Fas Ligand (fa + ligand)

Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Fas Ligand

  • soluble Fa ligand

  • Selected Abstracts

    High-dose glucose-insulin-potassium treatment reduces myocardial apoptosis in patients with acute myocardial infarction

    L. Zhang
    Abstract Background, Several clinical trials have suggested that a metabolic cocktail of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) decreases mortality rates in patients with acute myocardial infarction (AMI). It has also been reported that Fas-mediated apoptosis plays an important role in ischaemic/reperfusion injury in the rat model. This study was designed to evaluate the interaction of ischaemic/reperfusion and reperfusion therapy coadministered with high-dose GIK treatment on soluble Fas/APO-1 (sFas) and Fas ligand (sFasL) plasma concentration in patients with AMI. Materials and methods, Seventy-four patients presenting with AMI who underwent reperfusion therapy were randomized into a GIK group (n = 35) receiving high-dose GIK for 24 h or a vehicle group (n = 39). Thirty-four control subjects were also enrolled in the present study. Strepavidin-biotin ELISA was used to determine the soluble sFas and sFasL plasma concentration at baseline, 24 h (h), 3 day (d), 7 d and 14 d. Results, Soluble Fas and sFas-L serum concentrations ([sFas] and [sFas-L]) of patients with AMI were significantly elevated at baseline as compared with normal controls (NCs; P < 0·01 vs. NC). The sFas in the GIK and vehicle groups markedly decreased 24 h after the GIK infusion (10·7,5·9 ng mL,1 and 9·7,6·5 ng mL,1; P < 0·01 vs. baseline) and then increased during the 3,7-d period (5·9,12·1 ng mL,1 and 6·5,11·1 ng mL,1; P < 0·01 vs. 24 h). The GIK group demonstrated reduced sFas (12·1,5·9 ng mL,1) at 14 d (P < 0·01 vs. 7 d), with no concomitant changes in the vehicle group. The sFas-L in the GIK and vehicle groups was not significant different during the 14-d period. Conclusions, These results indicate that the sFas and sFasL in patients with AMI increased significantly compared with NC. Owing to the cardioprotective effects reported here and by others, a high-dose GIK infusion co-administered with the timely re-establishment of nutritive perfusion should be strongly considered as a treatment of choice for AMI. Additionally, sFas may be a valuable marker of the physiological response to ischaemic/reperfusion injury and reperfusion associated with high-dose GIK treatment. [source]

    Fas and Fas ligand expression on germinal center type-diffuse large B-cell lymphoma is associated with the clinical outcome

    Yasushi Kojima
    Abstract:, In recent years, diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) has been classified by DNA microarray analysis into the germinal center B-cell-like (GC) type, the activated B-cell-like (ABC) type and type 3. The latter two types can be collectively categorized as the non-GC (NGC) type. From the prognostic perspective, the GC type has a favorable clinical outcome when compared with the NGC type. The protein Fas induces apoptosis of lymphocytes by binding with the Fas ligand (FasL), and escape from such apoptosis is considered to lead to malignant transformation of the cells and unrestricted growth of lymphoma. We proposed a hypothesis that Fas/FasL expression could be possibly related with a better survival of GC type DLBCL and evaluated 69 DLBCL cases immunohistochemically with CD10, Bcl-6, MUM1, Fas and FasL. These lymphomas were classified as GC type (positive for CD10 or Bcl-6 and negative for MUM1) or NGC type. The GC type had a better overall survival rate than the NGC type (P = 0.0723). Among markers as given above, positive CD10 was the most significant prognostic factor for overall survival in total DLBCL (P < 0.05). In the GC type, Fas and FasL expressions were significantly associated with a favorable overall survival (Fas: P < 0.005; FasL: P < 0.05). Hence, Fas or FasL expression might contribute to a better prognosis of this type of DLBCL. [source]

    Matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor reduces apoptosis induction of bone marrow cells in MDS-RA

    Kosei Arimura
    Abstract:,Background and objectives:,We examined the involvement of apoptosis with myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS) accompanied by peripheral cytopenias despite normo-hypercellular bone marrow. Materials and methods:,Bone marrow smears from 31 patients with MDS-refractory anemia (RA) and five normal controls were stained using the in situ end labeling (ISEL) method. Next, the inhibitory effects of a caspase-3 inhibitor, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor (MMPI), anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)- , or anti-Fas antibody upon the apoptosis induction in overnight cultures of bone marrow cells from the patients were examined. Further, TNF- ,, transforming growth factor (TGF)- , and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) concentrations in culture supernatants of the cells were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Results:,The incidence of ISEL-positive cells among MDS patients was significantly higher than in normal controls (50.8 ± 14.0% vs. 11.3 ± 2.4%; P < 0.0001). A caspase-3 inhibitor reduced significantly the ISEL-positive rates (32.6 ± 15.2% vs. 50.2 ± 16.5%; P < 0.0001). Anti-TNF- , or anti-Fas antibody reduced the ISEL-positive rates significantly (28.2 ± 6.0%, 29.2 ± 5.8%, vs. 44.2 ± 3.4%, P < 0.001, P = 0.001, respectively). KB-R7785 also significantly decreased the ISEL-positive rates (18.0 ± 9.3% vs. 43.6 ± 14.0%; P < 0.0001). The concentration of TNF- , was significantly reduced by KB-R7785 (P < 0.05), whereas that of TGF- , was not. Concentration of sFasL was under detectable level in the present assay system. The derivatives of KB-R7785 that can be administrated orally showed inhibitory effect on apoptosis induction as well. Conclusions:,These findings suggest that MMPIs inhibits the apoptosis induction of MDS bone marrow cells via the inhibition of TNF- , and probably sFasL secretion, and that MMPIs can be used to control the abnormal induction of apoptosis in MDS. [source]

