Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of Fauna

  • ant fauna
  • beetle fauna
  • benthic fauna
  • brachiopod fauna
  • butterfly fauna
  • conodont fauna
  • diverse fauna
  • evolutionary fauna
  • fish fauna
  • fossil fauna
  • graptolite fauna
  • invertebrate fauna
  • lizard fauna
  • mammal fauna
  • mammalian fauna
  • marine fauna
  • native fauna
  • parasite fauna
  • pollinator fauna
  • rich fauna
  • soil fauna
  • terrestrial fauna
  • vertebrate fauna
  • wild fauna

  • Selected Abstracts


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 1 2008
    Abstract:, Two new tridacnine species are described from the Chattian and Aquitanian of the Arabian Peninsula. For these, the new names Omanidacna eos gen. et sp. nov. and Tridacna evae sp. nov. are erected. Omanidacna is interpreted as an Oligocene ancestor of Hippopus, being the oldest record of this tridacnine lineage. The Aquitanian Tridacna evae is the first occurrence of the genus Tridacna. These Arabian taxa imply that the modern tridacnine lineages are rooted in the Palaeogene and early Neogene of the East African-Arabian Province, although their Eocene ancestors, such as Byssocardium, are Western Tethyan taxa. During the Neogene they successfully settled the Indo-Polynesian Province and became typical elements of the entire Indo-West Pacific Region. The tridacnines are thus an example of a successive transformation and gradual eastward dispersal of an originally Tethyan element contributing to late Neogene diversity in the Indo-West Pacific. [source]


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 3 2006
    Abstract:, An exceptionally preserved fauna within dolomites of the Friars Point Limestone Formation includes the most diverse brachiopod assemblage yet described from the Tournaisian of the British Isles, and the first from Wales. Each of the 16 brachiopod genera includes a single species, of which four are new (Schellwienella cheuma, Schuchertella subcrona, Composita ptygmation, Fusella extrata). Associated fossils are corals (one species), bryozoans (two species) and crinoids (one species). Spiriferoideans and schizophorides are numerically dominant, indicative of level-bottom, inner mid-ramp biotopes. Biogeographical comparisons reflect the cosmopolitanism of early Carboniferous brachiopod generic assemblages. Taxonomic comparisons involve selection of lectotypes for Syringothyris exoleta North, 1920, Syringothyris cyrtorhyncha North, 1920, Tylothyris laminosa beta North, 1920, and Tylothyris laminosa gamma North, 1920. [source]

    Discrepancies in Reported Levels of International Wildlife Trade

    aduanas; CITES; especies en peligro; programa de aranceles armonizados Abstract:,The international wildlife trade is a principal cause of biodiversity loss, involving hundreds of millions of plants and animals each year, yet wildlife trade records are notoriously unreliable. We assessed the precision of wildlife trade reports for the United States, the world's largest consumer of endangered wildlife, by comparing data from the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) with U.S. Customs data. For both U.S. imports and exports, CITES and Customs reported substantially different trade volumes for all taxa in all years. Discrepancies ranged from a CITES-reported volume 376% greater than that reported by Customs (live coral imports, 2000) to a Customs' report 5202% greater than CITES (conch exports, 2000). These widely divergent data suggest widespread inaccuracies that may distort the perceived risk of targeted wildlife exploitation, leading to misallocation of management resources and less effective conservation strategies. Conservation scientists and practitioners should reexamine assumptions regarding the significance of the international wildlife trade. Resumen:,El comercio internacional de vida silvestre es una causa principal de la pérdida de biodiversidad, ya que involucra a cientos de millones de plantas y animales cada año; no obstante eso, los registros del comercio son notoriamente poco confiables. Evaluamos la precisión de los registros de comercio de vida silvestre de Estados Unidos, el mayor consumidor de vida silvestre en peligro en el mundo, mediante la comparación de datos del Convenio Internacional para el Comercio de Especies de Flora y Fauna Silvestre en Peligro (CITES) con datos de la Aduana de E.U.A. Tanto para importaciones como exportaciones, CITES y Aduana reportaron volúmenes de comercio de todos los taxa sustancialmente diferentes en todos los años. Las discrepancias abarcaron desde un volumen reportado por CITES 376% más grande que el reportado por la Aduana (importaciones de coral vivo, 2000) hasta un reporte de la Aduana 5202% mayor que el de CITES (exportaciones de caracol, 2000). Estos datos ampliamente divergentes sugieren imprecisiones generalizadas que pueden distorsionar el riesgo percibido por la explotación de vida silvestre, lo que conducirá a la incorrecta asignación de recursos para la gestión y a estrategias de conservación menos efectivas. Los científicos y profesionales de la conservación deberían reexaminar sus suposiciones respecto al significado del comercio internacional de vida silvestre. [source]

    The advent of mineralized skeletons in Neoproterozoic Metazoa,new fossil evidence from the Gaojiashan Fauna

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2007
    Hua Hong
    Abstract The terminal Neoproterozoic (Ediacaran) Dengying Formation in southern Shaanxi, China, hosts two types of conical fossils: one is the so-called Conotubus, found in siliciclastic rocks in the lower and middle part of the Gaojiashan Member; the other is the renowned Cloudina in carbonate rocks of the upper Gaojiashan Member and succeeding Beiwan Member. Conotubus are conical and gently curved tubular fossils, with a variable rate of expansion. They are built of multiple thin, steep, eccentrically nested funnels set one within the next. A detailed comparison of the two conical fossils suggests that the organic tubes of Conotubus may be the precursor of the mineralized Cloudina tubes; this inference is consistent with their similarities in both wall structure and life style. Our research thus suggests that the organic skeleton preceded the rise of the mineralized skeleton in Cloudina -like fossils. Sophisticated hypotheses have been advocated, some linking the skeletal genesis to increasing levels of Ca2+ in the seas, others to the enlargement of body sizes of animals. Yet our findings have supported the ,arms race' hypothesis: skeletons evolved primarily through selective predation pressure. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    History of marine biodiversity

