Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Fc

  • human fc
  • inhibitory fc
  • receptor fc

  • Terms modified by Fc

  • fc fragment
  • fc fusion protein
  • fc gamma receptor
  • fc portion
  • fc receptor
  • fc region

  • Selected Abstracts

    Flow cytometry antibody screening using pooled red cells,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 2 2010
    Dong Il Won
    Abstract Background: For red cell alloantibody screening, the column agglutination technique (CAT) is used extensively, and flow cytometry (FC) screening has recently been demonstrated to be accurate, rapid, and cost effective. We attempted to determine whether the high sensitivity of FC allows pooling of screening red cells, which is generally not an acceptable technique in CAT. Methods: For FC screening, a commercial two-cell screening panel was utilized for the preparation of individual cells (CSi), as well as pooled cells diluted 1 in 2 (CSp), and 1 in 3 (CS1/3). Another panel was pooled from 120 randomly selected group O donors (RSp). Results: Comparing the endpoint titrations of serial dilutions, CS1/3 was found to be one dilution, on the average, less sensitive than CSi. In 33 CAT-positive patient samples, the sensitivities of CSi and CSp did not differ significantly without polyethylene glycol (PEG) (30/33, 26/33, respectively, P = 0.125), although they did differ significantly with PEG (32/33, 25/33, respectively, P = 0.016). The percentages of reactive cells among the total cells from RSp were roughly proportional to the relevant antigen frequencies of the local donors. Conclusions: A trend toward reduced sensitivity was observed using pooled red cells, even via FC. Pooled cells from randomly selected group O donors may be employed as another method by which the characteristics of known antibodies might be assessed. © 2009 Clinical Cytometry Society [source]

    Overexpression of CD7 in classical Hodgkin lymphoma-infiltrating T lymphocytes,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 3 2009
    Adam C. Seegmiller
    Abstract Background: Diagnosis of Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) is sometimes complicated by the scarcity of neoplastic cells in a reactive inflammatory background. Immunophenotyping by flow cytometry (FC) has not played a significant role in HL diagnosis because of its consistent failure to identify these neoplastic cells. However, HL-infiltrating T cells have been shown to play a role in HL pathogenesis. This study characterizes the FC immunophenotype of these T lymphocytes to determine whether they can be used to assist in the diagnosis of HL. Methods: Cell suspensions from 76 lymph nodes involved by HL and 156 lymph nodes with reactive lymphadenopathy (LAD) were analyzed by flow cytometry to assess the expression of T-cell antigens. Results: The CD4:CD8 ratio and CD7 expression in both CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells are increased in HL compared with reactive lymph nodes and there are significant differences between these features in different subtypes of HL. However, only the expression of CD7 in CD4(+) T cells distinguishes between HL and reactive LAD. This is especially true for classical HL in younger patients. Using a CD7 mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) cutoff value generated by this data, 37/47 FNA specimens were correctly diagnosed. Conclusions: There are significant differences in the immunophenotypes of HL-infiltrating T cells. Of these, the CD7 expression in CD4(+) T cells discriminates between HL and reactive LAD, suggesting that this could be a useful and practical adjunctive tool in the diagnosis of HL. It may also further our understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease. © 2008 Clinical Cytometry Society [source]

    Proof of principle: An HIV p24 microsphere immunoassay with potential application to HIV clinical diagnosis,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 3 2009
    Pascale Ondoa
    Abstract The measurement of CD4 counts and viral loads on a single instrument such as an affordable flow cytometer could considerably reduce the cost related to the follow-up of antiretroviral therapy in resource-poor settings. The aim of this study was to assess whether the HIV-1 p24 antigen could be measured using a microsphere-based flow cytometric (FC) assay and the experimental conditions necessary for processing plasma samples. A commercial anti-p24 antibody pair from Biomaric was used to develop a p24 microsphere immunoassay (MIA) using HIV culture supernatant as the source of antigen. The ultrasensitive Perkin Elmer enzyme immunoassay (EIA) served as a reference assay. Quantification of HIV p24 using the heat-mediated immune complex disruption format described for plasma samples was feasible using the Biomaric MIA and applicable to a broad range of HIV-1 Group M subtypes. The inclusion of a tyramide amplification step was successful and increased the fluorescence signal up to 3 logs as compared with the MIA without amplification. The analytical sensitivity of this ultrasensitive Biomaric assay reached 1 pg/mL, whereas the ultrasensitive Perkin Elmer EIA was sensitive to less than 0.17 pg/mL. Our data indicate, for the first time, that the principle of p24 detection using the heat-denatured ultrasensitive format can be applied to FC. © 2008 Clinical Cytometry Society [source]

    Utility of CD26 in flow cytometric immunophenotyping of T-cell lymphomas in tissue and body fluid specimens,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 6 2008
    Diane M. Pierson
    Abstract Background CD26 is expressed by most CD4+ T cells in normal peripheral blood specimens. Neoplastic T cells are frequently CD26, in mycosis fungoides/Sezary syndrome involving the peripheral blood. However, CD26 expression by reactive and neoplastic T cells in solid tissues and body fluids has not been fully characterized by flow cytometry (FC). Methods Solid tissue and body fluid specimens were assayed for CD26 expression using four-color FC immunophenotyping, by qualitative assessment of population clusters, and by quantitation with comparison with isotype controls. Benign T cells were studied in reactive tissues and in the background of other malignancies. Results Many T-cell lymphomas were dim or negative for CD26, whereas a few were brightly positive. In the majority of T-cell lymphomas, CD26 expression could potentially help identify aberrant population clusters. T cells in reactive tissue specimens and tumor-infiltrating T cells were commonly dim to negative for CD26. Conclusions Both T-cell lymphomas and reactive T cells in tissue and body fluid specimens often show low levels of CD26 expression. Therefore, quantitative methods may not reliably distinguish benign from neoplastic T cells in these specimens. However, CD26, in combination with other T-cell markers, can be helpful for identifying aberrant population clusters in T-cell lymphomas. © 2008 Clinical Cytometry Society [source]