    Plasma-soluble Fas (APO-1, CD95) and soluble Fas ligand in immune thrombocytopenic purpura

    Chie Yoshimura
    Abstract: We investigated the levels of various cytokines and soluble factors in ITP patients, in order to determine the influence of these factors on the pathogenesis of ITP. We found increases in IL-2, IL-6, IFN-,, and M-CSF levels in ITP patients compared with those in healthy individuals. On lymphocyte phenotype analysis, we found no clear difference in total T cell population (CD2+ CD19, cells) or cytotoxic T cell frequency (CD8+ CD11b, cells) between these two groups. The frequency of helper/inducer T cells (CD4+ CD8, cells) was decreased in ITP patients. There was a significant increase in activated T cells (CD3+ HLA-DR+ cells) in ITP patients. Furthermore, frequencies of NK cells of potent activity (CD16+ CD56+ cells) were significantly elevated in ITP patients. Seventeen of the 54 ITP patients (31.5%) had elevated levels of sFas, and 11 of the 54 patients (20.4%) of sFasL. In addition, a significant increase of sFasL was observed in sFas-positive ITP patients, and in these patients the sFasL level was correlated with that of sFas (r=0.687, p<0.01). We found significant increases in IL-2 and sIL-2R levels in sFas-positive ITP patients. For other factors examined, however, there were no differences in level between sFas-positive and-negative ITP patients. Percentages of activated T cells (CD3+ and HLA-DR+ cells) and NK cells (CD16+ and CD56+ cells) were significantly higher in sFas-positive ITP patients than in sFas-negative ITP patients. These findings suggests that the pathogenesis of ITP includes alteration of the Fas/FasL pathway. [source]

    The role of Fas ligand as an effector molecule in corneal graft rejection

    Abstract Previous studies have shown that the expression of Fas ligand (FasL; CD95L) by donor corneas is critical to their survival when placed on allogeneic recipients. Since there have been reports that the cornea expresses Fas, we tested the idea that FasL on lymphoid cells could be an effector molecule during rejection episodes. When FasL defective BALB/c- gld mice were engrafted with allogeneic corneas, significantly more of these corneas were accepted than by normal BALB/c mice. However, this was not due to impaired FasL-mediated effector function in these mice as the allogeneic corneas did not express detectable Fas by Western blot or RT-PCR analysis. Furthermore, donor corneas without Fas were given no survival advantage, but were rejected similar to wild-type donor allogeneic corneas. Examination of the T cell compartment in gld mice revealed that these cells express higher levels of Fas and are more susceptible to Fas-mediated death than wild-type cells. These results indicate that FasL is not an effector molecule in corneal graft rejection and that gld mice show reduced graft rejection due to greater susceptibility of their T cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis. [source]

    CEACAM1 (CD66a) mediates delay of spontaneous and Fas ligand-induced apoptosis in granulocytes

    Abstract Granulocytes form the first and fastest line of defense against pathogenic infections. Their survival is limited by apoptosis, a process that is critical for the resolution of inflammation. Pro-apoptotic and pro-inflammatory cytokines, as well as several receptors, can alter the lifespan of granulocytes. Here we report that the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule,1 (CEACAM1, CD66a) is involved in the regulation of granulocyte survival. Until now CEACAM1 is described to control cell proliferation, cell migration, tumor growth, angiogenesis and diverse leukocyte functions. However, very little is known about its role in granulocytes. We found that CEACAM1 expression in resting rat granulocytes is significantly higher than in other leukocyte subtypes. Stimulation led to a strongly increased CEACAM1 cell surface expression and to release of soluble CEACAM1. DNA fragmentation assays and annexin,V staining revealed that binding of CEACAM1-specific antibodies, Fab fragments and soluble CEACAM1-Fc constructs to cell surface-expressed CEACAM1 causes a delay of spontaneous and Fas ligand (CD95L)-induced apoptosis. Tyrosine phosphorylation of CEACAM1-L, its association with SHP-1, the activation of Erk1/2 and caspase-3 appeared to be crucial for the CEACAM1-mediated anti-apoptotic effect. These findings provide evidence that CEACAM1 influences the resolution of inflammation by prolonging the survival of rat granulocytes. [source]

    Involvement of mitochondrial signaling pathways in the mechanism of Fas-mediated apoptosis after spinal cord injury

    Wen Ru Yu
    Abstract Activation of the Fas receptor has been recently linked to apoptotic cell death after spinal cord injury (SCI). Although it is generally considered that Fas activation mediates apoptosis predominantly through the extrinsic pathway, we hypothesized that intrinsic mitochondrial signaling could be involved in the underlying mechanism of Fas-induced apoptosis after SCI. In the present study, we utilized the FejotaTM clip compression model of SCI at T5,6 in C57BL/6 Fas-deficient (lpr) and wild-type mice. Complementary studies were conducted using an in vitro model of trauma or a Fas-activating antibody to induce apoptosis in primary neuronal,glial mixed spinal cord cultures. After in vivo SCI, lpr mice, in comparison with wild-type mice, exhibited reduced numbers of terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells at the lesion, reduced expression of truncation of Bid (tBid), apoptosis-inducing factor, activated caspase-9 and activated caspase-3, and increased expression of the antiapoptotic proteins Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL. After in vitro neurotrauma or the induction of Fas signaling by the Jo2 activating antibody, lpr spinal cord cultures showed an increased proportion of cells retaining mitochondrial membrane integrity and a reduction of tBid expression, caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation, and TUNEL-positive cells as compared to wild-type spinal cord cultures. The neutralization of Fas ligand (FasL) protected against traumatically induced or Fas-mediated caspase-3 activation and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential and tBid expression in wild-type spinal cord cultures. However, in lpr spinal cord cultures, FasL neutralization had no protective effects. In summary, these data provide direct evidence for the induction of intrinsic mitochondrial signaling pathways following Fas activation after SCI. [source]

