Fas Expression (fa + expression)

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Distribution within Medical Sciences

Selected Abstracts

IFN-, induces apoptosis in mouse embryonic stem cells, a putative mechanism of its embryotoxicity

Gang-Ming Zou
It has been reported that interferon (IFN)-, should inhibit in vitro mouse embryo growth by direct cell toxicity. However, the mechanism involved has not been clearly established. In the present study, this question was addressed using the embryonic stem (ES) cell model. It was found that IFN-, induces a dose-dependent apoptosis in ES cells, as assessed by trypan-blue staining, by Annexin-V labeling and DNA analysis. Moreover, IFN-, treatment cooperates with Fas-mediated apoptosis, a phenomenon that has been recently reported. As Bcl-2 oncoprotein functions as a death repressor molecule in an evolutionarily conserved cell death pathway, its expression was analyzed by flow cytometry. It was demonstrated that Bcl-2 is expressed in ES cells. When compared to untreated ES cells, IFN-,-treated, apoptotic cells expressed a lower Bcl-2 level and a normal level of Fas, whereas surviving cells expressed a normal level of Bcl-2 but a lower Fas expression. Altogether, these data suggest that IFN-, may influence early mouse embryo development by promoting apoptosis, which may constitute a novel mechanism of IFN-, embryotoxicity. [source]

In vivo UVB irradiation induces clustering of Fas (CD95) on human epidermal cells

Bo Bang
Abstract:,In vitro studies with human cell lines have demonstrated that the death receptor Fas plays a role in ultraviolet (UV)-induced apoptosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relation between Fas expression and apoptosis as well as clustering of Fas in human epidermis after a single dose of UVB irradiation. Normal healthy individuals were irradiated with three minimal erythema doses (MED) of UVB on forearm or buttock skin. Suction blisters from unirradiated and irradiated skin were raised, and Fas, FasL, and apoptosis of epidermal cells were quantified by flow cytometry. Clustering of Fas was demonstrated by confocal laser scanning microscopy on cryostat sections from skin biopsies. Soluble FasL in suction blister fluid was quantified by ELISA. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated increased expression intensity of Fas after irradiation, with 1.6-, 2.2- and 2.7-fold increased median expression at 24, 48 and 72 h after irradiation, respectively (n = 4). Apoptosis was demonstrated by the TUNEL reaction, and the maximum of apoptotic cells was detected at 48 h after irradiation. Double-staining for Fas and TUNEL showed that apoptosis was restricted to the Fas-positive epidermal subpopulation, but there was no correlation between the intensities of Fas expression and TUNEL reaction. Median expression intensity of FasL-positive cells transiently decreased to 0.9- and 0.8-fold of the preirradiation respective level after 24 h and 48 h, respectively, and returned to the respective preirradiation level at 72 h after irradiation (n = 4). Concentrations of soluble FasL in suction blister fluid from UVB-irradiated skin did not differ from those in unirradiated skin (n = 5). Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed a rapid clustering of Fas within 30 min after irradiation. A simultaneous clustering of the adapter signalling protein FADD suggested that Fas clustering has a functional significance. Our results are in accordance with previous findings from in vitro studies, and suggest that Fas is activated in vivo in human epidermis after UVB exposure. [source]

Reduced FAS transcription in clones of U937 cells that have acquired resistance to Fas-induced apoptosis

FEBS JOURNAL, Issue 2 2009
Jeanette Blomberg
Susceptibility to cell death is a prerequisite for the elimination of tumour cells by cytotoxic immune cells, chemotherapy or irradiation. Activation of the death receptor Fas is critical for the regulation of immune cell homeostasis and efficient killing of tumour cells by apoptosis. To define the molecular changes that occur during selection for insensitivity to Fas-induced apoptosis, a resistant variant of the U937 cell line was established. Individual resistant clones were isolated and characterized. The most frequently observed defect in the resistant cells was reduced Fas expression, which correlated with decreased FAS transcription. Clones with such reduced Fas expression also displayed partial cross-resistance to tumour necrosis factor-, stimulation, but the mRNA expression of tumour necrosis factor receptors was not decreased. Reintroduction of Fas conferred susceptibility to Fas but not to tumour necrosis factor-, stimulation, suggesting that several alterations could be present in the clones. The reduced Fas expression could not be explained by mutations in the FAS coding sequence or promoter region, or by silencing through methylations. Protein kinase B and extracellular signal-regulated kinase, components of signalling pathways downstream of Ras, were shown to be activated in some of the resistant clones, but none of the three RAS genes was mutated, and experiments using chemical inhibitors could not establish that the activation of these proteins was the cause of Fas resistance as described in other systems. Taken together, the data illustrate that Fas resistance can be caused by reduced Fas expression, which is a result of an unidentified mode of regulation. [source]