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2001
    Peter M. Sheehan
    Abstract During the Phanerozoic, three steps of increasing diversity each had a unique Evolutionary Fauna (EF). During each EF, there were geologically long intervals of community stasis referred to as Ecological Evolutionary Units (EEUs). These intervals were characterized by communities composed of incumbent faunas that dominated particular habitats. Niches that were already occupied by incumbents were seldom invaded by new taxa, and the resilience of the incumbents to new competitors resulted in the long interval stasis. Most EEUs were terminated by extinction events that were caused by severe disruptions of the physical environment such as glaciations and extraterrestrial impacts. During mass extinctions many niches were vacated when incumbents were eliminated. Mass extinctions were followed by recovery intervals lasting on the order of 5 million years during which many surviving clades evolved adaptations which allowed them to move into vacated niches. New incumbents were established during these recovery intervals, and the next EEU began. In many ways, the recovery intervals resemble times when organisms invaded previously unoccupied ecospace, such as the emergence of life on land or the progressive filling of previously unoccupied habitats such as deep-burrowing and high epifaunal tiers that were colonized during the Palaeozoic. The recognition of long intervals of ecological stasis and the importance of physical disruptions in clearing incumbents is forcing revision of the traditional evolutionary viewpoint. The idea that most evolutionary change was accomplished very gradually by competition between organisms and by becoming better adapted to a relatively stable environment is being replaced by a recognition that major morphological and synecological changes tend to occur very rapidly and at times when there are few established competitors. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Ordovician Biodiversification: revolution in the oceanic trophic chain

    LETHAIA, Issue 2 2008
    The Early Palaeozoic phytoplankton (acritarch) radiation paralleled a long-term increase in sea level between the Early Cambrian and the Late Ordovician. In the Late Cambrian, after the SPICE ,13Ccarb excursion, acritarchs underwent a major change in morphological disparity and their taxonomical diversity increased to reach highest values during the Middle Ordovician (Darriwilian). This highest phytoplankton diversity of the Palaeozoic was possibly the result of palaeogeography (greatest continental dispersal) and major orogenic and volcanic activity, which provided maximum ecospace and large amounts of nutrients. With its warm climate and high atmospheric CO2 levels, the Ordovician was similar to the Cretaceous: a period when phytoplankton diversity was at its maximum during the Mesozoic. With increased phytoplankton availability in the Late Cambrian and Ordovician a radiation of zooplanktonic organisms took place at the same time as a major diversification of suspension feeders. In addition, planktotrophy originated in invertebrate larvae during the Late Cambrian,Early Ordovician. These important changes in the trophic chain can be considered as a major palaeoecological revolution (part of the rise of the Palaeozoic Evolutionary Fauna of Sepkoski). There is now sufficient evidence that this trophic chain revolution was related to the diversification of the phytoplankton, of which the organic-walled fraction is partly preserved. [source]

    Surviving the end-Ordovician extinctions: evidence from the earliest Silurian brachiopods of northeastern Jiangxi and western Zhejiang provinces, East China

    LETHAIA, Issue 1 2006
    Earliest Rhuddanian (Silurian) brachiopods are recorded from the basal part of the Lower Llandovery Shiyang and Anji formations in western Zhejiang and northeastern Jiangxi provinces, East China. Associated graptolites including Normalograptus jerini indicate the lowest Rhuddanian Akidograptus ascensus Biozone. The surviving brachiopod fauna includes 19 genera dominated by orthids and strophomenids, whereas pentamerids and atrypids that inhabited mainly warmer water regimes, and were almost absent in the cool/cold Hirnantia Fauna, occur rarely in the studied fauna. Each family is represented by a single genus that seeded their recovery. The predominance of these long-ranging and widely distributed genera is one of major characters of the brachiopod survival in east China. From qualitative and quantitative analysis of faunal composition, diversity and abundance, with evidences from palaeoecology and palaeogeography, the Levenea qianbeiensis Association, Katastrophomena-Leptaena-Levenea Association, and Glyptorthis-Epitomyonia-Levenea Association are recognized and assigned to BA (Benthic Assemblage) 2, BA3, and an ecozone close to the BA3-4 boundary respectively. No Lazarus genera are recorded in this study. Skenidioides and Epitomyonia were chiefly regarded as deeper-water taxa in the Ordovician and Silurian, but are recorded from shallow-water in east China during the early Rhuddanian, indicating an ecologic experiment with these taxa migrating from deep into shallower, better-oxygenated sites at the crisis time and during the subsequent survival interval. This study further demonstrates that the brachiopod faunal turnover after the end-Ordovician extinctions may not have been completed until the late Rhuddanian in South China. [source]

    Primates in traditional folk medicine: a world overview

    MAMMAL REVIEW, Issue 2 2010
    Rômulo R. N. ALVES
    ABSTRACT 1Almost 50% of primate species are in danger of becoming extinct, according to the criteria of the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List of Threatened Species. This is partly because of their consumption by humans. The reasons for hunting vary by region. One pretext is the medicinal or magical value of products derived from these animals. 2In this paper, we provide an overview of the global use of primates in traditional folk medicines as well as identifying the species used as remedies associated with folk beliefs. Some important questions relating to the conservation of primates are addressed. 3Our results revealed that at least 101 species of primates, which belong to 38 genera and 10 families, were used in traditional folk practices and in magic,religious rituals throughout the world. 4Of the 101 species of primates recorded in our review, 12 species were classified as Critically Endangered, 23 as Endangered, 22 as Vulnerable, seven as Near Threatened, 36 as Least Concern and one as Data Deficient in the IUCN Red List. All species were also included in The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora Appendices I or II, although the reasons for their inclusion were not necessarily related to their medicinal use. 5The widespread utilization of primates in traditional medicine is evidence of the importance of understanding such uses in the context of primate conservation as well as the need for considering socio-cultural factors when establishing management plans concerning the sustainable use of these mammals. [source]