    Caspase-8- and JNK-dependent AP-1 activation is required for Fas ligand-induced IL-8 production

    FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 9 2007
    Norihiko Matsumoto
    Despite a dogma that apoptosis does not induce inflammation, Fas ligand (FasL), a well-known death factor, possesses pro-inflammatory activity. For example, FasL induces nuclear factor ,B (NF-,B) activity and interleukin 8 (IL-8) production by engagement of Fas in human cells. Here, we found that a dominant negative mutant of c-Jun, a component of the activator protein-1 (AP-1) transcription factor, inhibits FasL-induced AP-1 activity and IL-8 production in HEK293 cells. Selective inhibition of AP-1 did not affect NF-,B activation and vice versa, indicating that their activations were not sequential events. The FasL-induced AP-1 activation could be inhibited by deleting or introducing the lymphoproliferation (lpr) -type point mutation into the Fas death domain (DD), knocking down the Fas-associated DD protein (FADD), abrogating caspase-8 expression with small interfering RNAs, or using inhibitors for pan-caspase and caspase-8 but not caspase-1 or caspase-3. Furthermore, wildtype, but not a catalytically inactive mutant, of caspase-8 reconstituted the FasL-induced AP-1 activation in caspase-8-deficient cells. Fas ligand induced the phosphorylation of two of the three major mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs): extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) but not p38 MAPK. Unexpectedly, an inhibitor for JNK but not for MAPK/ERK kinase inhibited the FasL-induced AP-1 activation and IL-8 production. These results demonstrate that FasL-induced AP-1 activation is required for optimal IL-8 production, and this process is mediated by FADD, caspase-8, and JNK. [source]

    Inflammation and drug hepatotoxicity: Aggravation of injury or clean-up mission?,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 5 2005
    Hartmut Jaeschke
    BACKGROUND & AIMS Inflammatory mediators released by nonparenchymal inflammatory cells in the liver have been implicated in the progression of acetaminophen (APAP) hepatotoxicity. Among hepatic nonparenchymal inflammatory cells, we examined the role of the abundant natural killer (NK) cells and NK cells with T-cell receptors (NKT cells) in APAP-induced liver injury. METHODS C57BL/6 mice were administered a toxic dose of APAP intraperitoneally to cause liver injury with or without depletion of NK and NKT cells by anti-NK1.1 monoclonal antibody (MAb). Serum alanine transaminase (ALT) levels, liver histology, hepatic leukocyte accumulation, and cytokine/chemokine expression were assessed. RESULTS Compared with APAP-treated control mice, depletion of both NK and NKT cells by anti-NK1.1 significantly protected mice from APAP-induced liver injury, as evidenced by decreased serum ALT level, improved survival of mice, decreased hepatic necrosis, inhibition of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression for interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), Fas ligand (FasL), and chemokines including KC (Keratinocyte-derived chemokine); MIP-1 alpha (macrophage inflammatory protein-1 alpha); MCP-1 (monocyte chemoattractant protein-1); IP-10 (interferon-inducible protein); Mig (monokine induced by IFN-gamma) and decreased neutrophil accumulation in the liver. Hepatic NK and NKT cells were identified as the major source of IFN-gamma by intracellular cytokine staining. APAP induced much less liver injury in Fas-deficient (lpr) and FasL-deficient (gld) mice compared with that in wild-type mice. CONCLUSIONS NK and NKT cells play a critical role in the progression of APAP-induced liver injury by secreting IFN-gamma, modulating chemokine production and accumulation of neutrophils, and up-regulating FasL expression in the liver, all of which may promote the inflammatory response of liver innate immune system, thus contributing to the severity and progression of liver injury downstream of the metabolism of APAP and depletion of reduced glutathione (GSH) in hepatocytes. [source]

    Bid-dependent generation of oxygen radicals promotes death receptor activation,induced apoptosis in murine hepatocytes

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 2 2004
    Wen-Xing Ding
    Activation of tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 or Fas leads to the generation of reactive oxygen species, which are important to the cytotoxic effects of tumor necrosis factor , (TNF-,) or Fas ligand. However, how these radicals are generated following receptor ligation is not clear. Using primary hepatocytes, we found that TNF-, or anti,Fas antibody,induced burst of oxygen radicals was mainly derived from the mitochondria. We discovered that Bid,a pro-death Bcl-2 family protein activated by ligated death receptors,was the main intracellular molecule signaling the generation of the radicals by targeting to the mitochondria and that the majority of oxygen radical production was dependent on Bid. Reactive oxygen species contributed to cell death and caspase activation by promoting FLICE-inhibitory protein degradation and mitochondrial release of cytochrome c. For the latter part, the oxygen radicals did not affect Bak oligomerization but instead promoted mitochondrial cristae reorganization and membrane lipid peroxidation. Antioxidants could reverse these changes and therefore protect against TNF-, or anti,Fas-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, our studies established the signaling pathway from death receptor engagement to oxygen radical generation and determined the mechanism by which reactive oxygen species contributed to hepatocyte apoptosis following death receptor activation. (HEPATOLOGY 2004;40:403,413.) [source]

    Mechanisms of cell death induced by suicide genes encoding purine nucleoside phosphorylase and thymidine kinase in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells in vitro

