Aims. To (aims + to)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The use of brief interventions adapted from motivational interviewing across behavioral domains: a systematic review

ADDICTION, Issue 12 2001
Chris Dunn
Aims. To examine the effectiveness of brief behavioral interventions adapting the principles and techniques of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to four behavioral domains: substance abuse, smoking, HIV risk and diet/exercise. Design. We conducted a systematic review of 29 randomized trials of MI interventions. Data on methodological quality were extracted and tabulated. Between-group behavior change effect sizes and confidence intervals were calculated for each study. Findings. Due to varying intervention time lengths, targeted problem behaviors, settings and interventionists' backgrounds and skill levels, outcomes were not combined meta-analytically. Sixty per cent of the 29 studies yielded at least one significant behavior change effect size. No significant association between length of follow-up time and magnitude of effect sizes was found across studies. There was substantial evidence that MI is an effective substance abuse intervention method when used by clinicians who are non-specialists in substance abuse treatment, particularly when enhancing entry to and engagement in more intensive substance abuse treatment treatment-as-usual. Data were inadequate to judge the effect of MI in the other domains. Client attribute-treatment interactions were understudied and the sparse and inconsistent findings revealed little about the mechanism by which MI works or for whom it works best. Conclusion. To determine more effectively how well MI works in domains other than substance abuse and for whom it works best in all domains, researchers should study MI with risk behaviors other than substance abuse, while examining both interactions and the theoretical components of MI. [source]

Adolescent emergency department presentations with alcohol- or other drug-related problems in Perth, Western Australia

ADDICTION, Issue 7 2001
Gary K. Hulse
Aims. To identify the morbidity, type of substance used and the pattern of presentation by adolescents with problems related to alcohol or other drug (AOD) use. Design. A 4-week retrospective review of hospital records. Setting. Four metropolitan hospitals in Perth, Australia. Participants. There were 1064 presentations by people aged 12-19 years of which 160 (15%) were related to AOD use. The median age of the AOD cases was 17 (interquartile range 16-19) of whom 97 (61%) were male and 19 (12%) were Indigenous Australians. Findings. Alcohol was the most frequent precursor to presentation (66, 41%) followed by heroin (24, 15%) and prescription/over-the-counter drugs (24, 15%). Injury was the most common diagnosis at presentation (50, 31%), followed by overdose/drug use (47, 29%). A diagnosis of injury was significantly more likely following the use of alcohol than other categories of substances (,2 = 42.07, df = 3, p < 0.001). Deliberate self-harm (DSH) occurred in more female than male cases (,2 = 7.4, df = 1, p < 0.01). Presentations were more frequent over the weekend (102, 64%) than on weekdays, and the length of stay was significantly shorter for weekend cases (Mann-Whitney U 2132, p < 0.05). Conclusions. Given the small window of opportunity to provide AOD treatment to youth following hospital presentation, a number of suggestions are made. From a harm-minimization perspective the focus of interventions should be on alcohol use by male youth and DSH associated with prescription/over-the-counter drug use by female adolescents. In addition, Indigenous youth are over-represented in hospital presentations, but there is currently a lack of evaluated interventions designed for them. [source]

Determining the probability of future smoking among adolescents

ADDICTION, Issue 2 2001
Won S. Choi
Aims. To determine whether the probability of future current established smoking among adolescents is related to both previous smoking experience and cognitions regarding future smoking. Design, setting and participants. The analyses used two principal datasets: (1) a US longitudinal sample of 7960 adolescents 12-18 years old in 1989 reinterviewed at 15-22 years in 1993, (2) a California longitudinal sample of 3376 adolescents 12-17 years old in 1993 reinterviewed at 15-20 years in 1996. Measures. Previous smoking experience was categorized as never smoked, puffed, non-recent or recent experimenting, and non-recent or current established smoking (, 100 cigarettes in life-time). Smoking intentions and efficacy expectations were used to classify adolescents as having low- or high-risk cognitions. Findings. High-risk cognitions (HRCs) increased the probability of future current established smoking (FCES) within each level of previous smoking experience over low-risk cognitions (LRCs); the probability of FCES for those with LRCs was about the same as those in the previous experience group with HRCs. In the US sample, the 4-year probability of FCES ranged from 5.6% for committed never smokers (with LRCs) to 83.0% for current established smokers with HRCs. Development of HRCs among middle-school never smokers occurred rapidly through age 14 years. However, current established smoking did not increase until age 14 years and stabilized by age 19 years. Where sample size was sufficient, these findings were validated in the California sample. Conclusions. Effective prevention programs should aim to convert HRCs to LRCs regardless of past behavior, particularly among middle-school never smokers and high-school experimenters. [source]