    Review: A systematic review of prospective studies on attention problems and academic achievement

    T. J. C. Polderman
    Polderman TJC, Boomsma DI, Bartels M, Verhulst FC, Huizink AC. A systematic review of prospective studies on attention problems and academic achievement. Objective:, Our aim was to provide an overview of prospective studies that have addressed the association between attention problems (AP, i.e. symptoms of hyperactivity and inattentiveness) and academic achievement (AA). Method:, We conducted a systematic search in the literature. Normal population studies and clinical studies were included. The methodological quality of each study was evaluated by objective criteria. A best evidence synthesis was used to determine the strengths of the association. Results:, Sixteen studies were included. We found convincing evidence for a negative association between AP and AA. After controlling for intelligence, comorbidity, and socioeconomic status (SES), the association between the hyperactive symptoms of AP and AA was non-significant in two studies. Conclusion:, Children with AP are at risk for lower AA and subsequent adverse outcomes later in life. Interventions in affected children should focus on their behavioural and educational development. [source]

    Minimizing Postoperative Drainage with 20% Ferric Chloride After Chemical Matricectomy with Phenol

    A. Burhan Aksakal MD
    Background. Phenol used in partial matricectomy shows its effects by denaturing matrix proteins. This highly successful method has the major problem of oozing which can continue for 5,6 weeks. Objective. The goal of this study was to determine the effect of 20% ferric chloride (FC) (FeCl3) on minimizing the oozing after chemical matricectomy with phenol. Methods. Sixty-seven patients with stage III onychocryptosis were treated by chemical matricectomy with 90% aqueous phenol. In 32 of these patients FC was applied to the nail bed after the phenolization procedure. Results. We found a statistically significant (P < .001) reduction of oozing in the FC-applied group of patients. Conclusion. We think that using FC after phenol chemical matricectomy results in a significant reduction in oozing from the operation site. [source]

    Role of cortical dysplasia in epileptogenesis following prolonged febrile seizure

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 9 2010
    Kyung-Il Park
    Summary Purpose:, Hippocampal sclerosis, characterized by prominent neuronal loss and reactive gliosis, is the most common pathology in human temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). Although prolonged febrile convulsion (FC) is a risk factor of TLE, it is not clear whether FC provokes hippocampal sclerosis and subsequent TLE. Given that underlying brain lesions, such as cortical dysplasia (CD), in the immature brain predispose patients to FC, CD may link FC and TLE. However, the role of CD in epileptogenesis after FC is also unclear. Here, we investigated whether inborn CD increases the risk of later epilepsy induced by prolonged FC using a rat model. Methods:, Experimental CD was induced by in utero exposure of methylazoxymethanol (MAM). Rat pups from MAM-treated or control rats were then subjected to prolonged FC. We examined morphologic changes in the hippocampi with respect to neuronal loss, reactive gliosis, and synaptogenesis, and evaluated spontaneous recurrent seizures (SRS) by long-term video-EEG (electroencephalography). Results:, The MAM+FC group had a significantly lower hippocampal neuronal density in the CA1 and dentate hilus than other control groups. A robust increase in glial cells and synaptic reorganization was also detected in the MAM+FC groups. Furthermore, later SRS occurred in all rats in the MAM+FC group and in 50% and 25% of the rats in the FC-only and MAM-only group, respectively. The frequency and total duration of SRS was highest in the MAM+FC group. Discussion:, Our results suggest that preexisting CD in the immature brain augments the proepileptogenic effects of prolonged FC, leading to TLE. [source]

    Causal Links between Brain Cytokines and Experimental Febrile Convulsions in the Rat

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 12 2005
    James G. Heida
    Summary:,Purpose: Despite the prevalence of febrile convulsions (FCs), their pathophysiology has remained elusive. We tested the hypothesis that components of the immune response, particularly the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1, (IL-1,) and its naturally occurring antagonist interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra) may play a role in the genesis of FC. Methods: Postnatal day 14 rats were treated with lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 200 ,g/kg, i.p.) followed by a subconvulsant dose of kainic acid (1.75 mg/kg, i.p.). Brains were harvested at and 2 h after onset of FCs to measure brain levels of IL-1, and IL-1ra. Separate groups of animals were given intracerebroventricular (ICV) injections of IL-1,, or IL-1ra in an attempt to establish a causal relation between the IL-1,/IL-1ra system and FCs. Results: Animals with FCs showed increased IL-1, in the hypothalamus and hippocampus but not in the cortex compared with noFC animals that also received LPS and kainic acid. This increase was first detected in the hippocampus at onset of FCs. No detectable difference in IL-1ra was found in brain regions examined in either group. When animals were treated with IL-1, ICV, a dose-dependant increase was noted in the proportion of animals that experienced FCs, whereas increasing doses of IL-1ra, given to separate groups of animals, were anticonvulsant. Conclusions: Our results suggest that excessive amounts of IL-1, may influence the genesis of FCs. This may occur by overproduction of IL-1,, or by alteration in the IL-1,/IL-1ra ratio in the brain after an immune challenge. [source]

