Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Faculty

  • academic faculty
  • clinical faculty
  • college faculty
  • medical faculty
  • new faculty
  • nursing faculty
  • part-time faculty
  • university faculty

  • Terms modified by Faculty

  • faculty development
  • faculty member
  • faculty perception
  • faculty practice
  • faculty union

  • Selected Abstracts

    Abstract for INVITED FACULTY

    Article first published online: 20 SEP 2010
    First page of article [source]

    Clinical use of physical activity measures

    CRNP (Associate Professor), Lorraine M Reiser PhD
    Abstract Purpose:, To provide a review of physical activity measures and subjective and objective methods of its measurement. Considerations for the use of these measurements in research and practice will be discussed. Data sources:, The PubMed, CINAHL, and Health and Psychosocial Instruments databases, and the Centers for Disease Control Web site were searched using the search term "Physical Activity Measurement." Conclusions:, Physical activity is a lifestyle factor that is a key focus in chronic disease,related research, prevention, and interventions. Healthy People 2010 set goals of decreasing the prevalence of preventable diseases by encouraging healthier lifestyle patterns. Shifts toward more sedentary lifestyles have resulted in increases in life-limiting disease states, including obesity, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, and osteoporosis. Physical activity measurements have been used widely in research studies but are less commonly used in primary care. Measuring individuals' physical activity levels as part of the health assessment will enhance the provider's ability to engage in health promotion and suggest health protection interventions. The strengths, weaknesses, and potential applications to practice of physical activity measures are summarized in an effort to familiarize nurse practitioners (NPs) with commonly used tools and encourage integration of physical activity assessment into their current practice. Implications for practice:, NPs are in an ideal position to promote health by encouraging appropriate amounts of physical activity. Screening, health promotion, and disease prevention are part of the core competencies of NP practice established by the National Organization of Nurse Practitioner Faculties. Increased knowledge of physical activity measures will enhance the NP's ability to evaluate relevant physical activity research for use in evidence-based practice. Incorporation of simple yet appropriate physical activity measurements into practice will expand the NP's ability to identify and thus address sedentary lifestyles in their clientele. [source]

    New methodologies in teaching e-structural mechanics using WWW,

    Carmelo Maiorana
    Abstract A recently initiated phase of experimentation and research in the online Distance Learning (DL) is here described. The project has been developed by the Department of Construction and Transportation Engineering of the Faculty of Engineering at the University of Padua along with the well-established e-learning experience of the SSIS Veneto (Institute for the Formation of Secondary School's Teachers) of Cà Foscari,University of Venice, in collaboration with the webmaster management of TCN-EnginSoft of Padua. The work deals with teaching methodologies supported by the net, computer communication and information technologies, finalized to give both widespread access to useful resources and to create a more flexible exchange due to net communication. The experimentation of using web-based technologies to support traditional teaching for working students is described; in fact, Internet-based innovations offer opportunities for a curriculum improvement to those categories of students who could be considered at a disadvantage, like worker students or students with ear or motion deafness. © 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Comput Appl Eng Educ 16: 189,210, 2008; Published online in Wiley InterScience (www.interscience.wiley.com); DOI 10.1002/cae20167 [source]

    Interleukin-1 receptor antagonist and tumour necrosis factor-alpha gene polymorphisms in Turkish patients with allergic contact dermatitis

    CONTACT DERMATITIS, Issue 2 2009
    Ilgen Ertam
    Background: It has been shown that the family of interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1 RA) and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF,) genes are polymorphic and related to some inflammatory diseases. Allergic contact dermatitis is the classic presentation of delayed-type hypersensitivity responses to exogenous agents. A number of genes playing role in inflammatory response may be associated with allergic contact dermatitis. Objectives: To investigate whether there is an association between IL-1RA and TNF, gene polymorphisms and allergic contact dermatitis in Turkish patients with allergic contact dermatitis. Methods: This study was performed by the collaboration of Departments of Dermatology and Medical Genetics, Ege University, Faculty of Medicine. A total of 50 patients (31 females and 19 males) with allergic contact dermatitis, and 100 age- and sex-matched controls (58 females and 42 males) were included in the study. IL-1RA Variable Number of Tandem Repeats (VNTR) polymorphism in intron 2 and TNF,-308G-A polymorphism were genotyped by using polymerase chain reaction and agarose gel electrophoresis. Results: The frequency of IL-1RA 1/2 (48%) genotype was significantly higher (P = 0.002) in patient group than that is found in control group (22%). The frequency of TNF, (TNF G-308A) G/G genotype was significantly higher in patient group (68%) than that is found in control group (31%) (P = 0.008). Conclusions: Our findings suggest that TNF, (G/G) gene polymorphism may play role in susceptibility to allergic contact dermatitis in Turkish patients. [source]

    Retrospective clinical study of 90 avulsed permanent teeth in 58 children

    Vasileios Tzigkounakis
    We analyzed the documentations of a sample of patients containing 57 children who had a total of 90 avulsed teeth and were treated in Dentistry Department of Medical Faculty in Pilsen, Czech Republic, in the years between 1995 and 2005. We discovered that most frequently the children experience dental avulsion in the age between 8 and 11 years old, the most affected teeth are the upper central incisors and the most frequent causes are sports and games which are very common in these ages, in various environments, like schools, sport fields and home. The majority of the children were transferred to the Dentistry Department either quite long after the avulsion incident and without the avulsed teeth, or with the avulsed teeth which were carried in an inappropriate transport medium, indicating that there is insufficient knowledge of adult people, especially the ones who are in daily contact with children, on how to provide first aid in cases of dental avulsion. [source]