Fas and TNFR1, but not cytolytic granule-dependent mechanisms, mediate clearance of murine liver adenoviral infection,

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
Marwan S. Abougergi
After intravenous injection of replication-deficient adenovirus, hepatocytes are transduced and express high levels of adenovirus-encoded genes. However, adenovirally encoded gene expression is ablated rapidly by CD8+ T-cell,dependent mechanisms. Thus, this model is suitable for examining intrahepatic cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) effector mechanisms. In the present studies, recombinant adenoviruses encoding secreted (human apolipoprotein A-I) or intracellular (,-galactosidase) gene products were infused into mice with genetic deficiencies affecting the granule exocytosis-, Fas-, or tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1)-mediated pathways of CTL and natural killer cell effector function; the rates of clearance of adenovirus-encoded gene products were assessed. Clearance of secreted or intracellular adenoviral gene products was not delayed in perforin-deficient mice or dipeptidyl peptidase I-deficient mice, which fail to process and activate granzyme A or granzyme B. TNFR1-deficient mice also exhibited no delay in clearance of adenoviral gene products. However, adenoviral clearance from Fas-deficient mice was delayed, and such delays were much greater in mice deficient in both TNFR1 and Fas. In contrast, chimeric mice lacking both hepatic Fas and lymphocyte perforin function exhibited no greater delay in adenoviral clearance than chimeras deficient only in hepatic Fas expression. In conclusion, Fas-dependent mechanisms are required for efficient clearance of virally infected hepatocytes and, in Fas-deficient animals, TNFR1-dependent mechanisms provide an alternative mechanism for hepatic adenovirus clearance. In contrast, perforin- and granule protease,dependent cytotoxicity mechanisms play no apparent role in clearance of adenovirus from the liver. (HEPATOLOGY 2005;41:97,105.) [source]

COX-2 inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis in cholangiocarcinoma cells

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 3 2002
Ugochukwu C. Nzeako
Fas expression has been shown to negatively regulate the progression of cholangiocarcinoma cells in xenografts. However, many human cholangiocarcinomas express Fas, suggesting these cancers have developed mechanisms to inhibit Fas-mediated apoptosis. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), which generates prostanoids, is expressed by many cholangiocarcinomas. Therefore, our aim was to determine whether COX-2 expression inhibits death receptor,mediated apoptosis in KMBC cells, a cholangiocarcinoma cell line. These cells express messenger RNA for the death receptors Fas, tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNF-R1), death receptor 4 (DR4), and DR5. Agonists for these death receptors, CH-11, TNF-,, and TRAIL all induced apoptosis. However, COX-2, whether induced by proinflammatory cytokines or transient transfection, only significantly inhibited Fas-mediated apoptosis. The COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 restored Fas-mediated apoptosis in COX-2 transfected cells. Prostaglandin E2 reduced apoptosis and mitochondrial depolarization after treatment with the Fas agonist CH-11. Of a variety of antiapoptotic proteins examined, COX-2/prostaglandin E2 only increased expression of Mcl-1, an antiapoptotic member of the Bcl-2 family. In conclusion, these data suggest that prostanoid generation by COX-2 specifically inhibits Fas-mediated apoptosis, likely by up-regulating Mcl-1 expression. Pharmacologic inhibition of COX-2 may be useful in augmenting Fas-mediated apoptosis of cholangiocarcinoma cells. [source]