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2001
    Tim U. Krohne
    For gene therapy of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the Escherichia coli purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP)/fludarabine suicide gene system may be more useful than the herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase/ganciclovir (HSV-tk/GCV) system as a result of a stronger bystander effect. To analyze the molecular mechanisms involved in PNP/fludarabine-mediated cell death in human HCC cells in comparison with HSV-tk/GCV, we transduced human HCC cells of the cell lines, HepG2 and Hep3B, with PNP or HSV-tk using adenoviral vectors, followed by prodrug incubation. Both systems predominantly induced apoptosis in HepG2 and Hep3B cells. PNP/fludarabine induced strong p53 accumulation and a more rapid onset of apoptosis in p53-positive HepG2 cells as compared with p53-negative Hep3B cells, but efficiency of tumor cell killing was similar in both cell lines. In contrast, HSV-tk/GCV,induced apoptosis was reduced in p53-negative Hep3B cells as compared with p53-positive HepG2 cells. HSV-tk/GCV, but not PNP/fludarabine, caused up-regulation of Fas in p53-positive HepG2 cells and of Fas ligand (FasL) in both HCC cell lines. These results demonstrate cell line,specific differences in response to treatment with PNP/fludarabine and HSV-tk/GCV, respectively, and indicate that PNP/fludarabine may be superior to HSV-tk/GCV for the treatment of human HCC because of its independence from p53 and the Fas/FasL system. (HEPATOLOGY 2001;34:511-518.) [source]

    c-FLIP expression in colorectal carcinomas: association with Fas/FasL expression and prognostic implications

    HISTOPATHOLOGY, Issue 2 2007
    P Korkolopoulou
    Aims:, Disruption of apoptotic cell death has been implicated in tumour aggressiveness in colonic carcinogenesis. The Fas,Fas ligand (FasL) system is involved in the execution of apoptosis induced by the immune system. c-FLIP protein constitutes an inhibitor of Fas and other (TRAIL) death receptor-mediated apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the simultaneous expression of Fas, FasL and c-FLIP in relation to standard clinicopathological parameters and patients' outcome in colorectal cancer. Methods and results:, Levels of Fas, FasL and c-FLIP protein expression were quantified immunohistochemically in paraffin-embedded tissues from 90 patients. Immunopositivity was detected for Fas, FasL and c-FLIP in 71%, 35.5% and 68.8% of cases, respectively. Concurrent expression of Fas/FasL was seen in 28 samples (31%), of which 24 (85.7%) also displayed c-FLIP positivity (P = 0.04). c-FLIP overexpression (> 10%) tended to prevail marginally in higher stage tumours (P = 0.09). Additionally, FasL and c-FLIP adversely affected survival on both univariate (P = 0.001 and P = 0.0024, respectively) and multivariate analysis [hazard ratio (HR) 3.491, P = 0.005 and HR 2.960, P = 0.036, respectively]. Conclusions:, The frequent expression and coexpression of Fas, FasL and c-FLIP in colorectal carcinoma implicates c-FLIP as an inhibitor of the Fas,FasL-induced death pathway in these tumours. Moreover, c-FLIP conveys independent prognostic information in the presence of classical prognosticators. [source]

    Roles of proinflammatory cytokines and the Fas/Fas ligand interaction in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1pt2 2009
    Masahiro Kondo
    Summary Within the lesions of inflammatory myopathies, muscle fibres and invading mononuclear cells express Fas and Fas ligand (FasL), respectively. However, the roles of the Fas/FasL interaction in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the roles of proinflammatory cytokines and the Fas/FasL system in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies. In vitro culturing of muscle cells with the proinflammatory cytokines interferon-,, tumour necrosis factor-,, and interleukin (IL)-1, synergistically increased Fas expression, susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis, and the expression of cytoplasmic caspases 8 and 3. In addition, culturing of muscle cells with activated CD4+ T cells induced muscle cell apoptosis, which was partially inhibited by anti-FasL antibody. We also tested the possibility that T helper (Th) 17, which is an IL-17-producing helper T-cell subset that plays crucial roles in autoimmune and inflammatory responses, participates in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies. Interestingly, in vitro culturing of dendritic cells with anti-Fas immunoglobulin M (IgM) or activated CD4+ T cells induced the expression of mRNA for IL-23p19, but not for IL-12p35, in addition to proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, IL-23p19 and IL-17 mRNAs were detected in the majority of biopsy samples from patients with inflammatory myopathies. Taken together, these results suggest that proinflammatory cytokines enhance Fas-mediated apoptosis of muscle cells, and that the Fas/FasL interaction between invading dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells induces local production of IL-23 and proinflammatory cytokines, which can promote the proliferation of Th17 cells and enhance Fas-mediated apoptosis of muscle cells, respectively. [source]

    Fas ligand-induced murine pulmonary inflammation is reduced by a stable decoy receptor 3 analogue

    IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 2 2003
    Mark A. Wortinger
    Summary Fas ligand (FasL)-induced lung inflammation has recently been suggested to play an important role in the pathogenesis of acute respiratory disease syndrome (ARDS). In order to further explore this connection, we established a FasL-induced murine model of pulmonary inflammation. Instillation of recombinant FasL (rFasL) into the lung induced neutrophil infiltration and increased pulmonary permeability, as evidenced by increased total protein in the airspace; both occur in patients with ARDS. These effects were accompanied with a rapid induction of proinflammatory mediators: cytokine granulocyte,macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and the chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) and KC. Pretreatment with a FasL antagonist, a decoy receptor 3 analogue (DcR3 analogue), reduced neutrophil infiltration into the airspace and resulted in a highly significant reduction in the levels of GM-CSF, MIP-2 and KC in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. We postulate that rFasL may be responsible for induction of proinflammatory chemokines and cytokines in the lung, which in turn attract neutrophil infiltration into the airspace. This proinflammatory process and the associated pulmonary permeability may, in part, explain the association of FasL with severe pulmonary inflammation, such as ARDS, and shed new light on FasL and its role in lung injury. [source]