    Clinical investigation of traumatic injuries in Yeditepe University, Turkey during the last 3 years

    Nuket Sandalli
    Abstract,,, The aim of this study was to evaluate etiology, types of traumatic dental injuries, treatment and to determine the incidence of complications according to dental injuries in patients who referred to Yeditepe University, Faculty of Dentistry, Istanbul, Turkey. The study was based on the clinical data of the 161 traumatized teeth in 92 patients. WHO classification slightly modified by Andreasen & Andreasen for dental trauma was used. The causes and localization of trauma, traumatized teeth classification, treatment and complications were evaluated both primary and permanent teeth. The distribution of complications according to diagnosis and treatment of the injured teeth were evaluated. Of 35 (38%) girls and 56 (72%) boys with a mean age 7.6 ± 3.5 (ranging 1,14.2) participated to study and the mean followed up was 1.72 ± 1.28 years (ranging 0.10,3.8 years). From the 161 affected teeth, 69 (42.9%) were in primary teeth and 92 (57.1%) in permanent teeth. The highest frequency of trauma occurred in the 6,12 year age group. Overall boys significantly outnumbered girls by approximately 1:1.6. The most common type of injury in the primary and permanent teeth was seen as luxation (38%) and enamel fracture (20%) of the maxillary central incisors, respectively. Falls were the major sources of trauma both the primary (90%) and the permanent teeth (84%). In the primary dentition, the most common type of soft tissue injury is contusion (62.5%) and in the permanent dentition, it is laceration (49%). The most of the treatment choice was determined as examination only and extraction in primary teeth (58 and 24.6%, respectively) while it was applied as restoration and pulpectomy in permanent teeth (31.5 and 18.5%, respectively). Complications were recorded on 37 teeth (23%) with a most common type of necrosis (10.5%) and dental abscess (7.4%). Necrosis was more frequent in luxation whereas dental abscess were in crown fracture with pulpal involvement in both dentitions. The study showed that boys were more prone to dental traumas than girls. Falls were more frequent trauma type with a high complication risk. It reveals that the time of the immediate treatment showed the important predisposing factors that increase the success of treatment and decrease the risk of complication. The correct diagnosis of dental injuries is more important for eliminating the occurrence of complications. [source]

    On the Very Idea of a Science Forming Faculty

    DIALECTICA, Issue 2 2002
    John Collins
    It has been speculated, by Chomsky and others, that our capacity for scientific understanding is not only enabled but also limited by a biologically endowed science forming faculty (SFF). I look at two sorts of consideration for the SFF thesis and find both wanting. Firstly, it has been claimed that a problem-mystery distinction militates for the SFF thesis. I suggest that the distinction can be coherently drawn for cases, but that the purported,evidence'for even a fairly lose general demarcation of problems and mysteries is not best explained by a SFF. Secondly, I consider in detail a range of cognitive considerations for the SFF thesis and contend that it is at best moot whether science can be so construed as to make it feasible that it is a faculty competence. [source]

    Comparison of Outcomes of Two Skills-teaching Methods on Lay-rescuers' Acquisition of Infant Basic Life Support Skills

    Itai Shavit MD
    ACADEMIC EMERGENCY MEDICINE 2010; 17:979,986 © 2010 by the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine Abstract Objectives:, The objective was to determine if lay-rescuers' acquisition of infant basic life support (BLS) skills would be better when skills teaching consisted of videotaping practice and providing feedback on performances, compared to conventional skills-teaching and feedback methods. Methods:, This pilot-exploratory, single-blind, prospective, controlled, randomized study was conducted on November 12, 2007, at the Rappaport Faculty of Medicine, Technion,Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa, Israel. The population under study consisted of all first-year medical students enrolled in the 2007,2008 year. BLS training is part of their mandatory introductory course in emergency medicine. Twenty-three students with previous BLS training were excluded. The remaining 71 were randomized into four and then two groups, with final allocation to an intervention and control group of 18 and 16 students, respectively. All the students participated in infant BLS classroom teaching. Those in the intervention group practiced skills acquisition independently, and four were videotaped while practicing. Tapes were reviewed by the group and feedback was provided. Controls practiced using conventional teaching and feedback methods. After 3 hours, all subjects were videotaped performing an unassisted, lone-rescuer, infant BLS resuscitation scenario. A skills assessment tool was developed. It consisted of 25 checklist items, grouped into four sections: 6 points for "categories" (with specific actions in six categories), 14 points for "scoring" (of accuracy of performance of each action), 4 points for "sequence" (of actions within a category), and 1 point for "order" of resuscitation (complete and well-sequenced categories). Two blinded expert raters were given a workshop on the use of the scoring tool. They further refined it to increase scoring consistency. The main outcome of the study was defined as evidence of better skills acquisition in overall skills in the four sections and in the specific skills sets for actions in any individual category. Data analysis consisted of descriptive statistics. Results:, Means and mean percentages were greater in the intervention group in all four sections compared to controls: categories (5.72 [95.33%] and 4.69 [92.66%]), scoring (10.57 [75.50%] and 7.41 [43.59%]), sequence (2.28 [57.00%] and 1.66 [41.50%]), and order of resuscitation (0.96 [96.00%] and 0.19 [19.00%]). The means and mean percentages of the actions (skill sets) in the intervention group were also larger than those of controls in five out of six categories: assessing responsiveness (1.69 [84.50%] and 1.13 [56.50%]), breathing technique (1.69 [93.00%] and 1.13 [47.20%]), chest compression technique (3.19 [77.50%] and 1.84 [46.00%]), activating emergency medical services (EMS) (3.00 [100.00%] and 2.81 [84.50%]), and resuming cardiopulmonary resuscitation (0.97 [97.00%] and 0.47 [47.00%]). These results demonstrate better performance in the intervention group. Conclusions:, The use of videotaped practice and feedback for the acquisition of overall infant BLS skills and of specific skill sets is effective. Observation and participation in the feedback and assessment of nonexperts attempting infant BLS skills appeared to improve the ability of this group of students to perform the task. [source]