    REM sleep: a sensitive index of fear conditioning in rats

    Sushil K. Jha
    Abstract To examine the influence of conditioned fear stimuli on sleep-wake states, we recorded sleep in Sprague,Dawley rats after exposure to tones previously paired with footshock. After habituation to a recording chamber and the recording procedure, a baseline sleep recording was obtained the next day. One day later, experimental animals were exposed to shock training designed to induce conditioned fear (FC), consisting of five tone-footshock pairings. The 5-s tones (conditioned stimuli; CS) co-terminated with 1-s footshocks (unconditioned stimuli; US). The next day sleep was recorded for 4 h in the recording chamber after presentation of five CSs alone. Sleep efficiency (total sleep time/recording period) and REM sleep (REM) and non-REM (NREM) measures were determined. While sleep efficiency was not significantly changed after CS presentation, the percentage of total sleep time spent in REM (REM percentage) was reduced in the FC animals. The reduction in REM percentage in the FC animals was due to a decrease in the number of REM bouts. In a separate experiment, we repeated the procedures, except the tones and shocks were presented in an explicitly unpaired (UP) fashion. The next day, presentation of the tones increased REM percentage in the UP group. Results are discussed in terms of the decreases in REM as a response to conditioned fear, and the relevance of these findings to the sleep changes seen in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). [source]

    The value of frozen section in intraoperative surgical management of thyroid follicular carcinoma,

    Danijel Do, en MD
    Abstract Background. Preoperative and intraoperative diagnosis of follicular carcinoma (FC), resulting in one-stage surgical treatment of follicular thyroid tumors, is an important issue in thyroid surgery. Methods. In the 10-year period there were 4158 operations performed on thyroid gland. There were 1559 patients with follicular tumors, 70 (4.4%) of them having FC. We analyzed the groups of patients with FC determined on frozen section (FS) and permanent section (PS) according to duration of clinical symptoms, ultrasound (US) examination, tumor size, patient gender and age, intensity of invasion, localization, and multiple or solitary occurrence of tumor. Results. FC was diagnosed in 39 (55.7%) patients on frozen section (FS). Among the encapsulated (minimal invasion) carcinomas, the FS was accurate in 19 of 33 (57.6%) FC and in 5 of 15 (27.8%) Hürthle cell carcinomas (HCC); among extensively invasive carcinoma in 11 of 14 (78.6%) FC and in 4 of 5 (80.0%) HCC. FC was significantly more common in men (p < .001) and in the right lobe (p < .05). We did not find statistically significant differences concerning duration of symptoms, US examination, tumor size, patient age, and multiple or solitary occurrence of the tumor between the patients with FC diagnosed on FS and the patients with FC diagnosed on PS. Conclusions. The intraoperative diagnosis of FC is difficult. Although the percentage of false-negative results was relatively high (44.3%), there were no false-positive results. This means that the second operation was avoided in 55.7% of the patients, and no unnecessary thyroidectomies were performed. FS biopsy is an important method in surgery of follicular tumors. Improved technical support and the ability to analyze a greater number of slides will increase the accuracy of the method. © 2003 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 25: 521,528, 2003 [source]

    Hydrogen Bonding of Fluorinated Saccharides in Solution: F Acting as H-Bond Acceptor in a Bifurcated H-Bond of 4-Fluorinated Levoglucosans,

    Bruno Bernet
    Abstract 4-Fluorinated levoglucosans were synthesised to test if OH,,,F H-bonds are feasible even when the O,,,F distance is increased. The fluorinated 1,6-anhydro- , - D -glucopyranoses were synthesised from 1,6,:,3,4-dianhydro- , - D -galactopyranose (8). Treatment of 8 with KHF2 and KF gave 43% of 4-deoxy-4-fluorolevoglucosan (9), which was transformed into the 3- O -protected derivatives 13 by silylation and 15 by silylation, acetylation, and desilylation. 4-Deoxy-4-methyllevoglucosan (19) and 4-deoxylevoglucosan (21) were prepared as reference compounds that can only form a bivalent H-bond from HOC(2) to OC(5). They were synthesised from the iPr3Si-protected derivative of 8. Intramolecular bifurcated H-bonds from HOC(2) to FC(4) and OC(5) of the 4-fluorinated levoglucosans in CDCl3 solution are evidenced by the 1H-NMR scalar couplings h1J(F,OH) and 3J(H,OH). The OH,,,F H-bond over an O,,,F distance of ca. 3.0,Å is thus formed in apolar solvents, at least when favoured by the simultaneous formation of an OH,,,O H-bond. [source]

    Synaptic protein expression in the medial temporal lobe and frontal cortex following chronic bilateral vestibular loss

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 5 2008
    Matthew Goddard
    Abstract Several studies have reported that bilateral vestibular deafferentation (BVD) results in the disruption of place cell function and theta activity in the hippocampus. Recent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in humans demonstrated that bilateral but not unilateral vestibular loss is associated with a bilateral atrophy of the hippocampus. In this study we investigated whether BVD in rats resulted in changes in the expression of four proteins related to neuronal plasticity, synaptophysin, SNAP-25, drebrin and neurofilament-L, in the hippocampal subregions (CA1, CA2/3, the DG) and the entorhinal (EC), perirhinal (PRC) and frontal cortices (FC), using western blotting. At 6 months following BVD, there were no significant differences in the expression of synaptophysin in any region. There were also no significant differences in SNAP-25 expression in CA1, CA2/3, EC, PRC, or the FC; however, there was a significant increase in SNAP-25 expression in the DG compared to sham controls. Drebrin A and E expression was significantly reduced in the EC and drebrin A was significantly reduced in the FC of BVD animals. NF-L expression was not significantly different in CA1, CA2/3, DG, EC, or the PRC. However, its expression was significantly reduced in the FC of BVD animals. These data suggest that circumscribed neurochemical changes in SNAP-25, drebrin and NF-L expression occur in the DG, EC, and the FC over 6 months following BVD. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Force transducer-based movement detection in fear conditioning in mice: A comparative analysis