A randomized controlled trial of a smoking cessation intervention based in community pharmacies

ADDICTION, Issue 2 2001
T. A. Maguire
Aims. To evaluate whether a structured community pharmacy-based smoking cessation programme (the PAS model) would give rise to a higher smoking cessation rate compared with ad hoc advice from pharmacists. Design. A randomized controlled trial comparing a structured intervention with usual care. Setting. One hundred pharmacists working in community pharmacies in N. Ireland and 24 in London took part in the study and were each asked to enroll 12 smokers; 44% of pharmacists who were trained managed to recruit one or more smokers during the recruitment period of approximately 1 year. Participants. A total of 484 smokers were enrolled by the pharmacists and individually randomized into the PAS intervention group ( N = 265) or the control group ( N = 219). Intervention. The PAS intervention involved a structured counselling programme, an information leaflet and a follow-up weekly for the first 4 weeks then monthly as needed. Measurements. The primary outcome measure of this study was self-reported smoking cessation for 12 months with cotinine validation at the 12-month follow-up. Findings. Of smokers in the PAS group, 14.3% (38) were abstinent up to 12 months compared with 2.7% (6) in the control group ( p < 0.001 for the difference). Conclusion. The community pharmacy-based PAS smoking cessation service can be an effective method of helping people stop smoking when delivered by pharmacists willing to adopt this approach. [source]

Alcohol consumption and overall accident mortality in 14 European countries

ADDICTION, Issue 1s1 2001
Ole-Jørgen Skog
Aims. To evaluate the effects of changes in aggregate alcohol consumption on overall accident mortality in 14 western European countries after 1950, and to compare traditional beer, wine, and spirits countries with respect to the impact of alcohol. Design, setting and participants. The countries were sorted into three groups - traditional spirits countries of northern Europe, traditional beer countries of central Europe and wine countries of southern Europe. Gender- and age-specific annual mortality rates were analysed in relation to per capita alcohol consumption, utilizing the Box-Jenkins technique for time series analysis. All series were differenced to remove long-term trends. The results of the analyses in individual countries were pooled within each group of countries to increase the statistical power. Measurements. Overall accident mortality data for 5-year age groups were converted to gender and age specific mortality rates in the age groups 15-29, 30-49 and 50-69 years. Rates were age adjusted within groups. Data on per capita alcohol consumption were converted to consumption per inhabitant 15 years and older. Findings. The analyses demonstrated a statistically significant and positive relationship between changes in aggregate alcohol consumption in all three groups of countries. The estimated effect parameter was larger in northern Europe than in central Europe, and smallest in southern Europe. Conclusion. The results are compatible with the hypothesis that accident mortality rates are influenced by per capita alcohol consumption in southern, central and northern Europe. However, alcohol appears to play a larger role in northern Europe than in southern Europe. [source]

A longitudinal study of cannabis use and mental health from adolescence to early adulthood

ADDICTION, Issue 4 2000
Rob McGee
Aims. To examine the longitudinal association between cannabis use and mental health. Design. Information concerning cannabis use and mental health from 15 to 21 years was available for a large sample of individuals as part of a longitudinal study from childhood to adulthood. Participants. Participants were enrolled in the Dunedin Multidisciplinary Health and Development Study, a research programme on the health, development and behaviour of a large group of New Zealanders born between 1 April 1972 and 31 March 1973. Measurements. Cannabis use and identification of mental disorder was based upon self-report as part of a general assessment of mental health using a standard diagnostic interview. Daily smoking and alcohol use at age 15 were assessed by self-report. Indices of family socio-economic status, family climate and parent - child interaction were formed using information gathered from parent report and behavioural observations over early childhood. Childhood behaviour problems were assessed by parent and teacher report. Attachment to parents was assessed in adolescence. Findings. Cross-sectional associations between cannabis use and mental disorder were significant at all three ages. Both outcome variables shared similar pathways of low socio-economic status and history of behaviour problems in childhood, and low parental attachment in adolescence. Mental disorder at age 15 led to a small but significantly elevated risk of cannabis use at age 18; by contrast, cannabis use at age 18 elevated the risk of mental disorder at age 21. The latter association reflected the extent to which cannabis dependence and other externalizing disorders at age 21 were predicted by earlier level of involvement with cannabis. Conclusions. The findings suggest that the primary causal direction leads from mental disorder to cannabis use among adolescents and the reverse in early adulthood. Both alcohol use and cigarette smoking had independent associations with later mental health disorder. [source]

Does cannabis use encourage other forms of illicit drug use?