Roles of proinflammatory cytokines and the Fas/Fas ligand interaction in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1pt2 2009
Masahiro Kondo
Summary Within the lesions of inflammatory myopathies, muscle fibres and invading mononuclear cells express Fas and Fas ligand (FasL), respectively. However, the roles of the Fas/FasL interaction in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies are not fully understood. In the present study, we investigated the roles of proinflammatory cytokines and the Fas/FasL system in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies. In vitro culturing of muscle cells with the proinflammatory cytokines interferon-,, tumour necrosis factor-,, and interleukin (IL)-1, synergistically increased Fas expression, susceptibility to Fas-mediated apoptosis, and the expression of cytoplasmic caspases 8 and 3. In addition, culturing of muscle cells with activated CD4+ T cells induced muscle cell apoptosis, which was partially inhibited by anti-FasL antibody. We also tested the possibility that T helper (Th) 17, which is an IL-17-producing helper T-cell subset that plays crucial roles in autoimmune and inflammatory responses, participates in the pathogenesis of inflammatory myopathies. Interestingly, in vitro culturing of dendritic cells with anti-Fas immunoglobulin M (IgM) or activated CD4+ T cells induced the expression of mRNA for IL-23p19, but not for IL-12p35, in addition to proinflammatory cytokines. Furthermore, IL-23p19 and IL-17 mRNAs were detected in the majority of biopsy samples from patients with inflammatory myopathies. Taken together, these results suggest that proinflammatory cytokines enhance Fas-mediated apoptosis of muscle cells, and that the Fas/FasL interaction between invading dendritic cells and CD4+ T cells induces local production of IL-23 and proinflammatory cytokines, which can promote the proliferation of Th17 cells and enhance Fas-mediated apoptosis of muscle cells, respectively. [source]

Inhibition of Fas-mediated apoptotic cell death of murine T lymphocytes in a mouse model of immunosenescence in linkage to deterioration in cell membrane raft function

IMMUNOLOGY, Issue 1 2004
Toshihiro Yokoyama
Summary We previously developed a transgenic mouse line into which a rabbit protein kinase C, (PKC,) gene fused to a human CD2 promoter/enhancer was introduced, and we found that immunosenescence was facilitated in these transgenic mice. In this study, we found that along with age-dependent increase in the level of protein expression of PKC, and its translocation to the membrane, activated T cells became less sensitive to apoptosis-inducing anti-Fas antibody. The capacity of T cells to express Fas antigen on their surfaces in response to anti-CD3 and interleukin-2 was impaired in PKC,-transgenic mice of relatively advanced age, although background Fas expression levels on T cells from those mice were high. We then found that out of proportion to a high level of cell surface Fas expression the density of cholera toxin B (CTx)-binding raft elements decreased in PKC,-transgenic mice of relatively advanced age and to a lesser extent in normal mice of advanced age. Correspondingly, the expression level of raft-associating Lck was decreased in these mice. These findings suggest for the first time that immunosenescence of T cells involves a decrease in density of cell surface CTx-binding raft elements, which might underlie a deterioration in T-cell signal pathway for either cell death or cell activation. [source]

Significance of Fas expression alteration during tumor progression of renal cell carcinoma

Background:, In order to characterize the alteration of apoptotic regulatory molecule expression during tumor progression of renal cell carcinoma (RCC), we compared the expression between tumor and normal tissues, and evaluated the relationship of the expression in tumors with pathological and clinical characteristics. Methods:, Competitive reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction (RT,PCR) and immunohistochemistry (IHC) allowed the determination of Fas and bcl-2 mRNA and protein expression in surgically resected tumor and normal tissue of 50 RCC. Results:, The mRNA expression of Fas and bcl-2 in RCC was significantly reduced compared to that in normal tissues. An IHC analysis was supportive of the RT,PCR results. In terms of relationships with pathological and clinical characteristics, the mRNA and protein expression of Fas in high-stage or high-grade tumors was significantly higher than that in low-stage or low-grade tumors. Moreover, a statistically poor prognosis was observed in tumor cases expressing a high amount of mRNA. In bcl-2 analysis, the mRNA and protein expression was significantly reduced in clear cell tumors compared to chromophobe cell tumors. Conclusion:, It is suggested that the reduced expression of Fas and bcl-2 in RCC compared with the expression in normal kidney is a prominent alteration of apoptotic regulatory molecules. The alteration of the up-regulated Fas expression might be characterized during the tumor progression stage. It is also suggested that the effect of alteration of bcl-2 expression might be minimal during the tumor progression stage because of the reduced expression in tumors of the clear cell type, which is the most dominant cell type in RCC. [source]