    HIPPOCAMPUS, Issue 1 2002
    Thomas Fitch
    Abstract Fear conditioning (FC) allows the dissociation of hippocampal and nonhippocampal behavioral function in rodents, and has become a diagnostic tool in transgenic mouse research employed to investigate mutation-induced changes in brain function. Although the procedural details of the paradigm have been established, quantification of the behavioral output, freezing, remains problematic in mice. Observation-based techniques are time-consuming and may be subject to bias, while movement detection with photocells is imprecise. Here we describe an alternative method for movement detection, based on an electronic force transducer system that allows the quantification of acceleration forces generated by a moving subject. We compare the behavior of two inbred strains of mice (C57BL/6 and DBA/2) whose performance is known to differ in hippocampal tasks, including FC. The comparison is made using multiple techniques: the force transducer approach, and three observation-based methods, a computer-aided event-recording approach, a traditional time-sampling paper/pencil method, and a subjective impression-based scoring system. In addition, we investigate the correlation structures of behavioral elements quantified by event recording, using principal component analyses; we conclude that fear may manifest in multiple forms and in a stimulus- and genotype-dependent manner. We suggest that the force transducer system provides precise quantification of movements in an automated manner and will allow high-throughput screening for mutation and drug effects in mice. However, we also argue that fear responses can be complex, and freezing behavior may not be the only measure of fear or fear-associated memory. Hippocampus 2002;12:4,17. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Fecal calprotectin is useful in predicting disease relapse in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    Dorota Walkiewicz MD
    Abstract Background: Fecal calprotectin (FC) has been proposed as a noninvasive surrogate marker to determine the degree of intestinal inflammation and predicting relapse in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim was to compare FC levels in IBD and healthy controls, to correlate FC levels with clinical disease activity, and to assess whether FC levels can be used to predict clinical relapse in children with IBD. Methods: Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) determined levels of FC were measured in more than 1 stool samples (n) from 32 IBD patients (n = 97) and from 34 healthy controls (n = 37). Disease activity was assessed by the Harvey,Bradshaw index in Crohn's disease (CD) and by Physician's Global Assessment (PGA) in both CD and ulcerative colitis (UC). Clinical events were recorded up to 9 months following stool collection in CD patients. Wilcoxon rank sum test and Fisher's exact tests were used to compare FC levels in IBD patients and in control. Kaplan,Meyer analysis was used to determine a risk of clinical relapse in relation to FC levels. Results: The IBD group had higher FC levels (range 17,7500 g/g) compared with control (16,750 g/g, P < 0.0001). FC levels were higher during relapse (CD, 3214 ± 2186; UC, 2819 ± 1610) compared to remission (CD, 1373 ± 1630; UC, 764 ± 869; P < 0.0001). Among those with clinical relapse, 90% had FC levels more than 400 ,g/g in CD. Eighty-nine percent of CD encounters with FC levels less than 400 ,g/g remained in clinical remission. Conclusions: FC levels differentiate active IBD from controls. Among children with CD and in remission, FC levels may be useful in predicting impending clinical relapse. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2008) [source]

    Time/Space-Resolved Studies of the Nafion Membrane Hydration Profile in a Running Fuel Cell

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 5 2009
    Valerio Rossi Albertini
    The hydration profile of proton-exchange membranes (PEM) in running fuel cells (FC) are obtained through an original method that employs very-high-energy synchrotron-radiation X-ray diffraction in space/time-resolved measurements. Determining the amount and spatial distribution of water in the polymeric membrane of PEMFCs under working conditions is of utmost importance in PEMFC technology, since FC performances are strongly dependent on PEM hydration. [source]

    Hybrid finite compact-WENO schemes for shock calculation

    Yiqing Shen
    Abstract Hybrid finite compact (FC)-WENO schemes are proposed for shock calculations. The two sub-schemes (finite compact difference scheme and WENO scheme) are hybridized by means of the similar treatment as in ENO schemes. The hybrid schemes have the advantages of FC and WENO schemes. One is that they possess the merit of the finite compact difference scheme, which requires only bi-diagonal matrix inversion and can apply the known high-resolution flux to obtain high-performance numerical flux function; another is that they have the high-resolution property of WENO scheme for shock capturing. The numerical results show that FC-WENO schemes have better resolution properties than both FC-ENO schemes and WENO schemes. In addition, some comparisons of FC-ENO and artificial compression method (ACM) filter scheme of Yee et al. are also given. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Comparative study of the efficacy of three coagulants in treating dairy factory waste water

    The treatment of dairy factory waste water by coagulation and decantation has shown that calcium hydroxide at a weak dose of 0.49,0.63 g provides the highly efficient removal of suspended matter (SM) (94%) and total phosphorus (Tp-P) (89%) accompanied by an average elimination of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN-N), faecal coliforms (FC) and faecal streptococci (FS). This is within the Moroccan limits for the first two parameters (SM and TP-P). The dose necessary to obtain optimal removal is 0.8,1.2 g when using aluminium sulfate and 0.6,0.75 g with iron chloride and the percentage elimination of chemical and bacteriological pollutants is not substantial. However, coagulation by calcium hydroxide induced less sludge (0.93 g/L) than either aluminium sulfate (1.21 g/L) or iron chloride (1.38 g/L). In terms of cost, the price of treating 1 m3 of dairy effluent by using calcium hydroxide is lower (approximately 25 times less expensive) than when using the other two coagulants. [source]

    Original article: Apparent thermal diffusivity estimation for the heat transfer modelling of pork loin under air/steam cooking treatments