    Attenuated apoptosis response to Fas-ligand in active ulcerative colitis

    Jakob B. Seidelin MD
    Abstract Background: From mainly carcinoma cell line studies, apoptosis has been thought to play a major role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Apoptosis has been suggested to be due to a Fas ligand / Fas receptor interaction, but has never been studied in cells from patients with active UC. The aim was to investigate both the spontaneous and the cell death receptor ligand-induced apoptosis in UC. Methods: Twenty patients with UC and 16 control subjects who underwent routine colonoscopy either for the control or surveillance of their disease or where the diagnosis of irritable bowel syndrome was subsequently reached were included. Cultures of isolated colonic crypts were obtained from biopsies and cultured for 4 to 16 hours with Fas ligand or Fas ligand and costimulation with interferon-, (IFN-,). Control experiments were performed on HT29 cells. Apoptosis was assessed by independent methods. Results: Isolated colonocytes from healthy subjects or patients with remission in UC had a dose-dependent response to Fas ligand. This response was abolished in patients with active UC (P < 0.002), and costimulation with IFN-, did not alter this response. Patients with active UC had an increased apoptosis rate of 9.5% compared with controls (P < 0.05). Conclusions: The current study indicates that colonocytes do not respond to cytokine exposure and inflammation by an increased vulnerability, as previously thought. Colonocytes seem to activate cytoprotective programs in response to inflammation. Apart from supporting the regeneration process during inflammation, this response could additionally cause an increased susceptibility to neoplastic transformation. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]

    Expression of Fas and Fas ligand in human testicular germ cell tumours

    E. Baldini
    Summary In the present study, we analysed the expression of Fas ligand (FasL) and its cognate receptor Fas in 14 seminomatous testicular germ cell tumours (TGCT) and six normal testicular tissues obtained following orchiectomy. Tissue samples have been processed to prepare either total RNA or protein extracts or fixed and embedded in paraffin for immunohistochemistry (IHC) experiments. Quantitative RT-PCR experiments demonstrated in TGCT a significant (p < 0.01) increase of the FasL mRNA expression of 21.1 ± 5.4 fold, with respect to normal tissues. On the contrary, in the same cancer tissues, the levels of Fas mRNA were significantly (p < 0.01) reduced to 0.27 ± 0.06 fold. These observations were confirmed in western blot experiments showing a significant increase of FasL and a concomitant decrease of Fas proteins in testicular cancer tissues, with respect to normal testis. Moreover, IHC experiments showed a strong FasL immuno-reactivity in six out of eight TGCT samples analysed, while Fas immuno-positivity was found in cancer cells of only two TGCT tissues. In addition, in all tumour samples, infiltrating lymphocytes were Fas positive. However, no correlation could be observed between Fas or FasL mRNA variations and clinical parameters such as patient's age, TNM stage or tumour size. We also compared the serum levels of soluble FasL (sFasL) of 15 patients affected by seminomatous TGCT, of four patients with non-seminomatous TGCT and six age-matched healthy males. No significant differences in sFasL serum level could be identified. In conclusion, our data demonstrated that the majority of seminomas are characterized by an increased expression of FasL and a concomitant reduction of Fas, with respect to human normal testis, and that sFasL serum level is not a tumour marker for patients affected by TGCT. [source]

    IL-12 receptor-mediated upregulation of FasL in human ovarian carcinoma cells

    Elieser Gorelik
    Abstract The expression and functions of IL-12 receptor (IL-12R) in human ovarian carcinoma cell lines have been investigated. Ovarian carcinoma cells express both the IL-12R,1 and the IL-12R,2 subunits. IL-12R crosslinking resulted in phosphorylation of Tyk2, p44 (ERK1) and Akt kinases and activation of STATs 2, 3, 4 and 5. IL-12 induced substantial upregulation of Fas ligand (FasL) surface expression in ovarian carcinoma cells paralleled by an increased ability to induce apoptosis in Jurkat cells and PHA-activated lymphocytes. The induction of surface expression of FasL by IL-12 was not due to upregulation of FasL gene expression, but resulted from downregulation of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-3 and -7 and consequently reduced cleavage of FasL from the cell surface. These findings bring new insights into the significance of IL-12-mediated effects in nonlymphoid cancer cells that might be of importance for improving the design of IL-12-based therapies for ovarian cancer. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Fas ligand expressed in colon cancer is not associated with increased apoptosis of tumor cells in vivo

    Aileen Houston
    Abstract Expression of Fas ligand (FasL/CD95L) may help to maintain colon cancers in a state of immune privilege by inducing apoptosis of antitumor immune effector cells. Colon tumor-derived cell lines appear to be relatively insensitive to apoptosis mediated by their own or exogenous FasL in vitro, despite expression of cell surface Fas. In our present study, we sought to investigate if FasL upregulated in human colon cancers leads to any increase in apoptosis of the tumor cells in vivo. FasL and Fas receptor (APO-1/CD95) expression by tumor cells were detected immunohistochemically. Apoptotic tumor cell death was detected by immunohistochemistry for caspase-cleaved cytokeratin-18. FasL expression did not correlate with the extent of apoptosis of tumor cells. There was no significant local difference in the frequency of apoptosis of tumor cells between tumor nests that expressed FasL (mean = 2.4%) relative to those that did not (mean = 2.6%) (p = 0.625, n = 10; Wilcoxon signed rank). FasL expressed by the tumor cells appeared to be functional, since FasL expression in tumor nests correlated with diminished infiltration of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs). TILs were detected using immunohistochemistry for CD45. Expression of FasL by tumor nests was associated with a mean 4-fold fewer TILs relative to FasL-negative nests (range 2.4,33-fold, n = 10, p < 0.003). Together, our results indicate that colon tumors are insensitive to FasL-mediated apoptosis in vivo. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Alternatively spliced transcripts of Fas mRNAs in feline lymphoid cells

    T. Mizuno
    Summary Fas belongs to the tumour necrosis factor receptor family and transduces the death signal after binding to the Fas ligand. Five feline lymphoma cell lines were shown, by reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction, to express six species of Fas transcripts. Based on sequence comparison of these Fas transcripts with the genomic Fas gene, five of the six transcripts were found to be generated through alternative splicing and to encode five different Fas proteins lacking the transmembrane domain. We also detected such alternatively spliced transcripts in primary tumour tissues from cats with naturally occurring lymphoma. These results suggest a possible association of the alternatively spliced Fas variants with the pathogenesis of feline lymphoma. [source]