Effect of all-trans retinoic acid on apoptosis and expression of regulatory genes (Bcl-2, Fas, ICE) in experimentally induced gastric epithelial cell dysplasia in rats

Cui Rutao
OBJECTIVE: To study the mechanism and effect of all-trans retinoic acid on apoptosis and the expression of Bcl-2, Fas and ICE in experimentally induced dysplastic gastric epithelial cells. METHODS: Apoptosis and expression of Bcl-2, Fas and ICE in gastric epithelial cells was studied using the terminal dUTP nucleotide end-labeling (TUNEL) technique. The immunohistochemistry of Wistar rats enrolled in three groups was studied: group 1, blank controls; group 2, dysplasia induced by N -methyl- N -nitro- N -nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) and then treated with all-trans retinoic acid; and group 3, dysplasia induced by MNNG and treated with a placebo. RESULTS: In the three groups, the rates of dysplasia were 0, 26.7 and 73.3%; the apoptosis indices were 8.3 3.1, 7.8 2.6 and 2.2 0.4; the expression of Bcl-2 was 13.3, 33.3 and 66.7%; and overexpression of Bcl-2 was 6.7, 6.7 and 33.3%, respectively. There were significant differences between group 2 and group 3 (P < 0.05), but no significant differences were found between group 2 and group 1 (P > 0.05). The expression rates of Fas were 46.7, 40 and 6.7%; the overexpression rates were 13.3, 26.7 and 13.3%, respectively; the expression rates of ICE were 20, 60 and 13.3%; the overexpression rates were 0, 13.3 and 6.7% in the three groups, respectively. The expression rates of Fas and ICE in group 2 were significantly different from that of group 3 (P < 0.05), but there were no significant differences in overexpression rates between group 2 and group 3. No significant differences were found either in expression or overexpression of Fas and ICE between group 2 and group 1. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that all-trans retinoic acid inhibits Bcl-2 expression, promotes Fas expression, enhances ICE expression and gastric mucosal epithelial cell apoptosis, and thus may reverse or inhibit the progression to cancer. [source]

FasL/Fas pathway is involved in dengue virus induced apoptosis of the vascular endothelial cells,,

Hongwu Liao
Abstract The hallmark of the dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome is hematologic abnormality. The pathogenesis of dengue hemorrhagic fever/dengue shock syndrome remains unknown. Our work showed that the dengue virus serotype-2 induced apoptosis in human umbilical vein endothelial cells. Fas (CD95), Tumor Necrosis Factor receptors, and Tumor Necrosis Factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptors are the most common death receptors, which can induce apoptosis. Compared with the untreated human umbilical vein endothelial cells, Fas expression was increased both in the mRNA level and on the surface of infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells. FasL was expressed at similar levels on human umbilical vein endothelial cells over a course of dengue virus serotype-2 infection, but the expression in mRNA level was increased in infected human umbilical vein endothelial cells. It is possible that there is soluble FasL secreted from human umbilical vein endothelial cells in the supernatant. Tumor Necrosis Factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptor 1 and Tumor Necrosis Factor receptors 1,2 were constantly very low, whereas Tumor Necrosis Factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptors 2,4 decreased after dengue virus serotype-2 infection. This result suggested that dengue virus serotype-2 may inhibit Tumor Necrosis Factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand receptors-induced apoptosis. The apoptotic rates in human umbilical vein endothelial cells were decreased upon the addition of caspase family inhibitors. In addition, activated caspase 8 and caspase 3 were also observed by Western blot following dengue virus serotype-2 infection. Thus, it is shown that the Fas/FasL pathway may participate in dengue virus-induced apoptosis of vascular endothelial cells in vitro. J. Med. Virol. 82:1392,1399, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

The ,670A > G polymorphism in the promoter region of the FAS gene is associated with necrosis in periportal areas in patients with chronic hepatitis C