    Massimiliano Rinaldi
    Summary Apparent thermal diffusivity linear functions vs. product temperature were estimated for pork cooked under two different treatments (forced convection, FC and forced convection/steam combined, FC/S) at 100, 110, 120 and 140 °C by means of experimental time,temperature data and a developed finite-difference algorithm. Slope and intercept of each function were employed to calculate apparent thermal diffusivity at 40, 55 and 70 °C. Generally, FC/S treatments gave significantly higher apparent thermal diffusivities in comparison with FC conditions. Apparent thermal diffusivities were used to develop a model for cooking time and final core temperature prediction on the basis of oven setting. The model was validated by means of additional cooking tests performed at different temperatures of those employed for model development. Root mean square error values lower than 3.8 °C were obtained comparing predicted and experimental temperature profiles. Percentage errors lower than 3.1% and 3.5% were, respectively, obtained for cooking times and final core temperatures. [source]

    Absorption, resonance, and near-resonance Raman studies of the tetracyanoquinodimethane neutral and its monoanion in terms of density functional theory and complete active space self-consistent field methods

    Marcin Makowski
    Abstract The electronic structure of the 11B1u and 12B3u excited electronic states of the tetracyanoquinodimethane (TCNQ) neutral and its charged derivative are studied within the framework of complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) and Becke's three-parameter hybrid method with Lee,Yang,Parr correlation functional (B3LYP) methods applied to the level aug-cc-p-VDZ basis set. Both CASSCF/aug-cc-p-VDZ and B3LYP/aug-cc-p-VDZ treatments provide the ground-state and the excited state geometries; these are then used to assess the Franck,Condon (FC) parameters in the 11B1u state of the neutral TCNQ and in the 12B3u state of the TCNQ monoanion. The quality of numerical results is then tested on the base of available experimental near-resonance and resonance Raman data. The studies are performed in terms of the vibronic model, which takes both FC and mode-mixing (Dushinsky) effects into account. This somewhat simplified vibronic model leads to very good agreement between the theory and the Raman experiments concerning both neutral TCNQ and its monoanion. In particular, the calculated excitation profiles of the ,2 = 2215 cm,1, ,4 = 1389 cm,1, ,5 = 1195 cm,1, and ,9 = 336 cm,1 fundamentals are shown to be in excellent agreement with those for the TCNQ monoanion. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2006 [source]

    Relational problems and psychiatric symptoms in couple therapy

    Ann-Marie Lundblad
    This article describes couples attending family counselling in Sweden. The study group is compared with clinical groups and non-clinical groups. Self-rating instruments were com-pleted by 317 women and 312 men to evaluate the following: marital satisfaction (DAS), expressed emotion (QAFM), family climate (FC), psychiatric symptoms (SCL-90) and sense of coherence (SOC). This group had several problems: marital relationships, disrupted family functioning, dyadic interactions characterised by criticism and open arguments, and multiple psychological symptoms. The women were espe-cially discontent in the relationship, and they exhibited higher symptom strain and lower sense of coherence than the men did. Compared with non-clinical populations, this group was severely distressed and was similar to in-patient families in child psychiatric clinics. The low sense of coherence of the individuals in the group under study means that their sense of having a meaningful life and their ability to comprehend and manage problems were severely compromised. Adequate and comprehensive treatment within the framework of social pro-grammes should be made available to these couples and others in a similar situation. [source]

    Root Distribution of Drought-Resistant Peanut Genotypes in Response to Drought

    P. Songsri
    Abstract The ability of a plant to modify its root distribution to exploit deeper stored soil water may be an important mechanism to avoid drought. This study aimed at assessing root distributions, variations in root length density (RLD) and percentage of root distribution, and the relevance of root traits for yield of drought-resistant peanut genotypes under different available soil water levels. The experiment was conducted in the dry season during the years 2003/04 and 2004/05. Eleven peanut genotypes (ICGV 98300, ICGV 98303, ICGV 98305, ICGV 98308, ICGV 98324, ICGV 98330, ICGV 98348, ICGV 98353, Tainan 9, KK 60-3 and Tifton-8) and three soil moisture levels [field capacity (FC), 2/3 available soil water (AW) and 1/3 AW] were laid out in a split-plot design with four replications. Roots were sampled by a core sampler at 37, 67 and 97 days after sowing (DAS). Root length was determined by a scanner and the WINRHIZO Pro 2004a software. RLD was calculated as the ratio of root length (cm) and soil volume (cm3). Graphical illustration of root distribution was constructed by merging RLD in the first and second soil layers (0,40 cm) as upper roots and pooling RLD at the third, fourth and fifth layers (40,100 cm) as lower roots. Pod yield, biomass and harvest index (HI) were recorded at harvest. A drought tolerance index (DTI) was calculated for each parameter as the ratio of the parameter under stress treatment to that under well-watered conditions. Variations in RLD in 40 to 100 cm layer (RLD40 to 100 cm) were found under well-watered conditions, and the peanut genotypes could be readily identified as high, intermediate and low for this trait. Changes in RLD in the 40 to 100 cm soil layer were found at 2/3 AW and were more evident at 1/3 AW. ICGV 98300, ICGV 98303, ICGV 98305, ICGV 98308 and KK 60-3 were classified as drought responsive as they increased RLD in the deeper subsoil level in response to drought. In general, RLD under drought conditions was not related to biomass production. The ability to maintain the percentage of RLD (DTI for %RLD) was related to pod yield, DTI for pod yield and DTI for HI. ICGV 98300, ICGV 98303, ICGV 98305 exhibited high DTI (RLD40 to 100 cm) which may explain their high pod yield, DTI (PY) and DTI (HI). Based on these observations we classified them as drought-avoiding genotypes. [source]