    Addiction research centres and the nurturing of creativity: Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD), Stockholm University, Sweden

    ADDICTION, Issue 3 2010
    Kerstin Stenius
    ABSTRACT The Centre for Social Research on Alcohol and Drugs (SoRAD) was established as a national research centre and department within the Faculty of Social Science at Stockholm University in 1997, following a Government Report and with the aim to strengthen social alcohol and drug research. Initially, core funding came from the Swedish Council for Working Life and Social Research and from the Ministry of Health and Social Affairs for several long-term projects. Today, SoRAD, with 25 senior and junior researchers, has core funding from the university but most of its funding comes from external national and international grants. Research is organized under three themes: consumption, problems and norms, alcohol and drug policy and societal reactions, treatment and recovery processes. SoRADs scientific approach, multi-disciplinarity, a mix of qualitative and quantitative methods and international comparisons was established by the centre's first leader, Robin Room. Regular internal seminars are held and young researchers are encouraged to attend scientific meetings and take part in collaborative projects. SoRAD researchers produce government-funded monthly statistics on alcohol consumption and purchase, and take part in various national government committees, but SoRADs research has no clear political or bureaucratic constraints. One of the future challenges for SoRAD will be the proposed system for university grants allocation, where applied social science will have difficulties competing with basic biomedical research if decisions are based on publication and citation measures. [source]

    The Demands of 24/7 Coverage: Using Faculty Perceptions to Measure Fairness of the Schedule

    Frank L. Zwemer Jr. MD
    Objectives: Ensuring fair, equitable scheduling of faculty who work 24-hour, 7-day-per-week (24/7) clinical coverage is a challenge for academic emergency medicine (EM). Because most emergency department care is at personally valuable times (evenings, weekends, nights), optimizing clinical work is essential for the academic mission. To evaluate schedule fairness, the authors developed objective criteria for stress of the schedule, modified the schedule to improve equality, and evaluated faculty perceptions. They hypothesized that improved equality would increase faculty satisfaction. Methods: Perceived stress was measured for types of clinical shifts. The seven daily shifts were classified as weekday, weekend, or holiday (plus one unique teaching-conference coverage shift). Faculty assigned perceived stress to shifts (ShiftStress) utilizing visual analog scales (VAS). Faculty schedules were measured (ShiftScores) for two years (1998,1999), and ShiftScore distribution of faculty was determined quarterly. Schedules were modified (1999) to reduce interindividual ShiftScore standard deviation (SD). The survey was performed pre- and postintervention. Results: Preintervention, 26 faculty (100% of eligible) assigned VAS to 22 shifts. Increased stress was perceived in progression (weekday data, 0,10 scale) from day to evening to night (2.07, 5.00, 6.67, respectively) and from weekday to weekend to holiday (day-shift data, 2.07, 4.93, 5.87). The intervention reduced interindividual ShiftScore SD by 21%. Postintervention survey revealed no change in perceived equality or satisfaction. Conclusions: Faculty perceived no improvement despite scheduling modifications that improved equality of the schedule and provided objective measures. Other predictors of stress, fairness, and satisfaction with the demanding clinical schedule must be identified to ensure the success of EM faculty. [source]

    Childhood leukaemia: experiences of children and attitudes of parents on dental care

    Ç.E. ÇUBUKÇU phd
    Parental perceptions in the importance of dental care and preferences with regard to its provision while profiling the level of dental health knowledge of parents of leukaemic children were elicited. The setting was the Paediatric Dental Care Unit located in Medical Faculty. Data were collected by means of a structured interview, employing a questionnaire. Level of knowledge on both dental facts and preventive dentistry of the participants was insufficient. Major source of dental care was the resident paediatric dentist both in prior to (78.2%) and following (100%) diagnosis. Tooth extraction (17.6%) was the only treatment provided prior to diagnosis. Following diagnosis, 60 (69%) of these children had received operative dental treatment. The source of preventive advice was inconsistent. Parents appeared to place a high level of importance on their children's dental care and the preference for this to be provided within the hospitals in which the child has been treated. There is clearly a need to establish dental care units in hospitals in which treatment of childhood malignancy is provided. The provision for the future should be the continuous education of dentists, physicians and nurses who work in hospitals and public health services. [source]

    Impact of Emergency Medicine Faculty and an Airway Protocol on Airway Management

    James H. Jones MD
    Objective: To determine the impact of emergency medicine (EM) faculty presence and an airway management protocol on success rates of tracheal intubation in the emergency department (ED). Methods: A retrospective observational study of prospectively collected data on rates of successful intubations between June 1997 and December 2001 in the ED of a large urban teaching hospital. The authors compared success rates of the first attempt at intubation and times to intubation prior to and after EM faculty presence and the institution of an airway management protocol. Results: Prior to EM faculty presence and the airway management protocol, tracheal intubation was achieved on the first attempt 46% of the time; more than six attempts were required 2.9% of the time. The mean time to intubation was 9.2 minutes (±13.2 SD). Following EM faculty presence and the airway protocol, the success rate on the first attempt was 62%, more than six attempts were required 1.1% of the time, and the mean time to intubation was 4.6 minutes (±6.2 SD). Conclusions: First-attempt intubation success rates and decreased mean time to successful intubation improved following EM faculty presence and the introduction of an airway management protocol. [source]