J. Aguilar-Reina
Summary., Evidence suggests that apoptosis of liver cells may play a significant role in the pathogenesis of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. One of the best characterized apoptotic pathway is that mediated by the death receptor Fas. Fas expression has been found to be up-regulated on hepatocytes in chronic HCV infection, particularly in periportal areas. Recently, two polymorphisms have been identified in the promotor region of the FAS gene, ,1377G > A and ,670A > G. We have evaluated the involvement of these variants in the susceptibility to HCV infection, the severity of liver damage and progression of fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C. A cohort of 197 patients with chronic hepatitis C and 100 controls were analysed for both polymorphisms by Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer using specific probes and the LightcyclerTM system. In addition, liver biopsies were taken in 167 patients and scored using the Knodell classification system. We have found that the allele frequencies and the distribution of both polymorphisms do not differ significantly in the HCV cohort and in the control population. Thus, none of the polymorphisms seems to be related with susceptibility to HCV infection. However, we have examined the possible association between the two variants and the grade of necroinflammatory activity and the stage of fibrosis and we have detected an under-representation of the ,670A > G variant among those patients with higher Knodell's scores (P = 0.049) and necroinflammatory activity (P = 0.036). The ,670A allele was associated with higher levels of periportal necrosis (P = 0.012). In conclusion, our findings suggest an association between the ,670A > G polymorphism and the grade of necrosis in periportal areas in patients with chronic hepatitis C. [source]

Association among Fas expression in leucocytes, serum Fas and Fas-ligand concentrations and hepatic inflammation and fibrosis in chronic hepatitis C

Anatol Panasiuk
Abstract Background: Replication of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) may impair immune functions and establish persistent infection. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of HCV on PBMC and their susceptibility to apoptosis in relation to liver inflammation and fibrosis. Methods: Eighty-one patients with chronic hepatitis C (CHC) were enrolled in this study. Flow cytometry was used to determine the amount of T cells (CD4+, CD8+), B cells (CD19+), monocytes (CD14+) and natural killer cells (CD16+) in the peripheral blood and the expression of CD95+ (CD95/APO-1) in each subset. Serum concentrations of sFas and sFasL were assessed by the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. Results: An increased expression of Fas was observed in CD4+ and CD8+ cells in CHC. There was a more prominent expression of Fas on CD4+ cells in HCV genotype 1b in contrast to 3a. Increased Fas expression on CD4+ cells was seen in advanced stages of liver disease. Fas expression on monocytes was lower in advanced stages of liver inflammation and fibrosis. Serum sFas concentration was higher in CHC compared with the control group. There was an association between sFasL concentration and inflammatory activity in the liver. Serum sFasL concentration correlated positively with the mean intensity of fluorescence of the Fas receptor in CD4+ and CD8+ cells, granulocytes and monocytes. Conclusion: These findings indicate that there is an increased susceptibility of PBMC to apoptosis, which can be attributed to the constant contact of leucocytes with the inflamed liver tissue, or from direct HCV influence. [source]

Solamargine upregulation of Fas, downregulation of HER2, and enhancement of cytotoxicity using epirubicin in NSCLC cells

Chia-Hua Liang
Abstract Nonsmall-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) is not generally a chemosensitive tumor, and the mechanism of resistance to the relevant anticancer drugs has not been fully elucidated. Solamargine (SM), the major steroidal glycoalkaloids extracted from the Chinese herb Solanum, inhibits the growth of human tumor cells. We have previously demonstrated that SM regulates tumor necrosis factor receptors (TNFRs)- and mitochondria-mediated pathways and sensitizes NSCLC cells to initiate apoptosis. Interestingly, this investigation reveals that SM up-regulated Fas expression and down-regulated the expression of HER2, whose overexpression is associated with resistance to drugs, and promotes chemotherapy-induced apoptosis in NSCLC A549 and H441 cells. After treatment with SM, the expression of HER2 mRNA was correlated with the expression of topoisomerase II, (TOP2A) mRNA. The combinatory use of low concentrations of SM with low-toxic topoisomerase II inhibitor epirubicin accelerated apoptotic cell death. Therefore, the downregulation of the HER2 and TOP2A expression by SM with epirubicin may partially explain the SM and epirubicin cytotoxicity synergy effect in NSCLC. Results of this study suggest that SM induces Fas and TNFR-induced NSCLC cell apoptosis and reduces HER2 expression. These findings provide the synergistic therapeutic interaction between SM and epirubicin, suggesting that such combinations may be effectively exploited in future human cancer clinical trials. [source]