    Effects of Interactions of Moisture Regime and Nutrient Addition on Nodulation and Carbon Partitioning in Two Cultivars of Bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    T. Boutraa
    Major limitations of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) production in arid and semiarid regions are lack of moisture and low soil fertility. An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of soil moisture and N : P : K (20 : 10 : 10) fertilizer on root and shoot growth of two cultivars of bean: cv. Carioca, an indeterminate Brazilian landrace, and cv. Prince, a determinate cultivar grown in Europe. Carioca appears generally stress-tolerant while Prince is intolerant. Seedlings were grown in pots of non-sterile soil at 30, 60 or 90 % field capacity (FC), and given 0, 0.1 or 1 g (kg soil),1 of compound fertilizer. The soil contained a population of effective Rhizobium. Growth of both cultivars was greatest in the high moisture and high nutrient treatments. Root fractions were highest at low nutrient supply; the effect of water was not significant. Leaf fraction decreased as root fraction increased. Numbers of nodules were highest at high and intermediate moisture when no fertilizer was applied. Numbers were lowest at 30 % FC and at the highest fertilizer rate. Masses of nodules and fractions followed the same pattern. Decreasing water regime reduced the relative growth rate (RGR) of Prince, while Carioca maintained high RGR at unfavourable conditions of water and nutrients. Net assimilation rates (NAR) were unaffected by nutrient addition, and reduced by low moisture regime. Water use efficiencies (WUEs) were reduced by water stress but increased by nutrient deficiency. The water utilization for dry matter production was optimal at 60 % FC. Einflüsse der Interaktionen von Bodendenfeuchte und Düngung auf die Knöllchenbildung und Kohlenstoff verteilung bei zwei Bohnenkultivaren (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) Der begrenzende Hauptfaktor der Bohnenproduktion in ariden und semiariden Regionen sind der Feuchtigkeitsmangel und die Bodenfruchbarkeit. Es wurde ein Experiment durchgeführt, um die Wirkungen des Bodenwassers und von N : P : K (20 : 10 : 10) Dünger auf das Wurzel- und Sproßwachstum an zwei Kultivaren von Bohnen (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. Carioca, eine brasilianischen, indeterminierte Landsorte und cv. Prince, eine determinierter in Europa angebauter Kultivar) zu untersuchen. Carioca erscheint grundsätzlich streßtoleranter im Vergleich zu Prince. Die Sämlinge wurden in Gefäßen mit nichtsterilisiertem Boden unter Feldkapazitäten von 30,60 oder 90 % mit 0, 0,1 oder 1 g eines Volldüngers angezogen. Der Boden enthielt eine Population von wirksamem Rhizobium. Das stärkste Wachstum wurde bei beiden Kultivaren unter dem Einfluß des höchsten Feuchtigkeitsgehaltes und der höchsten Düngermenge gefunden. Der Wurzelanteil war bei der geringen Düngermenge am niedrigsten. Der Einfluß der Bodenfeuchtigkeit war nicht signifikant. Der Blattanteil nahm mit zunehmendem Wurzelanteil ab. Die Anzahl der Knötchen war bei hoher und mittlerer Bodenfeuchte und ohne Düngeranwendung am höchsten. Die Anzahl war am geringsten bei 30 % FC und der höchsten Düngermenge. Die Knötchenmasse und ihr Anteil reagierte entsprechend. Abnehmende Bodenfeuchte reduzierte die relative Wachtumsrate (RGR) von Prince, während Carioca einen hohen RGR auch bei ungünstigen Bedingungen bezüglich Wasser und Düngung behielt. Die Nettoassimilationsraten wurden durch die Düngung nicht beeinflußt; sie gingen bei geringer Bodenfeuchte zurück. Die Wassernutzungseffiziens (WUE) wurde bei Wasserstreß reduziert, nahm aber bei Düngermangel zu. Die Wassernutzung für die Trockenmasseproduktion war bei 60 % Feldkapazität am höchsten. [source]

    The persistence of bifidobacteria populations in a river measured by molecular and culture techniques

    X. Bonjoch
    Abstract Aims:, To determine relative to faecal coliforms (FC) and sulfite-reducing clostridia (SRC), the environmental persistence of natural populations of Bifidobacterium spp. enumerated by culturing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (q-PCR). Methods and Results:, Dialysis tubing containing river supplemented with overnight cultures of Bifidobacterium adolescentis (BA) and Bifidobacterium dentium (BD) or urban wastewater were suspended in a river for up to 10 days. At intervals, the contents of each dialysis tube were assayed using q-PCR assays for BA and BD, and selective culture media for FC, SRC, total bifidobacteria (TB), sorbitol-fermenting bifidobacteria (SFB) and cultivable BA. Mean summer T90 values were 251 h for SRC, 92 h for FC, 48 h for BA and BD by q-PCR, and 9 h for TB. Conclusions:,Bifidobacterium spp. was the population with the lowest persistence, showing seasonal differences in T90 when measured by culture techniques or by q-PCR. This difference in relative persistence is because of a longer persistence of molecular targets than cultivable cells. Significance and Impact of the Study:, The persistence of a viable bifidobacteria cells is shorter, but the longest persistence of molecular targets. This factor could be used for origin the faecal pollution in water for the development of microbial source tracking (MST). [source]

    Cellular effects of monohydrochloride of l -arginine, N, -lauroyl ethylester (LAE) on exposure to Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus

    E. Rodríguez
    Abstract Aims:, Here we study the effect of monohydrochloride of l -arginine, N, -lauroyl ethylester (LAE), a cationic preservative derived from lauric acid and arginine, on the cell envelopes of Salmonella typhimurium and Staphylococcus aureus at sub-lethal concentration such as their respective minimal inhibitory concentrations, 32 and 8 ,g ml,1, respectively. Methods and Results:, Bacterial populations were studied by using transmission electron and fluorescence microscopy (TEM and FM), flow cytometry (FC) and ion-flux across the cellular membrane. Cell integrity was altered mainly in the outer membrane of S. typhimurium, but there was no significant change in the cytoplasm. However, in Staph. aureus, clear zones, abnormal septation and mesosome-like structures were observed in the cytoplasm. Bacterial populations were double-stained with propidium iodide (PI) and SYTO-13 for FC analysis. In S. typhimurium the proportion of damaged cells after 24 h was 97% and in Staph. aureus 56·3%. LAE induced transmembrane ion flux, the increase of potassium leakage after 30 min of contact was 7·7 and 3·34 ,g ml,1 for Staph. aureus and S. typhimurium, respectively. Membrane disruption was detected by measuring the proton flow across the membrane. Conclusions:, Disturbance in membrane potential and structural changes was caused by LAE, although cells were not disrupted. Significance and Impact of the Study:, This is the first time the cellular effects of LAE on bacterial cells were studied. [source]

    Biocompatibility of various formula root filling materials for primary teeth

    Tsui-Hsien Huang
    Abstract The aim of this study was to compare the effects of different materials used in primary root canal fillings on the cell viability of human osteosarcoma cell lines. The experimental group contained six different types of root canal filling materials, including zinc oxide (ZnO) + eugenol + formocresol (FC), Ca(OH)2 + FC, Ca(OH)2 + Iodoform, Ca(OH)2 + Iodoform + camphorated parachlorophenol (CPC), Ca(OH)2 + CPC, and Vitapex. Cell viability tests were performed using tetrazolium bromide colorimetric (MTT) assay on human osteosacorma cell lines (U2OS). The results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Student,Newman,Keul's test with p < 0.05 showed statistical differences. The ZnO + eugenol + FC group and Ca(OH)2 + FC group showed the lowest survival rates (p < 0.05). The Ca(OH)2 + Iodoform + CPC group and Ca(OH)2 + CPC group showed significantly lower survival rates at concentrations above 6 ,L/mL (p < 0.05). The Ca(OH)2 + Iodoform group and Vitapex group showed the highest survival rates (p < 0.05). We concluded that the use of calcium hydroxide with iodoform as a root filling base material is a better option than other medications. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Biomed Mater Res Part B: Appl Biomater, 2007 [source]

    Beating Heart Ischemic Mitral Valve Repair and Coronary Revascularization in Patients with Impaired Left Ventricular Function

    Edvin Prifti M.D., Ph.D.
    Materials and Methods: Between January 1993 and February 2001, 91 patients with LVEF between 17% and 35% and chronic ischemic MVR (grade III,IV), underwent MV repair in concomitance with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) Sixty-one patients (Group I) underwent cardiac surgery with cardioplegic arrest, and 30 patients (Group II) underwent beating heart combined surgery. Aortic valve insufficiency was considered a contraindication for the on-pump/beating heart procedure. Mean age in Group I was 64.4 ± 7 years and in Group II, 65 ± 6 years (p = 0.69). Results: The in-hospital mortality in Group I was 8 (13%) patients versus 2 (7%) patients in Group II (p > 0.1). The cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) time was significantly higher in Group I (p < 0.001). In Groups I and II, respectively (p > 0.1), 2.5 ± 1 and 2.7 ± 0.8 grafts per patient were employed. Perioperative complications were identified in 37 (60.7%) patients in Group I versus 10 (33%) patients in Group II (p = 0.025). Prolonged inotropic support of greater than 24 hours was needed in 48 (78.7%) patients (Group I) versus 15 (50%) patients (Group II) (p = 0.008). Postoperative IABP and low cardiac output incidence were significantly higher in Group I, p = 0.03 and p = 0.027, respectively. Postoperative bleeding greater than 1000 mL was identified in 24 patients (39.4%) in Group I versus 5 (16.7%) in Group II (p = 0.033). Renal dysfunction incidence was 65.6% (40 patients) in Group I versus 36.7% (11 patients) in Group II (p = 0.013). The echocardiographic examination within six postoperative months revealed a significant improvement of MV regurgitation fraction, LV function, and reduced dimensions in both groups. The postoperative RF was significantly lower in Group II patients 12 ± 6 (%) versus 16 ± 5.6 (%) in Group I (p = 0.001). The 1, 2, and 3 years actuarial survival including all deaths was 91.3%, 84.2%, and 70% in Group I and 93.3%, 87.1%, and 75% in Group II (p = ns). NYHA FC improved significantly in all patients from both groups. Conclusion. We conclude that patients with impaired LV function and ischemic MVR may undergo combined surgery with acceptable mortality and morbidity. The on/pump beating heart MV repair simultaneous to CABG offers an acceptable postoperative outcome in selected patients. [source]

    Periodontal wound healing/regeneration following the application of rhGDF-5 in a , -TCP/PLGA carrier in critical-size supra-alveolar periodontal defects in dogs