    The oral ecosystem: implications for education

    H. M. Eriksen
    Abstract, We propose a model that is applicable to oral health education. The model describes the oral cavity in a complexity-based ecological context. This concept includes the premise that factors from different organisational levels (biological, individual, community, society) interact in a complex way with the potential to ,stress' the ecosystem and thereby provoke changes. This mode of action complies with the understanding of the oral cavity as a complex adaptive system. An ecological model is actively used in the undergraduate problem-based curriculum at the Faculty of Odontology, Malmö University, Sweden and has recently been applied as a conceptual basis for the new dental curriculum being established at the University of Tromsø in Northern Norway. The purpose is to encourage and promote an ecological, health-oriented view and to stimulate reflections on premises for oral health and diseases in an integrated context. [source]

    Relationship between knowledge and attitudes regarding HIV/AIDS among dental school employees and students

    K. M. Börsum
    Objectives:, Employees and students at the Faculty of Dentistry, University of Oslo responded to a comprehensive questionnaire regarding knowledge and attitudes towards human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The intention of the present study was to describe possible relationships between the two. Method:, The questionnaire consisted of 39 closed questions. The response rate was 75% (436/584). The answers were used to construct additive indices for knowledge and attitudes. Results:, The knowledge index reflected the number of correct answers concerning risk groups and transmission. A factor analysis revealed three dimensions of attitudes (,legal', ,personal risk', and ,personal consequences'), which were analysed separately against knowledge. Correlation analyses (Spearman r) of all respondents together (n = 436) revealed a weak, but statistically significant, positive correlation between knowledge and the ,legal' and ,personal risk' dimension of attitudes (r = 0.16, P < 0.01; r = 0.21, P < 0.001). The ,personal consequence' dimension was not significantly correlated with knowledge (r = 0.06, P > 0.05). The strongest correlation was found between knowledge and the ,legal' dimension (r = 0.43, P < 0.001), and knowledge and the ,personal risk' dimension (r = 0.41, P < 0.002) amongst fourth year students. No particular group of employees or students displayed a significant correlation between knowledge and the ,personal consequence' dimension of attitudes. Conclusions:, Three dimensions on attitudes concerning patients with HIV/acquired immune deficiency syndrome were identified amongst the respondents. A weak correlation between knowledge and two of the attitudes might indicate that knowledge plays a role in this respect. [source]

    Student satisfaction with curriculum modifications in a French dental school

    P. Farge
    Since 1994, important modifications have been implemented in the dental curriculum in France, and an additional year has been included in the dental curriculum. The 1st year has remained unchanged; it is common to both medical and dental schools and leads to a selection procedure of 1 in 10 dental students. In the new curriculum, the dental student is engaged in a 5-year programme in dental school (years 2 to 6), as opposed to 4 years in the former programme (years 2 to 5). Basically, this new curriculum emphasises research initiation, links with medical training and offers broader clinical experience. During the academic year 1998,1999, dental schools had 2 different types of students: the 4th year students belonging to the new programme along with the 5th year students in their final year of the old curriculum. Using a specially devised questionnaire, we investigated the students' perception of their respective training, their motivation and professional plans. At the Faculty of Odontology in Lyon, the new curriculum is perceived as an increased strain by the dental students. [source]

    Joint Symposium of the Society for the Study of Addiction and the Faculty of Substance Misuse of the Royal College of Psychiatrists

    ADDICTION BIOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    Article first published online: 9 JUN 200
    First page of article [source]

    Discussion on ,Personality psychology as a truly behavioural science' by R. Michael Furr