Fas expression in DLBCL

Victor Piana de Andrade
No abstract is available for this article. [source]

Prognostic significance of Fas (CD95/APO-1) positivity in patients with primary nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma

Bulent Eser
Abstract Fas (CD95/APO-1) is a protein that is mainly related to apoptosis of lymphoid cells. The increment of Fas expression is associated with long-term survival in various malignancies. However, there are limited studies regarding the effect of Fas expression on the course and prognosis of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the significance of immunohistochemical Fas expression on the prognosis of nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. A total of 63 patients with primary nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma diagnosed in the Erciyes University Department of Hematology between 1990 and 2003 were included in the study. The median age of the patients was 55 years old (range 19,102 years old). The median follow-up period was 19 months (2,132 months). Histopathological sections were stained immunohistochemically and evaluated by light microscopy for Fas, bcl-2, and p53. Clinical and laboratory parameters including Fas, bcl-2, and p53 positivity, age, sex, performance status, clinical stage, presence of B symptoms, bone marrow involvement, extranodal involvement, and lactic dehydrogenase levels were evaluated to compare overall survival. Complete remission was obtained in 28 patients (44.4%) after first-line chemotherapy. Fas positivity, male gender, good performance status, clinical stage I-II, absence of B symptoms, normal lactic dehydrogenase value, and absence of bone marrow involvement were favorable prognostic factors for complete remission in statistical analysis. Multivariate analysis revealed that positive Fas expression and ECOG performance status were independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Also, Fas-positive patiens had significantly prolonged progression-free survival. Immunohistochemical Fas positivity was a favorable prognostic factor for complete remission and overall and progression-free survival in primary nodal diffuse large B-cell lymphoma. Am. J. Hematol. 81:307,314, 2006. 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

ORIGINAL ARTICLE: Placental Fas/Fas Ligand Expression in Early Pregnancy Losses

Emine Seda Guvendag Guven
Problem, The aim of this study was to compare the expression levels of Fas and Fas ligand (FasL) in first-trimester placentas obtained from spontaneous abortions in patients with antiphospholipid antibody syndrome (APS) or factor V (FV) Leiden mutation, compared with values in placentas from induced abortions in patients negative for these conditions. Method of study, We studied explants from 6- to 10-week-old placentas that had been prepared by collagenase digestion from 10 spontaneous abortions from APS-positive patients, nine spontaneous abortions in patients positive for FV Leiden mutation, and 10 induced abortions. All tissues were analyzed by flow cytometry for expression of Fas and FasL. Results, Flow cytometric analysis showed that placental FasL expression was significantly lower in abnormal pregnancies than in normal ones. However, no such difference was observed for Fas expression. Conclusion, FasL on placental cells may be involved in the maintenance of immune privilege, thereby ensuring the safety and growth of placental tissues. Dysregulation of apoptotic mechanisms may play a critical role in spontaneous abortions. [source]

Islet Allograft Rejection by Contact-Dependent CD8+ T cells: Perforin and FasL Play Alternate but Obligatory Roles,

M. Sleater
Though CD8+ T lymphocytes are important cellular mediators of islet allograft rejection, their molecular mechanism of rejection remains unidentified. Surprisingly, while it is generally assumed that CD8+ T cells require classic cytotoxic mechanisms to kill grafts in vivo, neither perforin nor FasL (CD95L) are required for acute islet allograft rejection. Thus, it is unclear whether such contact-dependent cytotoxic pathways play an essential role in islet rejection. Moreover, both perforin and CD95L have been implicated in playing roles in peripheral tolerance, further obscuring the role of these effector pathways in rejection. Therefore, we determined whether perforin and/or FasL (CD95L) were required by donor MHC-restricted (,direct') CD8+ T cells to reject islet allografts in vivo. Islet allograft rejection by primed, alloreactive CD8+ T cells was examined independently of other lymphocyte subpopulations via adoptive transfer studies. Individual disruption of T-cell-derived perforin or allograft Fas expression had limited impact on graft rejection. However, simultaneous disruption of both pathways prevented allograft rejection in most recipients despite the chronic persistence of transferred T cells at the graft site. Thus, while there are clearly multiple cellular pathways of allograft rejection, perforin and FasL comprise alternate and necessary routes of acute CD8+ T-cell-mediated islet allograft rejection. [source]