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Abstract:, The eastern Alborz Mountains of Iran comprise a significant peri-Gondwanan terrane relevant to the early evolution of late Cambrian , early Ordovician brachiopods incorporated into the emerging benthic biota of the Paleozoic Evolutionary Fauna. A low diversity brachiopod assemblage from the late Tremadocian unit of the Lashkarak Formation contains six new species including the polytoechioideans Polytoechia and Protambonites and the orthoideans Paralenorthis, Ranorthis, Tarfaya and Xianorthis. The fauna preserves the earliest records of Polytoechia, unknown previously outside Laurentia and the Uralian margin of Baltica, and of Paralenorthis and Ranorthis, which were widespread along Gondwanan margins and in Baltica from the Floian (Arenig), plus Xianorthis, known hitherto only from the Floian of South China. The enigmatic Tarfaya has an impunctate shell fabric and setigerous perforations along the posterior margin, indicating placement within the Orthoidea in a new Family Tarfayidae. New species of Polytoechia, Protambonites, Paralenorthis, Ranorthis, Tarfaya, Xianorthis are described. [source]


    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 5 2006
    Abstract:, A new species of primitive bandicoot, Yarala kida sp. nov., is described from Kangaroo Well, a site in the Northern Territory of Australia. This species is possibly ancestral to Yarala burchfieldi, the type species of the Yaraloidea, and supports a late Oligocene age for the Kangaroo Well Local Fauna. The yaraloid bandicoots are likely to become important biochronological tools for Australian faunas of late Oligocene to early Miocene age, as they are widespread and diverse. Developing morphoclines for this group is therefore essential, as is publication of the mostly undescribed bandicoot material known from other sites of similar age. [source]

    Foliomena Fauna (Brachiopoda) from the Upper Ordovician of Sardinia

    PALAEONTOLOGY, Issue 2 2002
    E. Villas
    The late Ordovician brachiopod assemblage from Sardinia is one of the youngest members of the deep-water Foliomena fauna and is characterized by the following core taxa: Christiania, Cyclospira, Dedzetina and Foliomena. The fauna also contains Epitomyonia, Leangella, Glyptorthis and Skenidioides, which are more typical of shallower-water environments during the late Ordovician but occupied deeper-water niches during the Silurian following the termination of the Foliomena fauna. The suprafamilial placement of the family Chrustenoporidae is discussed and the new species Dedzetina serpaglii and Leangella (Leangella) fecunda are established. In common with many mid-Ashgill Foliomena faunas the Sardinian assemblage shows significant differences from other faunal developments of this type, reflecting its geographical position and shallower water conditions than those of the classic early Ashgill Foliomena faunas. The brachiopods occur with abundant trilobites belonging to a variant of the cyclopygid fauna. The faunas developed on part of a complex of microcontinents derived from peri-Gondwana during the Ordovician. [source]

    Book review: Evolving Eden: An Illustrated Guide to the Evolution of the African Large-Mammal Fauna

    Holly M. Dunsworth
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Preservation causes shrinkage in seahorses: implications for biological studies and for managing sustainable trade with minimum size limits

    Julie L. Nadeau
    Abstract 1.The implications of shrinkage associated with desiccation and ethanol preservation for seahorses (genus Hippocampus) were investigated using Hippocampus guttulatus (European long-snouted seahorse) as a model. Specifically, this research addressed the implications of preservation for taxonomy and life history studies and the application of minimum size limits (MSL) for managing seahorse trade. 2.In 2004, the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) listed all seahorse species on its Appendix II, and recommended a 10,cm MSL as an interim means of ensuring sustainable international trade. Inconsistencies in seahorse measurement methods and repeatability posed challenges for applying the MSL. Moreover, the shrinking effect of desiccation on body length observed in other fish was assumed to be negligible for seahorses because of their high degree of ossification. 3.Changes in seahorse sizes were measured following immersion in ethanol and desiccation. H. guttulatus shrank on average by 0.1,2.3% when preserved in ethanol and 3.0,6.4% when dried, depending on the trait measured. Similar trends were observed in a sample of H. kuda (yellow seahorse). Specimen posture during drying, and measurement methods also influenced estimates of size. 4.Based on the shrinkage observed, 14,44% of captured seahorses that are dried could shrink to below the recommended MSL, even if all seahorses were longer than the MSL at capture. This demonstrates that small changes in body lengths can have significant implications for trade of species managed with size limits. 5.Recommendations are to (1) standardize seahorse measurement methods, (2) consider the effects of preservation and measurement technique on body lengths, and apply appropriate corrections in comparative studies and when developing fisheries management strategies, and (3) adjust size limits at the point of capture to ensure retained seahorses comply with the CITES recommended MSL. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Wildlife trade and endangered species protection

    Paul C. Missios
    Markets for endangered species potentially generate incentives for both legal supply and poaching. To deter poaching, governments can spend on enforcement or increase legal harvesting to reduce the return from poaching. A leader,follower commitment game is developed to examine these choices in the presence of illegal harvesting and the resulting impacts on species stocks. In addition, current trade restrictions imposed under the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora are examined. With Cournot conjectures among poachers, the model details the subgame perfect equilibrium interactions between poaching levels, enforcement and legal harvesting. [source]

    Naturschutz und Tourismus am Brocken.

    Der neue Nationalpark im Harz
    Im Gebiet des Hochharzes verbindet sich eine schützenswerte Natur mit interessanten historischen und kulturgeschichtlichen Aspekten. Besonders schützenswert sind die zahlreichen Hochmoore der Region sowie der unmittelbare Gipfelbereich des Brockens. Der Gipfel beherbergt aufgrund seiner exponierten Lage und seines rauen Mikroklimas eine Reihe seltener, zum Teil endemischer Arten. Durch massive menschliche Einflussnahme vor allem im Verlauf des 20. Jahrhunderts wurde die natürliche Flora und Fauna des Brockengipfels allerdings stark beeinträchtigt. Ähnliches gilt für die Wälder des Hochharzes, wobei die menschliche Einflussnahme hier wesentlich früher ansetzte. Der neu formierte Nationalpark Harz bietet die große Chance, das touristische Potenzial der Region für eine nachhaltige Öffentlichkeitsarbeit zu nutzen. [source]

    Spatial Variation in the Strength of a Trophic Cascade Involving Ruellia nudiflora (Acanthaceae), an Insect Seed Predator and Associated Parasitoid Fauna in Mexico