    Article first published online: 14 JUL 200
    Yes We Can! A Plea for Direct Behavioural Observation in Personality Research MITJA D. BACK and BORIS EGLOFF Department of Psychology, Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz, Germany mback@uni-leipzig.de Furr's target paper (this issue) is thought to enhance the standing of personality psychology as a truly behavioural science. We wholeheartedly agree with this goal. In our comment we argue for more specific and ambitious requirements for behavioural personality research. Specifically, we show why behaviour should be observed directly. Moreover, we illustratively describe potentially interesting approaches in behavioural personality research: lens model analyses, the observation of multiple behaviours in diverse experimentally created situations and the observation of behaviour in real life. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Categories of Behaviour Should be Clearly Defined PETER BORKENAU Department of Psychology, Martin-Luther University Halle-Wittenberg, Germany p.borkenau@psych.uni-halle.de The target paper is helpful by clarifying the terminology as well as the strengths and weaknesses of several approaches to collect behavioural data. Insufficiently considered, however, is the clarity of the categories being used for the coding of behaviour. Evidence is reported showing that interjudge agreement for retrospective and even concurrent codings of behaviour does not execeed interjudge agreement for personality traits if the categories being used for the coding of behaviour are not clearly defined. By contrast, if the behaviour to be registered is unambiguously defined, interjudge agreement may be almost perfect. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Behaviour Functions in Personality Psychology PHILIP J. CORR Department of Psychology, Faculty of Social Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, UK Philip.Corr@btopenworld.com Furr's target paper highlights the importance, yet under-representation, of behaviour in published articles in personality psychology. Whilst agreeing with most of his points, I remain unclear as to how behaviour (as specifically defined by Furr) relates to other forms of psychological data (e.g. cognitive task performance). In addition, it is not clear how the functions of behaviour are to be decided: different behaviours may serve the same function; and identical behaviours may serve different functions. To clarify these points, methodological and theoretical aspects of Furr's proposal would benefit from delineation. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. On the Difference Between Experience-Sampling Self-Reports and Other Self-Reports WILLIAM FLEESON Department of Psychology, Wake Forest University, Winston-Salem, NC, USA fleesonW@wfu.edu Furr's fair but evaluative consideration of the strengths and weaknesses of behavioural assessment methods is a great service to the field. As part of his consideration, Furr makes a subtle and sophisticated distinction between different self-report methods. It is easy to dismiss all self-reports as poor measures, because some are poor. In contrast, Furr points out that the immediacy of the self-reports of behaviour in experience-sampling make experience-sampling one of the three strongest methods for assessing behaviour. This comment supports his conclusion, by arguing that ESM greatly diminishes one the three major problems afflicting self-reports,lack of knowledge,and because direct observations also suffer from the other two major problems afflicting self-reports. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What and Where is ,Behaviour' in Personality Psychology? LAURA A. KING and JASON TRENT Department of Psychology, University of Missouri, Columbia, USA kingla@missouri.edu Furr is to be lauded for presenting a coherent and persuasive case for the lack of behavioural data in personality psychology. While agreeing wholeheartedly that personality psychology could benefit from greater inclusion of behavioural variables, here we question two aspects of Furr's analysis, first his definition of behaviour and second, his evidence that behaviour is under-appreciated in personality psychology. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Naturalistic Observation of Daily Behaviour in Personality Psychology MATTHIAS R. MEHL Department of Psychology, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA mehl@email.arizona.edu This comment highlights naturalistic observation as a specific method within Furr's (this issue) cluster direct behavioural observation and discusses the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) as a naturalistic observation sampling method that can be used in relatively large, nomothetic studies. Naturalistic observation with a method such as the EAR can inform researchers' understanding of personality in its relationship to daily behaviour in two important ways. It can help calibrate personality effects against act-frequencies of real-world behaviour and provide ecological, behavioural personality criteria that are independent of self-report. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Measuring Behaviour D. S. MOSKOWITZ and JENNIFER J. RUSSELL Department of Psychology, McGill University, Montreal, Canada dsm@psych.mcgill.ca Furr (this issue) provides an illuminating comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of various methods for assessing behaviour. In the selection of a method for assessing behaviour, there should be a careful analysis of the definition of the behaviour and the purpose of assessment. This commentary clarifies and expands upon some points concerning the suitability of experience sampling measures, referred to as Intensive Repeated Measurements in Naturalistic Settings (IRM-NS). IRM-NS measures are particularly useful for constructing measures of differing levels of specificity or generality, for providing individual difference measures which can be associated with multiple layers of contextual variables, and for providing measures capable of reflecting variability and distributional features of behaviour. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Behaviours, Non-Behaviours and Self-Reports SAMPO V. PAUNONEN Department of Psychology, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada paunonen@uwo.ca Furr's (this issue) thoughtful analysis of the contemporary body of research in personality psychology has led him to two conclusions: our science does not do enough to study real, observable behaviours; and, when it does, too often it relies on ,weak' methods based on retrospective self-reports of behaviour. In reply, I note that many researchers are interested in going beyond the study of individual behaviours to the behaviour trends embodied in personality traits; and the self-report of behaviour, using well-validated personality questionnaires, is often the best measurement option. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. An Ethological Perspective on How to Define and Study Behaviour LARS PENKE Department of Psychology, The University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, UK lars.penke@ed.ac.uk While Furr (this issue) makes many important contributions to the study of behaviour, his definition of behaviour is somewhat questionable and also lacks a broader theoretical frame. I provide some historical and theoretical background on the study of behaviour in psychology and biology, from which I conclude that a general definition of behaviour might be out of reach. However, psychological research can gain from adding a functional perspective on behaviour in the tradition of Tinbergens's four questions, which takes long-term outcomes and fitness consequences of behaviours into account. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. What is a Behaviour? MARCO PERUGINI Faculty of Psychology, University of Milan,Bicocca, Milan, Italy marco.perugini@unimib.it The target paper proposes an interesting framework to classify behaviour as well as a convincing plea to use it more often in personality research. However, besides some potential issues in the definition of what is a behaviour, the application of the proposed definition to specific cases is at times inconsistent. I argue that this is because Furr attempts to provide a theory-free definition yet he implicitly uses theoretical considerations when applying the definition to specific cases. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Is Personality Really the Study of Behaviour? MICHAEL D. ROBINSON Department of Psychology, North Dakota State University, Fargo, ND, USA Michael.D.Robinson@ndsu.edu Furr (this issue) contends that behavioural studies of personality are particularly important, have been under-appreciated, and should be privileged in the future. The present commentary instead suggests that personality psychology has more value as an integrative science rather than one that narrowly pursues a behavioural agenda. Cognition, emotion, motivation, the self-concept and the structure of personality are important topics regardless of their possible links to behaviour. Indeed, the ultimate goal of personality psychology is to understanding individual difference functioning broadly considered rather than behaviour narrowly considered. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Linking Personality and Behaviour Based on Theory MANFRED SCHMITT Department of Psychology, University of Koblenz-Landau, Landau, Germany schmittm@uni-landau.de My comments on Furr's (this issue) target paper ,Personality as a Truly Behavioural Science' are meant to complement his behavioural taxonomy and sharpen some of the presumptions and conclusions of his analysis. First, I argue that the relevance of behaviour for our field depends on how we define personality. Second, I propose that every taxonomy of behaviour should be grounded in theory. The quality of behavioural data does not only depend on the validity of the measures we use. It also depends on how well behavioural data reflect theoretical assumptions on the causal factors and mechanisms that shape behaviour. Third, I suggest that the quality of personality theories, personality research and behavioural data will profit from ideas about the psychological processes and mechanisms that link personality and behaviour. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. The Apparent Objectivity of Behaviour is Illusory RYNE A. SHERMAN, CHRISTOPHER S. NAVE and DAVID C. FUNDER Department of Psychology, University of California, Riverside, CA, USA funder@ucr.edu It is often presumed that objective measures of behaviour (e.g. counts of the number of smiles) are more scientific than more subjective measures of behaviour (e.g. ratings of the degree to which a person behaved in a cheerful manner). We contend that the apparent objectivity of any behavioural measure is illusory. First, the reliability of more subjective measures of behaviour is often strikingly similar to the reliabilities of so-called objective measures. Further, a growing body of literature suggests that subjective measures of behaviour provide more valid measures of psychological constructs of interest. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Personality and Behaviour: A Neglected Opportunity? LIAD UZIEL and ROY F. BAUMEISTER Department of Psychology, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL, USA Baumeister@psy.fsu.edu Personality psychology has neglected the study of behaviour. Furr's efforts to provide a stricter definition of behaviour will not solve the problem, although they may be helpful in other ways. His articulation of various research strategies for studying behaviour will be more helpful for enabling personality psychology to contribute important insights and principles about behaviour. The neglect of behaviour may have roots in how personality psychologists define the mission of their field, but expanding that mission to encompass behaviour would be a positive step. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Brane tilings and their applications