ADDICTION, Issue 4 2000
David M. Fergusson
Aims. To examine the relationship between cannabis use in adolescence and the onset of other illicit drug use. Method. Data were gathered over the course of a 21-year longitudinal study of a birth cohort of 1265 New Zealand children. Measures analysed included: (a) frequency of cannabis use and other illicit drugs from 15-21; (b) family, social, educational and behavioural backgrounds of cohort members prior to 15; and (c) adolescent life-style variables. Findings. (i) By 21, nearly 70% of cohort members and used cannabis and 26% had used other illicit drugs. (ii) In all but three cases, the use of cannabis had preceded the use of illicit drugs. (iii) Those using cannabis on more than 50 occasions a year had hazards of other illicit drug use that were 140 times higher than non-users. (iv)After adjustment for covariate factors, including childhood factors, family factors and adolescent life-style factors, cannabis use remained strongly related to the onset of other forms of illicit drug use. Those using cannabis on more than 50 occasions per year had hazards of other illicit drug use that were 59.2 times higher than non-users. Conclusions. Findings support the view that cannabis may act as a gateway drug that encourages other forms of illicit drug use. None the less, the possibility remains that the association is non-causal and reflects factors that were not adequately controlled in the analysis. [source]

Microbiological assessment of bile during cholecystectomy: is all bile infected?

HPB, Issue 3 2007
Abstract Aims. To determine the prevalence of bactibilia in patients undergoing cholecystectomy and to relate the presence or absence of organisms to the preoperative and postoperative course. Patients and methods. Patients undergoing cholecystectomy under the care of a single consultant surgeon during a continuous 5-year period were identified from a prospectively maintained departmental database. Symptoms, clinical signs, findings of investigations, details of treatment and postoperative care were noted. Risk factors for bactibilia (acute cholecystitis, common duct stones, emergency surgery, intraoperative findings and age > 70 years) were documented. Patients were divided according to the presence (B +) or absence (B,) of bacteria on culture of their bile. Results. In all, 128/180 (70%) of cholecystectomies had full data available for analysis. Bacteria were identified in the bile of 20 (15.6%) patients (B+ group). The B+ group was significantly older at 63.78±9.7 versus 61.62±13.9 (p<0.05) and contained significantly fewer females than the B, group (p<0.05). All 20 patients (100%) in the B+ group had , 1 risk factor, while these factors were present in only 29/108 (30.3%) of patients in the B, group (p<0.05). The overall incidence of infective complications was 20% in the B+ group compared with 0.9% in the B, group (p<0.05) and the bile-related infections were higher in the B+ group (p<0.05). Conclusions. The study demonstrated that while patients with complicated gallstone disease frequently exhibit bactibilia, patients with uncomplicated cholelithiasis have aseptic bile. The findings would suggest that prophylactic antibiotics should be limited to patients with risk factors for bactibilia. [source]

Beneficial effect of enalapril in spontaneously hypertensive rats cardiac remodeling with nitric oxide synthesis blockade

R. L. de Andrade Zorzi
Abstract Aims. To study the efficiency of an angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor on the blood pressure (BP) and the myocardium remodeling when spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) are submitted to nitric oxide synthesis (NOs) blockade (with L-NAME) and simultaneously treated. Methods. Young adult male SHRs were separated in four groups (n = 5) and treated for 20 days: Control, L-NAME, L-NAME+Enalapril, and Enalapril. The alterations of the BP, heart mass/body mass ratio and stereological parameters for myocytes, connective tissue and intramyocardial vessels were studied among the groups. Results. The SHRs with NOs blockade showed a great modification of the myocardium with extensive areas of reparative and interstitial fibrosis and accentuated hypertrophy of the cardiac myocytes (cross sectional area 60% higher in animals taking L-NAME than in Control SHRs). Comparing the SHRs with NO deficiency (L-NAME group), the Control SHRs and the Enalapril treated SHRs significant differences were found in the BP and in all stereological parameters. The NO deficiency caused an important BP increment in SHRs that was partially attenuated by Enalapril. This Enalapril effect was more pronounced in Control SHRs. A significant increment of the intramyocardial vessels was observed in NO deficient SHRs and Control SHRs treated with Enalapril demonstrated by the stereology (greater microvascular densities in treated SHRs). Conclusion. Enalapril administration showed a beneficial effect on vascular remodeling and myocardial hypertrophy in SHRs. In SHRs with NO blockade, however, the beneficial effect of Enalapril occurred only in vascular remodeling. [source]