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 2 2010
    Luis Abdala-Roberts
    ABSTRACT Spatial variation in the strength of herbivore top-down control represents an important source of variation in plant fitness measures and community structure and function. By measuring seed predator (larvae of a Noctuid moth) and parasitoid impacts on Ruellia nudiflora across a broad spatial scale in Yucatan (Mexico), this study addressed the following: (1) to what extent does seed predator and parasitoid attack intensity associated with R. nudiflora vary spatially? (2) Does parasitoid attack result in a positive indirect effect on the plant, and does the intensity of this effect vary spatially? During the peak of fruit production (late June,early July) of 2005, we collected fruits from 21 R. nudiflora populations and grouped them into four regions: center, east, north and south. For each fruit we recorded: observed seed number, number of seeds eaten, seed predator presence, parasitoid presence and number of seeds ,saved' by parasitoids. Seed predators attacked ca 30 percent of fruits/plant on average, while parasitoids were found in 24 percent of seed predator-attacked fruits. Results indicated spatial variation in seed predator and parasitoid attack levels; interestingly, a contrasting spatial gradient of attack intensity was observed: populations/regions with greatest parasitoid attack levels usually had the lowest seed predator attack levels and vice versa, suggesting top-down control of parasitoids on seed predators. We observed a weak overall indirect impact of parasitoids on R. nudiflora (4% seeds ,saved' on average), which nonetheless varied strongly across populations (e.g., close to 14% seeds saved at one population). Findings indicate a geographical structuring of interaction strengths across populations, as well as spatial variation in the strength of parasitoid cascading effects on plant reproduction. Abstract in Spanish is available at http://www.blackwell-synergy.com/loi/btp [source]

    The Impact of Hunting on the Mammalian Fauna of Tropical Asian Forests

    BIOTROPICA, Issue 3 2007
    Richard T. Corlett
    ABSTRACT People have hunted mammals in tropical Asian forests for at least 40,000 yr. This period has seen one confirmed global extinction (the giant pangolin, Manis palaeojavanica) and range restrictions for several large mammals, but there is no strong evidence for unsustainable hunting pressure until the last 2000,3000 yr, when elephants, rhinoceroses, and several other species were progressively eliminated from the large parts of their ranges. Regional declines in most species have occurred largely within the last 50 yr. Recent subsistence hunting has typically focused on pigs and deer (hunted with dogs and spears or with snares), monkeys and other arboreal mammals (often caught with blowpipes), and porcupines and other rodents (smoked or dug out of burrows). Over the last 50 yr, the importance of hunting for subsistence has been increasingly outweighed by hunting for the market. The hunted biomass is dominated by the same species as before, sold mostly for local consumption, but numerous additional species are targeted for the colossal regional trade in wild animals and their parts for food, medicines, raw materials, and pets. Many populations of mammalian dispersers of large seeds and understory browsers have been depleted or eliminated, while seed predators have had a more variable fate. Most of this hunting is now illegal, but the law enforcement is generally weak. However, examples of successful enforcement show that hunting impacts can be greatly reduced where there is sufficient political will. Ending the trade in wild animals and their parts should have the highest regional conservation priority. [source]

    Current Knowledge of Mesozoic Coleoptera from Daohugou and Liaoning (Northeast China)

    Alexander G. KIREJTSHUK
    Abstract: The present paper is devoted to an overview on fossil Coleoptera studied from Inner Mongolia, Daohugou (Middle Jurassic, Jiulongshan Formation) and Liaoning (Upper Jurassic-Lower Cretaceous, Yixian Formation) deposited in Chinese collections. As a result, species of the tribe Sperchopsini and Hydrophilini from Hydrophilidae, families and subfamilies Silphidae, Syndesinae from Lucanidae, Pleocomidae, Trogidae, Trogissitidae, Pyrochroidae, Diaperinae from Tenebrionidae, and Cerambycidae were first registered in the Mesozoic and some families were defined as new. It was shown that many superfamilies represented in the Recent Fauna were formed within the Middle Jurassic and Lower Cretaceous. The materials examined confirm the hypothesis that Cucujiformian beetles are a younger group than other infraordera of Polyphaga (Staphyliniformia and Elateriformia) and, therefore, they appeared in the fossil record only in the late Mesozoic. It was shown and confirmed that most superfamilies appeared in the fossil records before Cucujoidea. The synonymy of Notocupes Ponomarenko, 1964; Sinocupes Lin, 1976, syn. nov.; Amblomma Tan, Ren et Liu 2005, syn. nov.; Euryomma Tan, Ren et Shih, 2006, syn. nov., non Stein, 1899 and Ovatocupes Tan et Ren, 2006, syn. nov.; synonymy of Tetraphalerus Waterhouse, 1901 and Odontomma Tan, Ren et Ge 2006, syn. nov.; and synonymy of Priacmopsis Ponomarenko, 1966 and Latocupes Tan et Ren, 2006, syn. nov. are proposed. Sinorhombocoleus papposus Tan et Ren, 2009 is transferred from the family Rhombocoleidae to Schizophoridae. Cervicatinius complanus Tan, Ren et Shih, 2007 and Forticatinius elegans Tan, Ren et Shih, 2007 are transferred from the family Catiniidae (suborder Archostemata) to superfamily Cleroidea (suborder Polyphaga: first among the family Peltidae and second as a closely related group to the latter family). The family Parandrexidae is transferred from the superfamily Cucujoidea to Cleroidea. The ecological circumstances of the past ecosystems and hypotheses of historical development of the order Coleoptera are discussed. The age of faunas examined is considered. The list of the taxa described from Daohugou and Liaoning is compiled. [source]

    New Bradoriid Arthropods from the Early Cambrian Balang Formation of Eastern Guizhou, South China

