Fas-induced Apoptosis (Fas-induce + apoptosi)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Involvement of mitochondrial signaling pathways in the mechanism of Fas-mediated apoptosis after spinal cord injury

Wen Ru Yu
Abstract Activation of the Fas receptor has been recently linked to apoptotic cell death after spinal cord injury (SCI). Although it is generally considered that Fas activation mediates apoptosis predominantly through the extrinsic pathway, we hypothesized that intrinsic mitochondrial signaling could be involved in the underlying mechanism of Fas-induced apoptosis after SCI. In the present study, we utilized the FejotaTM clip compression model of SCI at T5,6 in C57BL/6 Fas-deficient (lpr) and wild-type mice. Complementary studies were conducted using an in vitro model of trauma or a Fas-activating antibody to induce apoptosis in primary neuronal,glial mixed spinal cord cultures. After in vivo SCI, lpr mice, in comparison with wild-type mice, exhibited reduced numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells at the lesion, reduced expression of truncation of Bid (tBid), apoptosis-inducing factor, activated caspase-9 and activated caspase-3, and increased expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. After in vitro neurotrauma or the induction of Fas signaling by the Jo2 activating antibody, lpr spinal cord cultures showed an increased proportion of cells retaining mitochondrial membrane integrity and a reduction of tBid expression, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation, and TUNEL-positive cells as compared to wild-type spinal cord cultures. The neutralization of Fas ligand (FasL) protected against traumatically induced or Fas-mediated caspase-3 activation and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and tBid expression in wild-type spinal cord cultures. However, in lpr spinal cord cultures, FasL neutralization had no protective effects. In summary, these data provide direct evidence for the induction of intrinsic mitochondrial signaling pathways following Fas activation after SCI. [source]

Reduced FAS transcription in clones of U937 cells that have acquired resistance to Fas-induced apoptosis

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 2 2009
Jeanette Blomberg
Susceptibility to cell death is a prerequisite for the elimination of tumour cells by cytotoxic immune cells, chemotherapy or irradiation. Activation of the death receptor Fas is critical for the regulation of immune cell homeostasis and efficient killing of tumour cells by apoptosis. To define the molecular changes that occur during selection for insensitivity to Fas-induced apoptosis, a resistant variant of the U937 cell line was established. Individual resistant clones were isolated and characterized. The most frequently observed defect in the resistant cells was reduced Fas expression, which correlated with decreased FAS transcription. Clones with such reduced Fas expression also displayed partial cross-resistance to tumour necrosis factor-, stimulation, but the mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor receptors was not decreased. Reintroduction of Fas conferred susceptibility to Fas but not to tumour necrosis factor-, stimulation, suggesting that several alterations could be present in the clones. The reduced Fas expression could not be explained by mutations in the FAS coding sequence or promoter region, or by silencing through methylations. Protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, components of signalling pathways downstream of Ras, were shown to be activated in some of the resistant clones, but none of the three RAS genes was mutated, and experiments using chemical inhibitors could not establish that the activation of these proteins was the cause of Fas resistance as described in other systems. Taken together, the data illustrate that Fas resistance can be caused by reduced Fas expression, which is a result of an unidentified mode of regulation. [source]

Bid-dependent generation of oxygen radicals promotes death receptor activation,induced apoptosis in murine hepatocytes

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
Wen-Xing Ding
Activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 or Fas leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species, which are important to the cytotoxic effects of tumor necrosis factor , (TNF-,) or Fas ligand. However, how these radicals are generated following receptor ligation is not clear. Using primary hepatocytes, we found that TNF-, or anti,Fas antibody,induced burst of oxygen radicals was mainly derived from the mitochondria. We discovered that Bid,a pro-death Bcl-2 family protein activated by ligated death receptors,was the main intracellular molecule signaling the generation of the radicals by targeting to the mitochondria and that the majority of oxygen radical production was dependent on Bid. Reactive oxygen species contributed to cell death and caspase activation by promoting FLICE-inhibitory protein degradation and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c. For the latter part, the oxygen radicals did not affect Bak oligomerization but instead promoted mitochondrial cristae reorganization and membrane lipid peroxidation. Antioxidants could reverse these changes and therefore protect against TNF-, or anti,Fas-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our studies established the signaling pathway from death receptor engagement to oxygen radical generation and determined the mechanism by which reactive oxygen species contributed to hepatocyte apoptosis following death receptor activation. (HEPATOLOGY 2004;40:403,413.) [source]

Cell differentiation and apoptosis of monocytic and promyelocytic leukemia cells (U-937 and HL-60) by tryptanthrin, an active ingredient of Polygonum tinctorium Lour.