Burns to persons suffering from diabetes: a systemic preventive approach

MScN (edu), Ma'en Zaid Abu-Qamar Dnurs
Aims. To report the findings of an investigation of patients with diabetes and burns, with emphasis on implications for practice: primary and secondary preventions. Background. Diabetes and burns are complex conditions with multi-system involvements, which worsen outcomes for patients, and their management. This research investigated outcomes for patients and diabetes management. Methods. Data on outcomes were obtained from records of patients hospitalised for foot burns in an Australian hospital from 1999,2004. A questionnaire survey design was employed to obtain information on how clinicians in burns units manage diabetes. SPSS was used to analyse data obtained from both resources. Comments written in the questionnaire were analysed using relational analysis. Results. Of the 64 patients, 12 were with diabetes and 52 were without diabetes. Those with diabetes were more likely to sustain contact foot burns (58·3% Diabetes Mellitus vs. 13·5% non Diabetes Mellitus ,2 = 11·487, p = 0·002). The duration of hospitalisation was statistically significantly longer among patients with diabetes compared with those without diabetes (U = 169, p = 0·014); although the two groups were not statistically significant different in terms of severity of burns and received treatment. Of the 29 clinical leaders, 21 (72%) indicated that they regularly provided care to patients with diabetes. Most respondents (n = 15; 58%) reported that new plans need to be initiated to accommodate the combined insult of diabetes and burns. Diabetes centres were located in all participating sites; but not always involved in the process of care. Conclusion. The co-existence of diabetes and burns worsens outcomes for patients, and complicates management plans. Optimal management can be achieved via a multidisciplinary approach starting with glycaemic control, and continued to aggressive management of diabetes and burns. Relevance to clinical practice. Preventive measures should start with tight glycaemic control, identification and avoidance of sources of trauma, early detection and treatment, and continue to aggressive inpatient management of patients with both diabetes and a burn injury. [source]

Microchimerism and rejection: a meta-analysis

Amrik Sahota
Aims. To study the relationship between graft rejection and microchimerism with and without donor bone marrow infusion in recipients of kidney, liver, heart and lung transplants. Selection of manuscripts. Thirty-seven manuscripts presenting clinical data on microchimerism and rejection, published between 1991 and 1997, were identified. Of these, 16 were excluded due to duplication or insufficient data. Inclusion criteria were data on microchimerism, bone marrow infusion and rejection episodes. Statistical tests. A mixed effect logistic model was used to test for homogeneity of transplant centers. The centers were found to be homogeneous for rejection rates controlling for microchimerism and bone marrow infusion. Using rejection episodes at 3, 6, and 12 months post-transplant as the outcome, we evaluated logistic regression models to derive odds ratios for rejection with microchimerism and with bone marrow infusion for each organ. Results. Microchimerism was generally associated with a higher incidence of acute rejection for heart, lung, and kidney transplants and a lower incidence for liver transplants, especially at 12 months and above. Bone marrow infusion decreased the risk of acute rejection for heart transplants and increased the risk for lung and, to a lesser extent, for liver transplants. No consistent effect was seen in kidney transplants. At 12 months and longer, microchimerism was associated with a decreased incidence of chronic rejection in recipients of lung transplants, but there were insufficient data to determine this outcome for other organs. Conclusions. (i) Microchimerism was detected in the majority of patients. (ii) The effect of microchimerism and bone marrow infusion on rejection episodes varied with the organ and, for a given organ, it was time-dependent. (iii) These findings demonstrate the need for more extensive studies on microchimerism and donor-specific hyporesponsiveness. [source]