    Jin PENG
    Abstract: The Early Cambrian Balang Formation is comprised of mudrock and shale, which was deposited in a shelf environment in the eastern part of Guizhou, south China. The Balang Fauna, which consists of seven phyla, occurs in the middle and upper parts of the Balang Formation. Arthropods are important constituents of the Balang Fauna and include a great number of trilobites, large bivalved arthropods, and newly-discovered well-preserved bradoriid fossils. The bradoriids present include three genera and four species: Comptaluta inflate (Cheng, 1974) emend Hou et al., 2002; Comptaluta kailiensis sp. nov, and Alutella elongeta sp. nov, Aluta sp. This faunal assemblage in the Balang Formation is distinguished from the Tsunyiella Chang, 1964, Songlinella Yin, 1978 and Kunmingella Hou, 1956 assemblage which occurs in the Niutitang and Mingxinsi formations of the Yangtze Platform in middle region of Guizhou and which is earlier than the Balang Formation in age. However, this assemblage resembles the ComptalutaÖpik, 1968 assemblage from the Early Cambrian Heilinpu Formation in Wuding County, Yuanan Province and from the Ordian Stage of the Cambrian of Australia. The great abundance of ComptalutaÖpik, 1968 and overall taxonomic diversity of the ComptalutaÖpik, 1968 assemblage set it distinctly apart from the Alutella Kobayashi et Kato, 1951 and Aluta Hou, 1956 assemblages of the Balang Formation. Alutella Kobayashi et Kato, 1951 and Aluta Hou, 1956 also occur in the Early Cambrian Niutitang Formation of the Yangtze Platform of Guizhou. Individual Bradoriids from the Balang Formation are characterized by large size (>3 mm). The discovery of new Bradoriid assemblages not only expands the group's geographical range and assemblage affinities, but also indicates that Bradoriids migrated eastward from shallow-water to deeper-water environments during the Early Cambrian, indicating that they were capable of life in deeper-water, and adaptation to a new ecological setting. [source]

    Biodiversity and Sequence of the Middle Triassic Panxian Marine Reptile Fauna, Guizhou Province, China

    Dayong JIANG
    Abstract: The Middle Triassic Panxian fauna is a physical marker and representative record of the rapid recovery of the Triassic marine ecosystem following the Early Triassic stagnant stage after the end-Permian mass extinction. Ten marine reptile taxa have been found from the 1.82,2.10 m-thick fossiliferous level in the Upper Member of the Guanling Formation, which can be subdivided into three marine reptile beds through the analysis on the stratigraphic distributions of fossil reptiles. The Lower Reptile Bed yields the sauropterygians Placodus inexpectatus Jiang et al., 2008 and Lariosaurus hongguoensis Jiang et al., 2006, the ichthyopterygians Xinminosaurus catactes Jiang et al., 2008 and Phalarodon cf. Phalarodon fraasi Merriam, 1910, associated with Mixosaurus panxianensis Jiang et al., 2006, representing a stage of predominance of durophagous taxa. In this bed, the large complete skeletons may reach up to 2.3 m in length, and lithofacies and chemostratigraphic analyses indicate a relatively deep carbonate platform with an oxic water environment near the bottom, as well as a rising sea level. The Middle Reptile Bed yields the sauropterygian Nothosaurus yangjuanensis Jiang et al., 2006 and the archosaur Qianosuchus mixtus Li et al., 2006, associated with Mixosaurus panxianensis Jiang et al., 2006. The fossils in this bed are characterized by its pincering dentition and large overall body size, with the largest possibly exceeding 3 m in length. This bed might represent a time of deepest basin with relatively anoxic condition near the bottom. The Upper Reptile Bed yields the sauropterygians Wumengosaurus delicatomandibularis Jiang et al., 2008, Keichousaurus sp., the protorosaur Dinocephalosaurus orientalis Li, 2003, and the ichthyopterygian Mixosaurus panxianensis Jiang et al., 2006. In this bed, reptilian taxa characterized by suction feeding appeared, and most are less than 1 m long. This bed corresponds to a period of decreasing water depth. [source]

    Temporal Distribution of Diagnostic Biofabrics in the Lower and Middle Ordovician in North China: Clues to the Geobiology of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event

    Jianbo LIU
    Abstract: The temporal distribution of the diagnostic biofabrics in the Lower and Middle Ordovician in North China distinctly illustrates that the sedimentary systems on the paleoplate have been changed markedly as consequences of the Great Ordovician Biodiversification Event (GOBE). The pre-GOBE sedimentary systems deposited in Tremadoc display widespread microbialite and flat-pebble conglomerates, and a less extent of bioturbation. Through the transitional period of early Floian, the sedimentary systems in the rest of the Early and Mid- Ordovician change to GOBE type and are characterized by intensive bioturbation and vanishing flat-pebble conglomerates and subtidal microbial sediments. The irreversible changes in sedimentary systems in North China are linked to the GOBE, which conduced the increase in infaunal tiering, the expansion of infaunal ecospace, and the appearance of new burrowers related to the development of the Paleozoic Evolutionary Fauna during the Ordovician biodiversification. Thus, changes in sedimentary systems during the pivotal period of the GOBE were consequences of a steep diversification of benthic faunas rather than the GOBE's environmental background. [source]

    Sequence of the Cenozoic Mammalian Faunas of the Linxia Basin in Gansu, China

    DENG Tao
    Abstract In the Linxia Basin on the northeast margin of the Tibetan Plateau, the Cenozoic strata are very thick and well exposed. Abundant mammalian fossils are discovered in the deposits from the Late Oligocene to the Early Pleistocene. The Dzungariotherium fauna comes from the sandstones of the Jiaozigou Formation, including many representative Late Oligocene taxa. The Platybelodon fauna comes from the sandstones of the Dongxiang Formation and the conglomerates of the Laogou Formation, and its fossils are typical Middle Miocene forms, such as Hemicyon, Amphicyon, Platybelodon, Choerolophodon, Anchitherium, and Hispanotherium. The Hipparion fauna comes from the red clay of the Liushu and Hewangjia Formations, and its fossils can be distinctly divided into four levels, including three Late Miocene levels and one Early Pliocene level. In the Linxia Basin, the Hipparion fauna has the richest mammalian fossils. The Equus fauna comes from the Wucheng Loess, and it is slightly older than that of the classical Early Pleistocene Nihewan Fauna. The mammalian faunas from the Linxia Basin provide the reliable evidence to divide the Cenozoic strata of this basin and correlate them with European mammalian sequence. [source]

    First Record of Protorosaurid Reptile (Order Protorosauria) from the Middle Triassic of China