    Distinct mechanisms of cardiomyocyte apoptosis induced by doxorubicin and hypoxia converge on mitochondria and are inhibited by Bcl-xL

    Janice LV Reeve
    Abstract Hypoxia and doxorubicin can cause cardiotoxicity and loss of myocardial function. These effects are due, in part, to an induction of apoptosis. Herein we identify the apoptotic pathways activated in H9c2 cells in response to hypoxia (O2/N2/CO2, 0.5:94.5:5) and doxorubicin (0.5 ,M). Although the apoptosis induced was accompanied by induction of Fas and Fas ligand, the death receptor pathway was not critical for caspase activation by either stimulus. Hypoxia induced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediators and processed ER-resident pro-caspase-12 whereas doxorubicin did not induce an ER stress response. Most importantly, both stimuli converged on mitochondria to promote apoptosis. Accumulation of cytochrome c in the cytosol coincided with the processing of pro-caspase-9 and -3. Increasing the expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-xL, either by dexamethasone or adenovirus-mediated transduction, protected H9c2 cells from doxorubicin- and hypoxia-induced apoptosis. Bcl-xL attenuated mitochondrial cytochrome crelease and reduced downstream pro-caspase processing and apoptosis. These data demonstrate that two distinct cardiomyocyte-damaging stimuli converge on mitochondria thus presenting this organelle as a potentially important therapeutic target for anti-apoptotic strategies for cardiovascular diseases. [source]

    Evaluation of apoptosis in Epstein,Barr virus-associated hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis,

    Jun-ichi Kawada
    Abstract Epstein,Barr virus (EBV) is known to be a causative agent of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH). To investigate association of apoptosis in the pathogenesis of EBV-associated HLH, the serum EBV loads, and serum concentrations of soluble tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (sTNF-R1), soluble Fas ligand, and cytochrome c were examined in 15 patients with EBV-associated HLH and 24 patients with infectious mononucleosis (IM). Levels of sTNF-R1 are known to reflect the biological activity of TNF-, and cytochrome c is a specific marker of apoptosis. EBV loads, and concentrations of sTNF-R1 and cytochrome c were significantly higher in patients with EBV-associated HLH than in patients with IM. On the other hand, there were no statistically significant differences in the concentrations of soluble Fas ligand. In patients with EBV-associated HLH, EBV loads, concentrations of sTNF-R1, and cytochrome c were correlated with each other. These results suggest that apoptosis, which is dependent on the EBV load and could be mediated by TNF-,, plays a major role in the pathophysiology of EBV-associated HLH. J. Med. Virol. 78:400,407, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Variations in the serum concentrations of soluble Fas and soluble Fas ligand in Vietnamese patients infected with hepatitis B virus

    Le H. Song
    Abstract Earlier studies of both chronic hepatitis B and C virus (HBV and HCV) patients have shown a strong correlation between the soluble membrane Fas (sFas) and Fas protein expression on hepatocytes. The serum concentrations of sFas and soluble Fas ligand (sFasL) was examined in both healthy and HBV-infected Vietnamese patients to determine their relationship with the outcome of HBV infection. Patients with chronic rather than acute HBV had significantly higher amounts of sFas and sFasL, whilst the highest concentrations of both molecules were detected in those with malignant forms of HBV infection. sFas and sFasL concentrations tended to increase with a profile that paralleled the progression from asymptomatic to acute through chronic to malignant states, most markedly in the case of sFas. The sFas:sFasL ratio highlighted the relative predominance of sFas in those with acute and chronic HBV compared with asymptomatic or severe forms. In patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) a significant correlation was also observed between sFasL and alpha-feto protein (AFP) levels. The results indicate that sFas and to a lesser extent sFasL levels are to some degree associated with clinical progression in HBV infection. J. Med. Virol. 73:244,249, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Lifeguard/neuronal membrane protein 35 regulates Fas ligand-mediated apoptosis in neurons via microdomain recruitment

    Miriam Fernández
    Abstract Fas ligand (FasL)-receptor system plays an essential role in regulating cell death in the developing nervous system, and it has been implicated in neurodegenerative and inflammatory responses in the CNS. Lifeguard (LFG) is a protein highly expressed in the hippocampus and the cerebellum, and it shows a particularly interesting regulation by being up-regulated during postnatal development and in the adult. We show that over-expression of LFG protected cortical neurons from FasL-induced apoptosis and decreased caspase-activation. Reduction of endogenous LFG expression by small interfering RNA sensitized cerebellar granular neurons to FasL-induced cell death and caspase-8 activation, and also increased sensitivity of cortical neurons. In differentiated cerebellar granular neurons, protection from FasL-induced cell death could be attributed exclusively to LFG and appears to be independent of FLICE inhibitor protein. Thus, LFG is an endogenous inhibitor of FasL-mediated neuronal death and it mediates the FasL resistance of CNS differentiated neurons. Finally, we also demonstrate that LFG is detected in lipid rafts microdomains, where it may interact with Fas receptor and regulate FasL-activated signaling pathways. [source]

    Activated JNK brings about accelerated apoptosis of Bcl-2-overexpressing C6 glioma cells on treatment with tamoxifen