Immunohistochemical analysis of Fas and FLIP in prostate cancers

APMIS, Issue 1 2009
Fas-mediated apoptosis is considered a principal pathway for apoptosis induction in normal and cancer cells. Expression of Fas has been reported in prostate tissues several times, but the data were not consistent. Expression of FLICE-like inhibitory protein (FLIP), an inhibitor of Fas-mediated apoptosis, has not been studied by immunohistochemistry in prostate tissues. The aim of this study is to explore whether alterations of Fas and FLIP expression occur in prostate cancer tissues. We analyzed the expression of Fas and FLIP in 107 prostate adenocarcinoma tissues by immunohistochemistry using a tissue microarray approach. Normal glandular cells of the prostates strongly expressed both Fas and FLIP proteins. Prostate intraepithelial neoplasm also showed a strong Fas immunoreacitity. Fas expression was strongly positive in 60 cancers (56.1%), but the remaining 47 cancers showed no (6.5%) or markedly decreased (37.4%) Fas immunostaining compared with the normal glandular cells of the same patients. By contrast, FLIP expression was strong in most (103/107; 96.3%) of the cancers, and only four cancers (3.7%) showed decreased immunoreactivities compared with the normal cells. The decreased expression of Fas was not associated with pathologic characteristics, including FLIP expression, size of the cancers, age, Gleason score and stage. The decreased expression of Fas in a large fraction of prostate cancers compared with their normal cells suggested that loss of Fas expression might play a role in tumorigenesis in some prostate cancers possibly by inhibiting apoptosis mediated by Fas. [source]

Increased Fas ligand expression by T cells and tumour cells in the progression of actinic keratosis to squamous cell carcinoma

A.C. Satchell
Summary Background In the counterattack model of tumorigenesis, it has been proposed that tumours develop resistance to attack from Fas ligand (FasL)-expressing cytotoxic T cells by downregulating Fas (immune escape), while at the same time upregulating FasL expression to induce apoptosis in Fas-expressing T cells (counterattack). Objectives The aim of this study was to examine Fas and FasL expression on tumour cells and infiltrating T cells during the progression of actinic keratoses (AK), the benign precursor lesion, to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Patients and methods Samples of AK (n = 20) and SCC (n = 20) were collected from immunocompetent patients attending dermatology clinics. Double-label immunohistochemistry was performed on frozen sections using mouse monoclonal antibodies to Fas or FasL, simultaneously with a rabbit polyclonal antibody to either CD3 or cytokeratin, markers of T cells and keratinocytes, respectively. Cell densities and the optical density of tumour Fas expression were measured using image analysis. Results FasL-expressing T cells were observed in nine of 19 SCCs, compared with three of 20 AKs (P < 005). FasL-expressing tumour cells were found in nine of 18 SCCs, compared with only one of 20 AK specimens (P < 0005). There was no difference in the number of Fas-expressing T cells infiltrating AK and SCC. Fas expression by keratinocytes, measured by optical density, was lower in SCC (range 01,40, median 17) compared with AK (range 4,62, median 25) (P < 005). Conclusions These results suggest that the greater numbers of FasL-expressing T cells infiltrating into SCC compared with AK are targeting Fas-expressing tumour cells. As AK cells progress to SCC, they subvert this T-cell-mediated killing of tumour cells by downregulating their Fas expression (immune escape). Furthermore, tumour cells upregulate their expression of FasL, possibly as a counterattack measure to induce apoptosis in the increased number of tumour-infiltrating T cells. Thus changes in Fas/FasL-mediated interactions between T cells and tumour cells occur during the progression of AK into SCC. [source]