    LI Chun
    Abstract, A new genus and species of the family Tanystropheidae, Dinocephalosaurus orientalis gen. et sp. nov., is described based on a nearly complete skull. This is the first record of the order Protorosauria from China. It also represents the only known occurrence of Tanystropheidae outside Europe, the Middle East and North America. Dinocephalosaurus is quite similar to Tanystropheus from Monte San Giorgio, Switzerland. Primarily it is distinguished from Tanystropheus in the shape of the premaxilla, maxilla, jugal and parietal. Although the family Tanystropheidae is now referred to the order Protorosauria, the new material from China indicates that the archosauromorph affinities of tanystropheids need further investigation. The discovery of Dinocephalosaurus provides new clues for the study of the evolution and radiation of Protorosauria and Tanystropheidae. It is also important for the study of the eastern Tethyan Fauna and the paleobiogeographical relationship between Europe and southern China in the Triassic. [source]

    Mixing virtual and real scenes in the site of ancient Pompeii

    George Papagiannakis
    Abstract This paper presents an innovative 3D reconstruction of ancient fresco paintings through the real-time revival of their fauna and flora, featuring groups of virtual animated characters with artificial-life dramaturgical behaviours in an immersive, fully mobile augmented reality (AR) environment. The main goal is to push the limits of current AR and virtual storytelling technologies and to explore the processes of mixed narrative design of fictional spaces (e.g. fresco paintings) where visitors can experience a high degree of realistic immersion. Based on a captured/real-time video sequence of the real scene in a video-see-through HMD set-up, these scenes are enhanced by the seamless accurate real-time registration and 3D rendering of realistic complete simulations of virtual flora and fauna (virtual humans and plants) in a real-time storytelling scenario-based environment. Thus the visitor of the ancient site is presented with an immersive and innovative multi-sensory interactive trip to the past. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Artificial Animals and Humans: From Physics to Intelligence

    Demetri Terzopoulos
    The confluence of virtual reality and artificial life, an emerging discipline that spans the computational and biological sciences, has yielded synthetic worlds inhabited by realistic, artificial flora and fauna. Artificial animals are complex synthetic organisms that possess functional biomechanical bodies, sensors, and brains with locomotion, perception, behavior, learning, and cognition centers. Artificial humans and other animals are of interest in computer graphics because they are self-animating characters that dramatically advance the state of the art of production animation and interactive game technologies. More broadly, these biomimetic autonomous agents in their realistic virtual worlds also foster deeper, computationally oriented insights into natural living systems. [source]

    The Potential for Species Conservation in Tropical Secondary Forests

    especialización de hábitat; biodiversidad forestal; bosque secundario; bosque tropical; sucesión Abstract:,In the wake of widespread loss of old-growth forests throughout the tropics, secondary forests will likely play a growing role in the conservation of forest biodiversity. We considered a complex hierarchy of factors that interact in space and time to determine the conservation potential of tropical secondary forests. Beyond the characteristics of local forest patches, spatial and temporal landscape dynamics influence the establishment, species composition, and persistence of secondary forests. Prospects for conservation of old-growth species in secondary forests are maximized in regions where the ratio of secondary to old-growth forest area is relatively low, older secondary forests have persisted, anthropogenic disturbance after abandonment is relatively low, seed-dispersing fauna are present, and old-growth forests are close to abandoned sites. The conservation value of a secondary forest is expected to increase over time, as species arriving from remaining old-growth forest patches accumulate. Many studies are poorly replicated, which limits robust assessments of the number and abundance of old-growth species present in secondary forests. Older secondary forests are not often studied and few long-term studies are conducted in secondary forests. Available data indicate that both old-growth and second-growth forests are important to the persistence of forest species in tropical, human-modified landscapes. Resumen:,A raíz de la pérdida generalizada de los bosques maduros en el trópico, los bosques secundarios probablemente jugarán un mayor papel en la conservación de la biodiversidad forestal. Consideramos una jerarquía compleja de factores que interactúan en el espacio y tiempo para determinar el potencial de conservación de los bosques tropicales secundarios. Más allá de las características de los fragmentos de bosque locales, la dinámica espacial y temporal del paisaje influye en el establecimiento, la composición de especies y la persistencia de bosques secundarios. Los prospectos para la conservación de especies primarias en los bosques secundarios se maximizan en regiones donde la proporción de superficie de bosque maduro-bosque secundario es relativamente baja, los bosques secundarios más viejos han persistido, la perturbación antropogénica después del abandono es relativamente baja, hay presencia de fauna dispersora de semillas y donde hay bosques primarios cerca de sitios abandonados. Se espera que el valor de conservación de un bosque secundario incremente en el tiempo, a medida que se acumulan especies provenientes de los fragmentos de bosque primario remanentes. Muchos estudios están pobremente replicados, lo que impide evaluaciones robustas del número y abundancia de especies primarias presentes en bosques secundarios. Los bosques secundarios más viejos generalmente no son estudiados y son pocos los estudios a largo plazo en bosques secundarios. Los datos disponibles indican que tanto los bosques primarios como los secundarios son importantes para la persistencia de especies forestales en paisajes tropicales modificados por humanos. [source]

    The Need to Rationalize and Prioritize Threatening Processes Used to Determine Threat Status in the IUCN Red List