    M. Yamazaki
    Abstract We review recent developments in the theory of brane tilings and four-dimensional ,, = 1 supersymmetric quiver gauge theories. This review consists of two parts. In part I, we describe foundations of brane tilings, emphasizing the physical interpretation of brane tilings as fivebrane systems. In part II, we discuss application of brane tilings to AdS/CFT correspondence and homological mirror symmetry. More topics, such as orientifold of brane tilings, phenomenological model building, similarities with BPS solitons in supersymmetric gauge theories, are also briefly discussed. This paper is a revised version of the author's master's thesis submitted to Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, the University of Tokyo on January 2008, and is based on his several papers and some works in progress [1,7]. [source]

    Academic Careers and Gender Equity: Lessons Learned from MIT1

    Lotte Bailyn
    This article describes the experience at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology after the publication of its report A Study on the Status of Women Faculty in Science at MIT. It starts by describing aspects of the academic career that make it difficult for women, or anyone with responsibilities outside of their academic work. It then outlines three definitions of gender equity based on equality, fairness, and integration, and probes the reasons behind persisting inequities. The MIT results fit well into the first two definitions of gender equity, but fall short on the last. Finally, the article analyses the factors that came together at MIT to produce the outcome described and indicates the lessons learned and those still to be learned. [source]

    Migraine Among University Students in Cotonou (Benin)

    HEADACHE, Issue 6 2009
    Thierry Adoukonou MD
    Background., Few data are available on migraine among students in Africa. The aim of this study was to estimate the prevalence of migraine and describe its clinical features and associated conditions among students of the Faculty of Health Sciences of Abomey-Calavi University, in Cotonou, Benin. Methods., A cross-sectional study was prospectively conducted during the academic year 2002-2003 and included 336 students selected using systematic random sampling. Migraine was defined according International Headache Society criteria 1988. Results., The lifetime prevalence of migraine was 11.3% (95% CI: 8.2-15.3%). The prevalence was significantly higher in females (18.3%) than males (6.8%), in married-widowed (30.4%) than single (9.9%). The mean age at onset of the disease was 15.0 years ± 2.5. Migraine without aura was the more frequent form (57.9%). The mean attack frequency per month was 3.8 (±3.4) and the peak attack duration was between 4 and 6 hours. Psychological tiredness was the most frequent triggering factors (92.1%). The factors associated with migraine in multivariate analysis were female sex (OR = 2.6 [95% CI: 1.2-5.3]), single marital status (OR = 3.7 [95% CI: 1.2-11.9]) and presence of a family history of headache (OR = 2.9 [95% CI: 1.0-8.1]) Conclusion., Migraine was frequent in students in Cotonou (Benin) compared with other studies in Africa. [source]

    The Social Function of the Law Faculty: Demographics, Republican Reform, and Professional Training at the Paris Law Faculty, 1870,1914

    John Savage
    First page of article [source]

    Controversies in the laparoscopic treatment of hepatic hydatid disease

    HPB, Issue 4 2004
    Koray Acarli
    Background Laparoscopic treatment of hydatid disease of the liver can be performed safely in selected patients. Methods Six hundred and fifty patients were treated for hydatid disease of the liver between 1980 and 2003 at the Hepatopancreato-biliary Surgery Unit of Istanbul Medical Faculty, Istanbul University. Of these, 60 were treated laparoscopically between 1992 and 2000. A special aspirator-grinder apparatus was used for the evacuation of cyst contents. Ninety-two percent of the cysts were at stages I, II or III according to the ultrasonographic classification of Gharbi. Results Conversion to open surgery was necessary in eight patients due to intra-abdominal adhesions or cysts in difficult locations. There was no disease- or procedure-related mortality. Most of the complications were related to cavity infections (13.5%) and external biliary fistulas (I 1.5%) resulting from communications between the cysts and the biliary tree. There were two recurrences in a follow-up period ranging between 3.5 and I I years. Discussion Laparoscopic treatment of hydatid disease of the liver is an alternative to open surgery in well-selected patients. Important steps are the evacuation of the cyst contents without spillage, sterilization of the cyst cavity with scolicidal agents and cavity management using classical surgical techniques. Our specially designed aspirator-grinder apparatus was safely used to evacuate the cyst contents without causing any spillage. Knowledge of the relationship of the cyst with the biliary tree is essential in choosing the appropriate patients for the laparoscopic technique. In our experience of 650 cases, the biliary communication rate was as high as 18%; half of these can be detected preoperatively. In the remaining, biliary communications are usually detected during or after surgery. Endoscopie retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) and sphincterotomy are helpful to overcome this problem. As hydatid disease of the liver is a benign and potentially recurrent disease, we advocate the use of conservative techniques in both laparoscopic and open operations. [source]

