Fc Fragment (fc + fragment)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Conjugation of methotrexate to immunoglobulins kills macrophages by Fc receptor mediated uptake?

Summary The aim of this study was to conjugate methotrexate (MTX) with intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) and investigate whether the conjugate produce selective cytotoxicity on macrophages to provide a new strategy for the management of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura. MTX was bound to IVIG via human serum albumin as an intermediary. The binding activity of the Fc fragment of the conjugate was assayed by flow cytometry. The selective cytotoxicity of the conjugate was determined by trypan blue exclusion. After conjugating, the binding activity of the conjugate to Fc receptors did not diminish when compared with IVIG. In vitro, the conjugate showed significantly higher cytotoxicity to macrophages than Hela cells. The conjugate of IVIG and MTX showed potent and selective cytotoxicity to macrophages in vitro. [source]

Effect of protein structure on deamidation rate in the Fc fragment of an IgG1 monoclonal antibody,

Sandipan Sinha
Abstract The effects of secondary structure on asparagine (N) deamidation in a 22 amino acid sequence (369-GFYPSDIAVEWESNGQPENNYK-390) of the crystallizable (Fc) fragment of a human monoclonal antibody (Fc IgG1) were investigated using high-resolution ultra performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS). Samples containing either the intact Fc IgG (,50 kD) ("intact protein"), or corresponding synthetic peptides ("peptide") were stored in Tris buffer at 37C and pH 7.5 for up to forty days, then subjected to UPLC/MS analysis with high energy MS1 fragmentation. The peptide deamidated only at N382 to form the isoaspartate (isoD382) and aspartate (D382) products in the ratio of ,4:1, with a half-life of ,3.4 days. The succinimide intermediate (Su382) was also detected; deamidation was not observed for the other two sites (N387 and N388) in peptide samples. The intact protein showed a 30-fold slower overall deamidation half-life of ,108 days to produce the isoD382 and D387 products, together with minor amounts of D382. Surprisingly, the D382 and isoD387 products were not detected in intact protein samples and, as in the peptide samples, deamidation was not detected at N388. The results indicate that higher order structure influences both the rate of N-deamidation and the product distribution. [source]

Microscopic detection of IgY-Fc binding signal in the inner layers of ovarian follicular tissue in quail

ABSTRACT In avian species, it has been assumed that an Fc receptor in the ovarian follicles mediates immunoglobulin Y (IgY) transport into the yolk. However, no such receptor responsible for IgY has been identified to date. To examine potential IgY binding activity in the entire ovarian follicle, whole-mount sections of quail ovarian follicle were incubated with the Fc fragment of chicken IgY (cIgY). Whole-mount frozen sections of the second largest ovarian follicle were prepared, and then the sections were incubated with digoxigenin-labeled Fc or Fab fragments of cIgY. Microscopic observation revealed that incubation with the cIgY-Fc fragment produced a binding signal in the inner layer of the ovarian follicular tissues, most likely in the granulosa cell layer. However, no such signal was detected when the sections were incubated with cIgY-Fab. Coincubation of the ovarian sections with Alexa488-labeled cIgY-Fc and antiserum raised against ZP1, an envelope protein specifically localized in the perivitelline layer, demonstrated that the source of the Fc binding signals partly coincided with the perivitelline layer. In conclusion, our data suggest that potential IgY binding substances interacting with the Fc domain are present in the inner layers of ovarian follicular tissues, most likely in the granulosa cell layer and/or in the perivitelline layer. [source]

N-linked glycosylation is an important parameter for optimal selection of cell lines producing biopharmaceutical human IgG

Patrick H. C. van Berkel
Abstract We studied the variations in N-linked glycosylation of human IgG molecules derived from 105 different stable cell lines each expressing one of the six different antibodies. Antibody expression was based on glutamine synthetase selection technology in suspension growing CHO-K1SV cells. The glycans detected on the Fc fragment were mainly of the core-fucosylated complex type containing zero or one galactose and little to no sialic acid. The glycosylation was highly consistent for the same cell line when grown multiple times, indicating the robustness of the production and glycan analysis procedure. However, a twofold to threefold difference was observed in the level of galactosylation and/or non-core-fucosylation between the 105 different cell lines, suggesting clone-to-clone variation. These differences may change the Fc-mediated effector functions by such antibodies. Large variation was also observed in the oligomannose-5 glycan content, which, when present, may lead to undesired rapid clearance of the antibody in vivo. Statistically significant differences were noticed between the various glycan parameters for the six different antibodies, indicating that the variable domains and/or light chain isotype influence Fc glycosylation. The glycosylation altered when batch production in shaker was changed to fed-batch production in bioreactor, but was consistent again when the process was scaled from 400 to 5,000 L. Taken together, the observed clone-to-clone glycosylation variation but batch-to-batch consistency provides a rationale for selection of optimal production cell lines for large-scale manufacturing of biopharmaceutical human IgG. 2009 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 2009 [source]

Intravenous immunoglobulins , understanding properties and mechanisms

A. Durandy
Summary High-dose intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) preparations are used currently for the treatment of autoimmune or inflammatory diseases. Despite numerous studies demonstrating efficacy, the precise mode of action of IVIg remains unclear. Paradoxically, IgG can exert both pro- and anti-inflammatory activities, depending on its concentration. The proinflammatory activity of low-dose IVIg requires complement activation or binding of the Fc fragment of IgG to IgG-specific receptors (Fc,R) on innate immune effector cells. In contrast, when administered in high concentrations, IVIg has anti-inflammatory properties. How this anti-inflammatory effect is mediated has not yet been elucidated fully, and several mutually non-exclusive mechanisms have been proposed. This paper represents the proceedings of a session entitled ,IVIg , Understanding properties and mechanisms' at the 6th International Immunoglobulin Symposium that was held in Interlaken on 26,28 March 2009. The presentations addressed how IgG may affect the cellular compartment, evidence for IVIg-mediated scavenging of complement fragments, the role of the dimeric fraction of IVIg, the anti-inflammatory properties of the minor fraction of sialylated IgG molecules, and the genetic organization and variation in Fc,Rs. These findings demonstrate the considerable progress that has been made in understanding the mechanisms of action of IVIgs, and may influence future perspectives in the field of Ig therapy. [source]