    carnivora; competencia; estatus de conservación; procesos amenazantes Abstract:,Thorough evaluation has made the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List the most widely used and accepted authority on the conservation status of biodiversity. Although the system used to determine risk of extinction is rigorously and objectively applied, the list of threatening processes affecting a species is far more subjectively determined and has not had adequate review. I reviewed the threats listed in the IUCN Red List for randomly selected groups within the three most threatened orders of mammals: Artiodactyla, Carnivora, and Primates. These groups are taxonomically related and often ecologically similar, so I expected they would suffer relatively similar threats. Hominoid primates and all other terrestrial fauna faced similar threats, except for bovine artiodactyls and large, predatory carnivores, which faced significantly different threats. Although the status of bovines and hominoids and the number of threats affecting them were correlated, this was not the case for large carnivores. Most notable, however, was the great variation in the threats affecting individual members of each group. For example, the endangered European bison (Bison bonasus) has no threatening processes listed for it, and the lion (Panthera leo) is the only large predator listed as threatened with extinction by civil war. Some threatening processes appear spurious for the conservation of the species, whereas other seemingly important factors are not recorded as threats. The subjective nature of listing threatening processes, via expert opinion, results in substantial biases that may be allayed by independent peer review, use of technical manuals, consensus among multiple assessors, incorporation of probability modeling via decision-tree analysis, and adequate coordination among evaluators. The primary focus should be on species-level threats rather than population-level threats because the IUCN Red List is a global assessment and smaller-scale threats are more appropriate for national status assessments. Until conservationists agree on the threats affecting species and their relative importance, conservation action and success will be hampered by scattering scarce resources too widely and often by implementing conflicting strategies. Resumen:,La evaluación exhaustiva ha hecho que la Lista Roja de la Unión Internacional para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (UICN) sea la autoridad más aceptada y ampliamente utilizada respecto al estatus de conservación de la biodiversidad. Aunque el sistema utilizado para determinar el riesgo de extinción es aplicado rigurosa y objetivamente, la lista de procesos amenazantes que afectan a las especies es determinado muy subjetivamente y no es revisado adecuadamente. Revisé las amenazas consideradas en la Lista Roja UICN para grupos seleccionados aleatoriamente en los tres órdenes de mamíferos más amenazados: Artyodactila, Carnivora y Primates. Estos grupos están relacionados taxonómicamente y a menudo son ecológicamente similares, así que esperaba que tuvieran amenazas relativamente similares. Los primates homínidos y toda la demás fauna terrestre enfrentan amenazas similares, excepto por los bovinos artiodáctilos y los carnívoros depredadores mayores, que enfrentan amenazas significativamente diferentes. Aunque el estatus de los bovinos y homínidos y el número de amenazas que los afectan estuvieron correlacionados, este no fue el caso para los carnívoros mayores. Sin embargo, lo más notable fue la gran variación en las amenazas que afectan a miembros individuales de cada grupo. Por ejemplo, no hay procesos amenazantes enlistados para el bisonte europeo (Bison bonasus), y el león (Panthera leo) es el único depredador mayor enlistado como amenazado de extinción por la guerra civil. Algunos procesos amenazantes parecen espurios para la conservación de las especies, mientras que otros factores aparentemente importantes no están registrados como amenazas. La naturaleza subjetiva de los procesos de enlistado, por medio de la opinión de expertos, resulta en sesgos sustanciales que pueden disiparse por la revisión independiente por pares, el uso de manuales técnicos, el consenso de múltiples asesores, la incorporación del modelado probabilístico mediante análisis de árboles de decisión y la adecuada coordinación entre evaluadores. El enfoque principal debería ser sobre amenazas a nivel de especies en lugar de amenazas a nivel de poblaciones porque la Lista Roja UICN es una evaluación global y las amenazas a menor escala son más apropiadas para evaluaciones nacionales de estatus. Hasta que los conservacionistas estén de acuerdo sobre las amenazas que afectan a las especies y su importancia relativa, las acciones de conservación y su éxito estarán obstaculizados por la dispersión demasiado amplia de recursos limitados y a menudo por la implementación de estrategias contrapuestas. [source]

    Conservation of the Biodiversity of Brazil's Inland Waters

    Threatened freshwater species include 44 species of invertebrates (mostly Porifera) and 134 fishes (mostly Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae), primarily distributed in south and southeastern Brazil. Reasons for the declines in biodiversity in Brazilian inland waters include pollution and eutrophication, siltation, impoundments and flood control, fisheries, and species introductions. These problems are more conspicuous in the more-developed regions. The majority of protected areas in Brazil have been created for terrestrial fauna and flora, but they also protect significant water bodies and wetlands. As a result, although very poorly documented, these areas are of great importance for aquatic species. A major and pressing challenge is the assessment of the freshwater biodiversity in protected areas and surveys to better understand the diversity and geography of freshwater species in Brazil. The concept of umbrella species (e.g., certain migratory fishes) would be beneficial for the protection of aquatic biodiversity and habitats. The conservation and improved management of river corridors and associated floodplains and the maintenance of their hydrological integrity is fundamental to preserving Brazil's freshwater biodiversity and the health of its aquatic resources. Resumen:,En términos de biodiversidad, las aguas interiores de Brasil son de enorme importancia global para Algae (25% de las especies del mundo), Porifera (Demospongiae, 33%), Rotifera (25%), Cladocera (Branchiopoda, 20%) y peces (21%). Las especies dulceacuícolas amenazadas incluyen a 44 especies de invertebrados (la mayoría Porifera) y 134 de peces (en su mayor parte Cyprinodontiformes, Rivulidae), distribuidos principalmente en el sur y sureste de Brasil. Las razones de la declinación en la biodiversidad de aguas interiores de Brasil incluyen contaminación y eutrofización, sedimentación, represas y control de inundaciones, pesquerías e introducción de especies. Estos problemas son más conspicuos en las regiones más desarrolladas. La mayoría de las áreas protegidas en Brasil han sido creadas para fauna y flora terrestres, pero también protegen a considerable número de cuerpos de agua y humedales y, aunque muy deficientemente documentado, como tales son de gran importancia para las especies acuáticas. La evaluación de la biodiversidad dulceacuícola en áreas protegidas y muestreos para un mejor entendimiento de la diversidad y geografía de especies dulceacuícolas de Brasil son un reto mayor y apremiante. El concepto de especies sombrilla (e.g., ciertos peces migratorios) sería benéfico para la protección de biodiversidad y hábitats acuáticos. La conservación y perfeccionamiento de la gestión de corredores fluviales y las llanuras de inundación asociadas y el mantenimiento de su integridad hidrológica son fundamentales para preservar la biodiversidad dulceacuícola de Brasil y la salud de sus recursos acuáticos. [source]

    Influence of Temporal Scale of Sampling on Detection of Relationships between Invasive Plants and the Diversity Patterns of Plants and Butterflies