    Ramazzini Abstracts presented at the Annual Scientific Meeting of the Royal Australasian College of Physicians Faculty of Occupational Medicine, 2004

    Article first published online: 10 NOV 200
    First page of article [source]

    Periapical status and quality of root fillings and coronal restorations in an adult Spanish population

    J. J. Segura-Egea
    Abstract Aim, To investigate the quality of root fillings and coronal restorations and their association with periapical status in an adult Spanish population. Methodology, A total of 180 subjects, aged 37.1 ± 15.7 years, who presented as new patients at the Faculty of Dentistry, Seville, Spain, were examined. All participants underwent a full-mouth radiographic survey incorporating 14 periapical radiographs. The periapical region of all root filled teeth, excluding third molars, were examined. The technical quality of root fillings was evaluated in terms of length in relation to the root apex and lateral adaptation to the canal wall. Radiographic signs of overhang or open margins associated with coronal restorations were also evaluated. Periapical status was assessed using the Periapical Index score. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Cohen's , test and logistic regression. Results, The total number of root filled teeth was 93, and 60 (64.5%) had apical periodontitis (AP). Presence of AP in root filled teeth was associated with inadequate adaptation of the filling (OR = 2.29; P = 0.06), inadequate length of the root filling (OR = 2.44; P = 0.048), and with poor radiographic quality of the coronal restoration (OR = 2.38; P = 0.054). Only 34.4% of the root fillings were adequate from a technical perspective. When both root fillings and coronal restorations were adequate the incidence of AP decreased to 31.3% (OR = 5.50; P < 0.01). Conclusions, The incidence of AP in root filled teeth was high. Many root fillings were technically unsatisfactory. Adequate root fillings and coronal restorations were associated with a lower incidence of AP; an adequate root filling had a more substantial impact on the outcome of treatment than the quality of the coronal restoration. [source]

    Prevalence of apical periodontitis and frequency of root-filled teeth in an adult Spanish population

    A. Jiménez-Pinzón
    Abstract Aim, To estimate the prevalence of teeth with apical periodontitis (AP) and root-filled teeth in an adult Spanish population. Methodology, A total of 180 subjects, aged 37.1 ± 15.7 years, presenting as new patients to the Faculty of Dentistry, Seville, Spain, were examined. All participants underwent a full-mouth radiographic survey (14 periapical radiographs). The frequency of root canal treatment and the periapical status of all teeth, using the periapical index (PAI) score, were assessed. An intraobserver agreement test on PAI scores produced a Cohen's kappa of 0.77 (substantial agreement). Results were analysed statistically using the Chi-square test. Results, Apical periodontitis in one or several teeth was found in 110 subjects (61.1% prevalence), and 73 (40.6% prevalence) had at least one root-filled tooth. Among subjects with root-filled teeth, 48 (65.8%) had AP affecting at least one root-filled tooth. A total of 4453 teeth were examined, of these 186 (4.2%) had AP. The total number of root-filled teeth was 93 (2.1%), of which 60 (64.5%) had AP. Among non-root filled teeth, only 2.9% had AP. The prevalence of AP in connection with molar teeth was higher (5.5%) than for premolar (4.5%) and anterior teeth (3.2%; P < 0.01). More premolar and molar teeth were root-filled (2.8 and 2.7%, respectively) than anterior teeth (1.3%; P < 0.01). The prevalence of AP increased with age. Conclusions, The prevalence of AP in root-filled and untreated teeth, and the frequency of root-filled teeth were comparable to those reported in previous similar studies carried out in European countries. The prevalence of root-filled teeth with AP was found to be higher compared to that demonstrated in other epidemiological studies. [source]

    Using current consumer issues to involve students in research

    Elizabeth B. Carroll
    Abstract The value of involving students in research has been well documented. By including students in research, active and independent learning opportunities are provided, the importance of inquiry and investigation is emphasized, and connections between course material and the discipline become evident. Relevant opportunities for involving students in research projects can sometimes be elusive. Faculty time constraints limit the number of projects that can be undertaken and the number of students involved. Furthermore, many students become intimidated when told that they are required to carry out a research project. The purpose of this study was to use current consumer issues to involve undergraduate students in a relevant research project. The research project was implemented in class settings with teams of students. Faculty selected contemporary consumer issues based upon perceived student interest and experiences as consumers. By using issues of high relevance and familiarity to students and using the team approach within a course that faculty members were already assigned to teach, the issues of time constraint for the faculty members and increased levels of comfort for students were addressed. Prior to undertaking the project, students were instructed in appropriate research methods. Research methods utilized included student development of survey instruments, collection and recording of data, interpretation of data and presentation of results. Students became familiar with various research practices. By working as team members, the students' comfort level for being involved in research increased; however, other common group challenges arose. Relevant, contemporary consumer issues carry high relevance and interest for student groups, helping generate enthusiasm for the research process. The focus on involving students in research continues to be emphasized. By using research topics related to student's experiences as consumers, students are more readily engaged in undertaking research projects. Through these relevant research projects, students' consumer decision making is positively impacted. [source]