Tetsuo Kimoto
Tryptanthrin, a bioactive ingredient of Polygonum tinctorium Lour., is a member of the Indigo plant family and has potent cytocidal effects on various human leukemia cells in vitro. At low concentrations, tryptanthrin enhanced the expression of cell differentiation (CD) markers in human monocytic (U-937) and promyelocytic (HL-60) leukemia cells indicative of differentiation to monocytes/macrophages. Furthermore, nitroblue tetrazolium (NBT) reductive and , -naphthyl butyrate esterase (NBE) activities were markedly increased after treatment. Tryptanthrin was more potent than dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) at inducing U-937 cell differentiation into monocytes/macrophages. After treatment with higher concentrations of tryptanthrin for 24 h, cytoplasmic vacuolation and destruction of mitochondria were observed. The leukemia cells died via apoptosis 48 h after treatment. Cytoplasmic vacuolation and apoptotic changes correlated with the dysfunction of mitochondria. Electron microscopic observations revealed marked swelling and destruction of mitochondria after exposure of the leukemia cells to tryptanthrin. Exposure to tryptanthrin enhanced Fas-induced apoptosis and increased caspase-3 activity before induction of apoptosis. These results show that low concentrations of tryptanthrin can induce differentiation of leukemia cells but higher concentrations will kill leukemia cells through apoptosis, possibly through a caspase-3/Fas antigen pathway. [source]

The small ubiquitin-like modifier mediates the resistance of prosthesis-loosening fibroblast-like synoviocytes against fas-induced apoptosis

Ingmar Meinecke
Objective To study the expression of small ubiquitin-like modifier 1 (SUMO-1) in aseptic loosening of prosthesis implants and to investigate its role in regulating the susceptibility of prosthesis-loosening fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) to Fas-induced apoptosis. Methods Specimens of aseptically loosened tissue were obtained at revision surgery, and the expression of SUMO-1 was analyzed by in situ hybridization. SUMO-1 levels in FLS were determined by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to study the subcellular localization of SUMO-1. The functional role of SUMO-1 in Fas-induced apoptosis of prosthesis-loosening FLS was investigated by small interfering RNA,mediated knockdown of SUMO-1 and by gene transfer of the nuclear SUMO-specific protease SENP1. Results SUMO-1 was expressed strongly in aseptically loosened tissue and was found prominently at sites adjacent to bone. Prosthesis-loosening FLS expressed levels of SUMO-1 similar to the levels expressed by rheumatoid arthritis (RA) FLS, with SUMO-1 being found mainly in promyelocytic leukemia protein nuclear bodies. Knockdown of SUMO-1 had no effect on spontaneous apoptosis but significantly increased the susceptibility of prosthesis-loosening FLS to Fas-induced apoptosis. Gene transfer of the nuclear SUMO-specific protease SENP1 reverted the apoptosis-inhibiting effects of SUMO-1. Conclusion These data suggest that SUMO-1 is involved in the activation of both RA FLS and prosthesis-loosening FLS by preventing these cells from undergoing apoptosis. Modification of nuclear proteins by SUMO-1 contributes to the antiapoptotic effects of SUMO-1 in prosthesis-loosening FLS, providing evidence for the specific activation of sumoylation during their differentiation. Therefore, SUMO-1 may be an interesting target for novel strategies to prevent aseptic prosthesis loosening. [source]

Sodium butyrate induces P53-independent, Fas-mediated apoptosis in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells

Valérie Chopin
This study was performed to determine the effect and action mechanisms of sodium butyrate (NaB) on the growth of breast cancer cells. Butyrate inhibited the growth of all breast cancer cell lines analysed. It induced cell cycle arrest in G1 and apoptosis in MCF-7, MCF-7ras, T47-D, and BT-20 cells, as well as arrest in G2/M in MDA-MB-231 cells. Transient transfection of MCF-7 and T47-D cells with wild-type and antisense p53 did not modify butyrate-induced apoptosis. Pifithrin-,, which inhibits the transcriptional activity of P53, did not modify cell growth or apoptosis of MCF-7 and T47-D cells treated with butyrate. These results indicate that P53 was not involved in butyrate-induced growth inhibition of breast cancer cells. Treatment of MCF-7 cells with anti-Fas agonist antibody induced cell death, indicating that Fas was functional in these cells. Moreover, butyrate potentiated Fas-induced apoptosis, as massive apoptosis was observed rapidly when MCF-7 cells were treated with butyrate and anti-Fas agonist antibody. In addition, butyrate-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells was considerably reduced by anti-Fas antagonist antibody. Western blot analysis showed that butyrate increased Fas and Fas ligand levels (Fas L), indicating that butyrate-induced apoptosis may be mediated by Fas signalling. These results demonstrate that butyrate inhibited the growth of breast cancer cells in a P53-independent manner. Moreover, it induced apoptosis via the Fas/Fas L system and potentiated Fas-triggered apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. These findings may open interesting perspectives in human breast cancer treatment strategy. British Journal of Pharmacology (2002) 135, 79,86; doi:10.1038/sj.bjp.0704456 [source]