    But monitoring is often neglected because it can be expensive and time-consuming. Accordingly, it is valuable to determine whether the temporal extent of sampling alters the validity of inferences about the response of diversity measures to environmental variables affected by restoration actions. Non-native species alter ecosystems in undesirable ways, frequently homogenizing flora and fauna and extirpating local populations of native species. In the Mojave Desert, invasion of salt-cedar (Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb.) and human efforts to eradicate salt-cedar have altered vegetation structure, vegetation composition, and some measures of faunal diversity. We examined whether similar inferences about relationships between plants and butterflies in the Muddy River drainage (Nevada, U.S.A.) could have been obtained by sampling less intensively (fewer visits per site over the same period of time) or less extensively (equal frequency of visits but over a more limited period of time). We also tested whether rank order of butterfly species with respect to occurrence rate (proportion of sites occupied) would be reflected accurately in temporal subsamples. Temporal subsampling did not lead to erroneous inferences about the relative importance of six vegetation-based predictor variables on the species richness of butterflies. Regardless of the temporal scale of sampling, the species composition of butterflies was more similar in sites with similar species composition of plants. The rank order of occurrence of butterfly species in the temporal subsamples was highly correlated with the rank order of species occurrence in the full data set. Thus, similar inferences about associations between vegetation and butterflies and about relative occurrence rates of individual species of butterflies could be obtained by less intensive or extensive temporal sampling. If compromises between temporal intensity and extent of sampling must be made, our results suggest that maximizing temporal extent will better capture variation in biotic interactions and species occurrence. Resumen:,El monitoreo es un componente importante de los esfuerzos de restauración y de manejo adoptivo. Pero el monitoreo a menudo es desatendido porque puede ser costoso y consume tiempo. En consecuencia, es valioso determinar si la extensión temporal del muestreo altera la validez de inferencias sobre la respuesta de medidas de diversidad a variables ambientales afectadas por acciones de restauración. Las especies no nativas alteran a los ecosistemas de manera indeseable, frecuentemente homogenizan la flora y fauna y extirpan poblaciones locales de especies nativas. En el Desierto Mojave, la invasión de Tamarix ramosissima Ledeb. y los esfuerzos humanos para erradicarla han alterado la estructura y composición de la vegetación y algunas medidas de diversidad de fauna. Examinamos si se podían obtener inferencias similares sobre las relaciones entre plantas y mariposas en la cuenca Muddy River (Nevada, E.U.A.) muestreando menos intensivamente (menos visitas por sitio en el mismo período de tiempo) o menos extensivamente (igual frecuencia de visitas pero sobre un período de tiempo más limitado). También probamos si el orden jerárquico de especies de mariposas con respecto a la tasa de ocurrencia (proporción de sitios ocupados) se reflejaba con precisión en las submuestras temporales. El submuestreo temporal no condujo a inferencias erróneas acerca de la importancia relativa de seis variables predictivas basadas en vegetación sobre la riqueza de especies de mariposas. A pesar de la escala temporal del muestreo, la composición de especies de mariposas fue más similar en sitios con composición de especies de plantas similar. El orden jerárquico de ocurrencia de especies de mariposas en las muestras subtemporales estuvo muy correlacionado con el orden jerárquico de ocurrencia de especies en todo el conjunto de datos. Por lo tanto, se pudieron obtener inferencias similares de las asociaciones entre vegetación y mariposas y de las tasas de ocurrencia relativa de especies individuales de mariposas con muestreo temporal menos intensivo o extensivo. Si se deben hacer compromisos entre la intensidad y extensión de muestreo temporal, nuestros resultados sugieren que la maximización de la extensión temporal capturará la variación en interacciones bióticas y ocurrencia de especies más adecuadamente. [source]

    Synergistic Effects of Subsistence Hunting and Habitat Fragmentation on Amazonian Forest Vertebrates

    Carlos A. Peres
    These effects are likely to be considerably aggravated by forest fragmentation because fragments are more accessible to hunters, allow no (or very low rates of ,) recolonization from nonharvested source populations, and may provide a lower-quality resource base for the frugivore-granivore vertebrate fauna. I examined the likelihood of midsized to large-bodied bird and mammal populations persisting in Amazonian forest fragments of variable sizes whenever they continue to be harvested by subsistence hunters in the aftermath of isolation. I used data from a comprehensive compilation of game-harvest studies throughout Neotropical forests to estimate the degree to which different species and populations have been overharvested and then calculated the range of minimum forest areas required to maintain a sustainable harvest. The size distribution of 5564 Amazonian forest fragments,estimated from Landsat images of six regions of southern and eastern Brazilian Amazonia,clearly shows that these are predominantly small and rarely exceed 10 ha, suggesting that persistent overhunting is likely to drive most midsized to large vertebrate populations to local extinction in fragmented forest landscapes. Although experimental studies on this negative synergism remain largely unavailable, the prospect that increasingly fragmented Neotropical forest regions can retain their full assemblages of avian and mammalian species is unlikely. Resumen: La cacería de subsistencia tiene efectos negativos profundos sobre la diversidad de especies, la biomasa y estructura de las comunidades de vertebrados en bosques de la Amazonía que de otra forma están poco perturbadas. Estos efectos se agravan considerablemente por la fragmentación del bosque porque los fragmentos son más accesibles a los cazadores, no permiten la recolonización por poblaciones no cazadas o disminuyen las tasas de recolonizacíon y pueden proporcionar una base de recursos de menor calidad para la fauna de vertebrados frugívoro-granívoros. Examiné la posibilidad de persistencia de poblaciones de aves y mamíferos medianos a grandes en fragmentos de bosque de tamaño variable si continúan sujetos a la cacería de subsistencia como una consecuencia del aislamiento. Utilicé datos de una compilación extensiva de estudios de cacería en bosques neotropicales para estimar el grado en que diferentes especies y poblaciones han sido sobre explotadas y calculé el área de bosque minima requerida para mantener una cosecha sostensible. La distribucíon de tamaños de 5564 fragmentos de bosque amazónica, estimado a partir de imágues de Landsat de seis regiones del sur y del esté de la Amazonía brasileña indica claramente que estos fragmentós son principalmente pegueños y que rara vez exceden las lolta, lo que sugiere que la sobre cacería persistente probablemente lleve a la extincíon local de poblaciones de vertebrados de tamaño mediano a grande en paisajes boscosos fragmentados. Aunque estudios experimentales de este sinergismo negativo no están disponibles, la perspectiva de que las regiones neotropicales cada vez más fragmentadas, puedan retener las comunidades completas de aves y mamíferos poco es probable. [source]