    Madhavi S. Moodbidri
    Abstract Tamoxifen causes apoptosis of malignant glial cells at a concentration that does not kill normal astrocytes. C6 glioma cells were stably transfected with a vector expressing Bcl-2 under the control of metallothionin promoter. Low leaky Bcl-2 expression offered complete protection against tamoxifen-induced apoptosis. High Bcl-2 levels, on the other hand, accelerated the apoptosis, with Bcl-2-overexpressing clones dying within 48 h of tamoxifen treatment as compared to 6 days for parental C6 cells. Overexpressed Bcl-2 is localized primarily in mitochondria and to a much lower extent in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Only a minor fraction of the overexpressed Bcl-2 gets phosphorylated in tamoxifen-treated cells and the phosphorylation does not affect its binding to Bax. Tamoxifen treatment of Bcl-2-overexpressing clones was found to result in activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and p38 kinase. Inhibition of JNK but not p38 kinase completely abrogated the accelerated apoptosis. Constitutively expressed endogenous c-Jun was found to be phosphorylated, resulting in increased activator protein 1 (AP-1) DNA-binding activity. Expression of Fas ligand (FasL), an AP-1 transcriptional target, increased during accelerated cell death. This presumably brought about activation of caspase 8, as inhibition of caspase 8 blocked the apoptosis. The JNK/c-Jun/AP-1/FasL pathway could be considered as a potential target for the therapy of gliomas. [source]

    Oligodendrocyte injury in multiple sclerosis: a role for p53

    Karolina Wosik
    Abstract Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a neurological disorder characterized by myelin destruction and a variable degree of oligodendrocyte death. We have previously shown that overexpression of the transcription factor p53 can induce oligodendrocyte apoptosis. We investigated the mechanism of p53-induced apoptosis using primary cultures of central nervous system-derived adult human oligodendrocytes. Adenovirus-mediated p53 overexpression resulted in up-regulation of the death receptors Fas, DR4 and DR5 with subsequent caspase-mediated apoptosis of the oligodendrocytes. The oligodendrocytes were protected from p53-induced cell death by blocking signaling through Fas and/or tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) receptors. Although lower levels of p53 did not induce apoptosis, the increase in death receptor expression was sufficient to render the oligodendrocytes susceptible to apoptosis in the presence of exogenous Fas ligand and TRAIL. These ligands are present in the inflammatory milieu of active MS lesions. In situ analysis of active MS lesions revealed increased p53 expression in oligodendrocytes in lesions that featured oligodendrocyte apoptosis and cell loss. Our data provide evidence for a novel role for p53 in the pathogenesis of MS. [source]

    Soluble Fas (sFas) and soluble Fas ligand (sFas-L) balance in laryngeal carcinoma before and after surgical treatment

    Lorenzo Pignataro MD
    Abstract Background and Objectives Fas and its specific ligand (Fas-L), both of which are involved in apoptosis, exist in membrane-bound and soluble forms. The soluble forms (sFas and sFas-L) have been observed in various tumours, but their clinical significance has not yet been clarified. The aim of this study was to assess serum sFas and sFas-L levels in patients with laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) and their possible correlations with surgical treatment. Methods Serum sFas and sFas-L levels were determined by ELISA in samples taken from 26 LSCC patients on the day before surgery (T0), and 2 weeks (T1) and 6 months after surgery (T2), and in samples taken from 35 healthy volunteers. Results The mean serum sFas levels in the 35 healthy volunteers and the 26 LSCC patients at T0 were respectively 5941,±,411 pg/ml and 6290,±,652 pg/ml (P,=,0.63), and the mean serum sFas-L levels were 0.1,±,0.05 ng/ml and 2.95,±,0.8 ng/ml (P,<,0.0001). After surgery, there was a statistically significant decrease in sFas at both T1 (P,<,0.05) and T2 (P,<,0.01), and in sFas-L at T2 (P,<,0.01). Conclusions The decrease in sFas and sFas-L levels after surgery suggest that they may be produced by or closely linked to tumour cells. Larger prospective clinical studies of patients with LSCC will be needed to establish the clinical significance of sFas and sFas-L, as reported for other neoplasms. J. Surg. Oncol. 2003;83:112,115. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Inhibition of Caspases In Vivo Protects the Rat Liver Against Alcohol-Induced Sensitization to Bacterial Lipopolysaccharide

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 6 2001
    Ion V. Deaciuc
    Background: The mechanisms of liver sensitization by alcohol to Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) remain elusive. The purpose of this study was two-fold: (1) to test the hypothesis that alcohol-enhanced liver apoptosis may be a sensitizing mechanism for LPS and (2) to further characterize the liver apoptotic response to alcohol. Methods: Rats were fed a high-fat, alcohol-containing liquid diet for 14 weeks, treated with LPS (1.0 mg/kg of body weight, intravenously) or saline, followed by injection of a pan-caspase inhibitor {IDN1965;N -[(1,3-dimethylindole-2-carbonyl)-valinyl]-3-amino-4-oxo-5-fluoropentanoic acid; 10 mg/kg of body weight, intraperitoneally} or vehicle, and killed. The following parameters were assessed: plasma aspartate: 2-oxoglutarate aminotransferase activity (AST); liver histology and terminal deoxyribonucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) response; caspase-3, ,8, and ,9 activity; and mRNA and protein expression for two apoptosis-signaling molecules: Fas receptor and Fas ligand; and three apoptosis adaptors: Bax, Bcl-XL, and Bcl-2. Results: Alcohol-feeding-induced liver steatosis, slightly increased caspases' activity, the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei, and facilitated the LPS necrotic effect without affecting mRNA expression of apoptosis signals and adaptors. LPS induced a significant increase in AST and the number of TUNEL-positive nuclei, both effects being more pronounced in alcohol-treated rats. LPS produced hepatic necrosis only in alcohol-treated rats. LPS effects were associated with up-regulation of mRNA expression for both apoptosis adaptors and signaling molecules. IDN1965 administration 3 hr after LPS injection strongly inhibited caspases' activity, particularly that of caspase-3. IDN1965 also abolished the increase in TUNEL-positive nuclei, reversed the effect of LPS on plasma AST in alcohol-treated rats, and prevented LPS-induced necrosis. Conclusions: (1) Alcohol-enhanced liver apoptosis may not involve regulatory steps at the transcriptional level. LPS-induced liver apoptosis seems to involve transcriptional regulation of several apoptosis adaptors. Therefore, alcohol and LPS may enhance liver apoptosis through different mechanisms. (2) Alcohol-enhanced liver apoptosis precedes and may facilitate the hepatic effects of LPS. LPS superimposed on alcohol further elevates the rate of apoptosis in the liver. This may exceed the phagocytosing capacity of the liver so that all the apoptotic cells are not phagocytosed, but rather die of necrosis. [source]