    David H. Kwon
    Kwon DH, Bisch FC, Herold RW, Pompe C, Bastone P, Rodriguez NA, Susin C, Wikesjö UM. Periodontal wound healing/regeneration following application of rhGDF-5 in a , -TCP/PLGA carrier in critical-size supra-alveolar periodontal defects in dogs. J Clin Periodontol 2010; 37: 667,674. doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01569.x. Abstract Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a novel recombinant human GDF-5 (rhGDF-5) construct intended for onlay and inlay indications on periodontal wound healing/regeneration. Methods: Contralateral, surgically created, critical-size, 6-mm, supra-alveolar periodontal defects in five adult Hound Labrador mongrel dogs received rhGDF-5 coated onto , -tricalcium phosphate (, -TCP) particles and immersed in a bioresorbable poly(lactic- co -glycolic acid) (PLGA) composite or the , -TCP/PLGA carrier alone (control). The rhGDF-5 and control constructs were moulded around the teeth and allowed to set. The gingival flaps were then advanced; flap margins were adapted 3,4 mm coronal to the teeth and sutured. The animals were euthanized at 8 weeks post-surgery when block biopsies were collected for histometric analysis. Results: Healing was generally uneventful. A few sites exhibited minor exposures. Three control sites and one rhGDF-5 site (in separate animals) experienced more extensive wound dehiscencies. The rhGDF-5 and control constructs were easy to apply and exhibited adequate structural integrity to support the mucoperiosteal flaps in this challenging onlay model. Limited residual , -TCP particles were observed at 8 weeks for both rhGDF-5/, -TCP/PLGA and , -TCP/PLGA control sites. The rhGDF-5/, -TCP/PLGA sites showed significantly greater cementum (2.34 ± 0.44 versus 1.13 ± 0.25 mm, p=0.02) and bone (2.92 ± 0.66 versus 1.21 ± 0.30 mm, p=0.02) formation compared with the carrier control. Limited ankylosis was observed in four of five rhGDF-5/, -TCP/PLGA sites but not in control sites. Conclusions: Within the limitations of this study, the results suggest that rhGDF-5 is a promising candidate technology in support of periodontal wound healing/regeneration. Carrier and rhGDF-5 dose optimization are necessary before further advancement of the technology towards clinical evaluation. [source]

    Effect of systemic parathyroid hormone (1,34) and a , -tricalcium phosphate biomaterial on local bone formation in a critical-size rat calvarial defect model

    Jonathan I. Yun
    Yun JI, Wikesjö UME, Borke JL, Bisch FC, Lewis JE, Herold RW, Swiec GD, Wood JC, McPherson III JC. Effect of systemic parathyroid hormone (1,34) and a ,-tricalcium phosphate biomaterial on local bone formation in a critical-size rat calvarial defect model. J Clin Periodontol 2010; 37: 419,426 doi: 10.1111/j.1600-051X.2010.01547.x Abstract Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate local bone formation following systemic administration of parathyroid hormone (1,34) (PTH), a surgically implanted synthetic , -tricalcium phosphate (, -TCP) bone biomaterial serving as a matrix to support new bone formation. Materials and Methods: Critical-size, 8 mm, calvarial through-and-through osteotomy defects were surgically created in 100 adult male Sprague,Dawley rats. The animals were randomized into five groups of 20 animals each to receive one of the following treatments: PTH (15 ,g PTH/kg/day; subcutaneously), PTH/, -TCP, , -TCP, or particulate human demineralized freeze-dried bone (DFDB), and sham-surgery controls. Ten animals/group were euthanized at 4 and 8 weeks post-surgery for radiographic and histometric analysis. Results: The histometric analysis showed that systemic PTH significantly enhanced local bone formation, bone fill averaging (±SE) 32.2±4.0% compared with PTH/, -TCP (15.7±2.4%), , -TCP (12.5±2.3%), DFDB (14.5±2.3%), and sham-surgery control (10.0±1.5%) at 4 weeks (p<0.014). Systemic PTH showed significantly enhanced bone formation (41.5±4.0%) compared with PTH/, -TCP (22.4±3.0%), , -TCP (21.3±4.4%), and with the sham-surgery control (23.8±4.2%) at 8 weeks (p<0.025). The DFDB group showed significantly increased bone formation from 4 (14.5±2.3%) to 8 weeks (32.0±3.2%) (p<0.006). The PTH/, -TCP and , -TCP groups both showed limited biomaterials resorption. The radiographic analysis was not diagnostic to distinguish local bone formation from the radiopaque , -TCP biomaterial. Conclusions: Systemic administration of PTH significantly stimulates local bone formation. Bone formation was significantly limited by the , -TCP biomaterial. [source]

    Thyroid follicular neoplasms: Can sonography distinguish between adenomas and carcinomas?

    Hyung Suk Seo MD
    Abstract Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine whether sonography (US) can usefully differentiate thyroid follicular adenoma (FA) and follicular carcinoma (FC). Methods This retrospective study included 60 pathologically proven FAs and 66 FCs in 123 consecutive patients (17 males and 106 females) with a mean age of 47 ± 13 years, (17,73 years) who underwent thyroid surgery. We analyzed US features of each nodule, including maximum diameter, echogenicity, composition, presence of calcification, margins, and presence of halo. The frequencies of each US feature were compared by using the ,2 test or Fisher's exact test between FAs and FCs. The relative risk of malignancy was evaluated by logistic regression analysis. Results Isohypoechoic echogenicity, predominantly solid or mixed echotexture, and presence of microcalcifications or rim calcifications were associated with FC (p < 0.05). Logistic regression analysis demonstrated that predominantly solid or mixed echotexture and microcalcifications or rim calcifications were associated with significant increases in relative risk for FC (odds ratio 8.1 and odds ratio 13.5, respectively, p < 0.01). Conclusions The US features of isohypoechoic echogenicity, predominantly solid or mixed echotexture, and microcalcifications or rim calcifications are more common in FC than in FA. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound, 2009 [source]

    A predictive model for psychological reactions to crime in Italy: an analysis of fear of crime and concern about crime as a social problem

    Piero Amerio
    Abstract In this study a model for predicting fear of crime (FC) and concern about crime as a social problem (CC) in Italy has been built, using three sets of independent variables concerning: (a) the sociodemographic and criminal victimization domain; (b) the psychosocial domain; and (c) the mass media. A secondary analysis on data gathered by the Observatory of the North-West (N,=,3262, a mail panel that is representative of the Italian population over 18) has been performed. Results showed that FC and CC are related yet distinct constructs: FC is less widespread than CC, and has different predictors. FC predictors are sociodemographic, psychosocial and, above all, victimization variables; whereas mass media and psychosocial variables predict CC. Results were compared with the literature on the topic. Implications, limitations, and future directions are discussed. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]