    Depression and anxiety in patients with Behçet's disease compared with that in patients with psoriasis

    Ender Taner MD
    Background, Behçet's disease (BD) is a chronic, episodic disease with an often devastating course. The aim of this study was to evaluate the depression and anxiety levels in patients with BD and to compare them with those in patients with psoriasis. Methods, Patients were collected from the Dermatology Department, Faculty of Medicine, Gazi University, Ankara, Turkey. One hundred and twelve patients with BD and 95 patients with psoriasis were enrolled in the study. Patients were evaluated by Beck's depression inventory (BDI), Beck's anxiety inventory (BAI), automatic thoughts questionnaire (ATQ), and Beck's hopelessness scale (BHS). Results, The group with BD had higher scores for BDI, BAI, ATQ, and BHS than the group with psoriasis (P < 0.05). Almost one-half of the patients with BD had depression. BAI only was higher in the younger BD group than in the corresponding psoriasis group, whereas all test scores were higher in the older BD group than in the corresponding psoriasis group. There was a strong correlation between the duration of BD and BDI, ATQ, and BHS scores, which was not observed in the psoriasis patients. BD increased the depression risk four-fold in this sample, and BD with a duration of over 3 years increased the depression risk 12-fold. Conclusions, In the present study, BD patients had higher levels of psychopathology than did psoriasis patients in terms of psychologic test scores. The duration of illness affected the severity of the psychiatric symptoms in the BD group, but not in the psoriasis group. The duration of illness was a major risk factor for the development of depression in BD. These findings indicate the need for early recognition of psychiatric symptoms in patients with BD. [source]

    Burnout and stress amongst old age psychiatrists

    Susan M. Benbow
    Abstract Objective To investigate the relationship between work patterns, burnout and stress in consultant old age psychiatrists. Methods We sent a postal survey to all old age psychiatrists on the Faculty of Old Age Psychiatry, Royal College of Psychiatrists, list. Participants completed a workload questionnaire, the Stress Checklist and the Maslach Burnout Inventory during a specified week. Results Burnout scores were unaffected by gender and team working, but old age psychiatrists scoring within the high burnout range were younger, scored highly on stress, spent less time on research, study and audit, and more time travelling. The whole group scored highly on emotional exhaustion. Conclusions Job plans should encourage research/study and audit, and cut down travelling. The finding related to age is not fully understood, but suggests consideration of support groups for new consultants and review of whether current training programmes adequately prepare people for work as a consultant. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    A retrospective study of paediatric oral lesions from Thailand

    Aim., To survey the paediatric oral lesions in Thailand. Design., Biopsy records over a 15-year period (1990,2004) were retrieved from the files of the Department of Oral Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry, Chulalongkorn University. Paediatric cases with an age of 16 years or younger were selected. The age of the patients was divided into three groups according to the dentition period. The lesions were classified into three categories: inflammatory/reactive lesions, cystic lesions, and tumour/tumour-like lesions. Results., From a total of 8314 oral biopsies, 1251 cases (15.05%) were in the paediatric population. The greatest number of lesions fell into the cystic category, followed closely by the inflammatory/reactive category and tumour/tumour-like category, respectively. The top ten most frequently encountered lesions in the present study were dentigerous cyst, mucocele, pyogenic granuloma, ameloblastoma, radicular cyst, odontoma, odontogenic keratocyst, irritation fibroma (focal fibrous hyperplasia), fibrous dysplasia, and osteomyelitis. The majority of lesions were found in the mixed dentition period (49.24%). There was no statistical difference in the occurrence between genders in this study. Conclusions., The present study shows an almost similar trend to previous studies except in the ranking among and within categories. These differences may be attributable to the nature of the population studied and because Chulalongkorn University is a major referral centre. [source]

    Dental caries experience in children with congenital heart disease: a case-control study

    C. Stecksén-Blicks
    Summary. Objectives., To compare the dental health of a group of children with complex congenital heart disease with that of age and gender matched healthy controls. Design., Case-control study. Setting., Faculty of Medicine and Odontology/Pediatric cardiology and Pedodontics, Umeå University, Sweden. Sample and Methods., All the cases and their controls lived in the county of Västerbotten in northern Sweden. Each group comprised 41 children with a mean age of 6·5 years. Data were collected from medical and dental records while all bitewing radiographs were read separately by one of the authors. Results., Children with congenital heart disease had significantly more caries in their primary teeth than the control group. The mean dmfs-value was 5·2 ± 7·0 in the cardiac group compared to 2·2 ± 3·5 in the control group (P < 0·05). Twenty-six of the children had all four 6-year-molars, and their mean DMFS-values were 0·9 ± 1·9 in the cardiac group compared to 0·3 ± 0·6 in the control group (P > 0·05). The children with congenital heart disease had received more caries prevention based on the use of fluorides than the control group. There was a significant correlation between the number of fluoride varnish treatments and the dmfs value of the child (r = 0·411, P < 0·01). Fifty-two per cent of the children in the cardiac group had been prescribed fluoride tablets on one or more occasions compared to 17% in the control group (P < 0·01). Number of months on digoxin medication and the dmfs-value had a significant correlation (r = 0·368, P < 0·05). Ten of the children had been on digoxin medication between 6 and 87 months; this subgroup had a mean dmfs-value of 10·1 ± 8·5. Conclusion., Swedish children with complex congenital heart disease have poorer dental health than healthy age and gender matched controls in spite of intensive preventive efforts. In many cases, intervention had been given when caries were present. A closer cooperation between paediatric cardiology and paediatric dentistry is needed. [source]