing as a supervision model. [source]

    The well-being of gays, lesbians and bisexuals in Botswana

    V.J. Ehlers BA BSSc MA DLitt RGN RM
    The well-being of gays, lesbians and bisexuals in Botswana Aims.,To investigate the level of well-being of gays, lesbians and bisexuals (GLBs) in Botswana, how this level of well-being could be promoted and whether their health care needs were met by health care professionals. Rationale.,It is illegal to engage in same-sex activities in Botswana, punishable by imprisonment. Although Botswana's citizens have one of Africa's best health care systems, little is known about the health status, health care needs and general well-being of Botswana's GLBs. This survey attempted to uncover some of these potential health care needs, impacting on the GLBs' well-being. Design/methods.,The research framework adopted was the health and human rights approach, placing dignity before rights. A survey design, with structured questionnaires, was used. Snow-ball sampling techniques were used. Results.,Results indicated that varying degrees of distress were experienced by 64% of the GLBs in this study. The GLBs identified a need for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) education and had concerns about their general health, discrimination against them and vulnerability to violence including sexual assaults. Conclusions.,The well-being of the GLBs in Botswana was influenced by both positive internal acceptance of their sexual orientation and negative external acceptance by society. Health care professionals played insignificant roles in the promotion of GLBs' well-being, and could make greater inputs into health education efforts, and more significant contributions towards enhancing the GLBs' levels of well-being. Enhanced collaboration between health professionals and human rights activists are recommended to reduce violations of Botswana's GLBs' dignity and to improve their quality of life, including enhanced access to and utilization of health care services. [source]

    A structured observation of the interaction between nurses and patients during the administration of medication in an acute mental health unit

    Joy A Duxbury
    Aims., This aims of this study are to describe current practice in the administration of medication in an acute psychiatric unit and explore factors that influence nurses' decisions regarding the administration of medication during ,rounds'. Background., Medication ,rounds' form part of the ward routine in many inpatient mental health settings. Nurses make several clinical decisions about administrating medication; yet, concerns have been raised about the poor assessment of patients' needs and the quality of the information exchanged. Design., A structured non-participant observational design was used for this research. Method., This study involved the observation of 20 medication ,rounds' over three months. The Ward Administration of Medication Schedule was used to report on the interactions between nurses and patients and aspects of their communication during each round. Results., From the rounds observed nurses appeared adept at communicating a positive interpersonal style but less so in demonstrating skills portraying collaboration and information giving. For example whilst nurses communicated warmth in 97% of cases, using non-verbal behaviours such as good eye contact, the provision of information was only initiated in 46% of cases. Enquiries regarding the patient's general health and medication taking (35% and 17% respectively) were less commonly observed. Verbal consent was sought in only 25% of cases. Procedural matters were adhered to overall. Conclusions., Findings suggest limited collaboration between nurses and patients and the poor monitoring of health status and medication effects. Information exchange could be improved; however, this may be related to medication procedures that make it difficult to explore sensitive information with patients, rather than nursing skills and behaviour. Relevance to clinical practice., The Ward Administration of Medication Schedule can be used as a clinical or educational tool in the administration of medication. In both instances, it may be self-administered and used to reflect on personal skills or employed as an observational tool during peer review and audit. [source]

    Assessing the impact of nurse and allied health professional consultants: developing an activity diary

    Ann Humphreys
    Aims., To construct and test an activity diary designed to measure the impact and explore the activities of nurse and allied health professional consultants in relation to each speciality and function of the role. Background., This was part of a funded feasibility study to assess the contribution of nurse and allied health professional consultants. Design., This was an exploratory study. Method., Thematic analysis of guided discussions with five nurse consultants and one physiotherapy consultant identified activities which were used to construct an activity diary. The activities were grouped under the four pillars or functions of the consultant role; expert practice, leadership, research and education. Participants recorded their activities in a diary over a one-week period. Conclusion., Results suggest that with some modification, this activity diary could be used to capture the impact, complexity and diversity of activities of the consultant role. Relevance to practice., Advanced practice roles are essential to the healthcare workforce of the future. This tool provides a method for measuring the contribution and complexity of the consultant role. [source]

    Developing a Chinese quality of life in dementia instrument for patients with early-to-moderate dementia: an exploratory test of validity

    Yi-Chen Chiu
    Aims., The purpose of this study was to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese Dementia Quality of Life instrument, which included testing the different pathways through theoretical quality of life domains (self-esteem, feelings of belonging and sense of aesthetics) to reach outcomes of positive and negative affect. Background., Perceived quality of life in dementia has been conceptualised based on dementia stages. However, the relationships among quality of life domains are unclear in patients with dementia with a Mini-Mental State Examination >10. Design., Cross-sectional study. Methods., Older people (n = 110) were consecutively recruited from memory disorder clinics and community wellness centres (controls). Of these participants, 27 were controls, 39 were diagnosed with questionable dementia and 44 with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. The instrument was back translated and validated. Results., The instrument has good overall internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha = 084,094). Item-total correlation coefficients, indicating construct validity, were all significant, except for one item. anova showed that controls, patients with questionable dementia and those with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease differed significantly in scores on Sense of Aesthetics subscale. Instrument total score and scores on three of five subscales (not Feelings of Belonging) differed significantly between control and dementia groups, but not between patients with questionable dementia and those with mild-to-moderate Alzheimer's disease. Factor analyses showed two inconsistencies with the instrument's prior conceptualisation, namely the Self-Esteem and Negative Affect subscales. The Positive Affect path model was supported but not the Negative Affect path model. Conclusions., This patient-reported Dementia Quality of Life instrument has acceptable psychometric properties in Taiwanese patients with dementia with a Mini-Mental State Examination score >10. Relevance to clinical practice., The Chinese Dementia Quality of Life instrument can be used to assess subjective quality of life in Taiwanese patients with dementia with a Mini-Mental State Examination score >10. [source]