    Ethanol Exposure Enhances Apoptosis Within the Testes

    ALCOHOLISM, Issue 10 2000
    Qianlong Zhu
    Background: Chronic ethanol abuse causes testicular atrophy and male infertility in alcoholic men. It is well known that ethanol exposure disrupts the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, adversely affects the secretory function of Sertoli cells, and produces oxidative stress within the testes. It is still not clear what cellular mechanisms are responsible for the morphologic alteration of the testes that results in a reduction of testicular mass as a consequence of ethanol exposure. The hypothesis tested was that ethanol enhances apoptosis of testicular germ cells. Methods: In the experiments of chronic ethanol exposure, male Sprague Dawley® rats (Harlan Sprague Dawley, Inc., Indianapolis, IN) were fed Liber-Decarlie liquid diet for 9 weeks. In the experiments of acute ethanol exposure, a small volume of 20% ethanol solution was administered by intratesticular injection. Both 3,-end labeling of isolated testicular deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) and labeling of apoptotic cells in situ by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine 5,-triphosphate nick end-labeling method were used to determine apoptosis rates within the testes. The expression of proteins involved in apoptosis was assessed by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and by Western blotting. Results: The testes of rats that were fed an ethanol-containing liquid diet had more testicular DNA fragmentation than did those of animals that were fed an isocaloric control diet. Ethanol increased the number of apoptotic spermatogonia as well as spermatocytes. Direct intratesticular injections of ethanol solution enhanced testicular DNA fragmentation, suggesting an increase in apoptosis. Moreover, Fas ligand levels were increased within the testes of rats that were chronically fed ethanol. In vitro, ethanol treatment of cultured Sertoli cells enhanced the production of Fas ligand. In addition, testicular levels of p53 messenger ribonucleic acid were increased in rats that were chronically fed ethanol. Conclusions: All of these observations suggest that ethanol enhances testicular germ cell apoptosis. [source]

    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans induces apoptosis of T lymphocytes by the Fas and Fas ligand pathway

    A. Nalbant
    Actinobacillus actinomycetemcomitans expresses a number of toxins capable of inducing apoptotic cell death of T lymphocytes. However, the exact mechanism(s) has not been elucidated. The present study investigated the involvement of the Fas (CD95)-mediated apoptotic pathway in A. actinomycetemcomitans -induced T-cell apoptosis. To that end, peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) were cultured with or without A. actinomycetemcomitans cell-free culture supernatant (CFCS) for 0,96 h. The cells were then labeled with specific monoclonal antibodies and flow cytometry was performed. Results demonstrated up-regulation of Fas and activation of caspase-3 in T cells in response to A. actinomycetemcomitans CFCS. Monocytes were the only cells analyzed to express Fas ligand (FasL) constitutively, and this was further up-regulated in response to A. actinomycetemcomitans CFCS, while T cells expressed FasL only after this stimulation. Depletion of monocytes prior to stimulation with A. actinomycetemcomitans CFCS led to a marked decline in apoptosis. Blocking of Fas,FasL interactions with anti-Fas monoclonal antibody or Fas:Fc fusion protein lead to a significant decline, but not abolition, of T-cell apoptosis. Nearly all T cells expressed Bcl-2 at the outset of culture, and Bcl-2 expression declined in T cells stimulated with A. actinomycetemcomitans CFCS. Collectively, these data provide evidence for the induction of T-cell apoptosis by A. actinomycetemcomitans via the Fas-mediated pathway, involving caspase-3 and Bcl- 2. Moreover, this apoptotic response was dependent on the presence of monocytes. [source]

    Soluble Fas (FasB) regulates luteal cell apoptosis during luteolysis in murine ovaries

    Kohji Komatsu
    Abstract During luteolysis, luteal cell apoptosis is induced by the Fas ligand (FasL)/Fas system. In murine luteal bodies, we demonstrated the expression of mRNA of soluble form of Fas (FasB), which binds to FasL and prevents apoptosis induction. By in situ hybridization, strong expression of FasB mRNA was observed in normal luteal bodies, in which no apoptotic cells were detected, but negative/trace expression in regressing luteal bodies, in which many apoptotic cells were observed. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that Fas and TNF-, were localized in both normal and regressing luteal bodies, but IFN-, was localized only in regressing luteal bodies. Apoptosis was induced in primary cultured luteal cells, when they were pretreated with TNF-, and IFN-, and then incubated with TNF-,, IFN-,, and mouse recombinant FasL (rFasL). However, no apoptosis was detected in the cells, when they were treated with rFasL alone, TNF-, alone, IFN-, alone, TNF-, and rFasL, IFN-, and rFasL, or TNF-, and IFN-,. Fas mRNA expression in cultured luteal cells was up-regulated by the treatment of TNF-,, IFN-,, or TNF-, and IFN-,. The expression of FasB mRNA was down-regulated, when the cells were treated with TNF-, and IFN-,, but its expression was not changed by the treatment of TNF-, alone or IFN-, alone. We conclude that FasB inhibits the apoptosis induction in luteal cells of normal luteal bodies, and that decreased FasB production induced by TNF-, and IFN-, made possible the apoptosis induction in the luteal cells of regressing luteal bodies. Mol. Reprod. Dev. 65: 345,352, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]