Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Exploration

  • bilateral neck exploration
  • bile duct exploration
  • detailed exploration
  • duct exploration
  • empirical exploration
  • future exploration
  • gas exploration
  • hydrocarbon exploration
  • in-depth exploration
  • initial exploration
  • interactive exploration
  • knowledge exploration
  • laparoscopic bile duct exploration
  • little exploration
  • neck exploration
  • oil exploration
  • petroleum exploration
  • phenomenological exploration
  • planetary exploration
  • qualitative exploration
  • seismic exploration
  • space exploration
  • surgical exploration
  • systematic exploration
  • theoretical exploration
  • visual exploration

  • Terms modified by Exploration

  • exploration area
  • exploration target

  • Selected Abstracts


    EDUCATIONAL THEORY, Issue 4 2006
    Christopher WinchArticle first published online: 30 NOV 200
    He argues that most rule-following is only successful when it involves a degree of flexibility. For instance, most technical work that involves rule-following requires flexibility and situational awareness for success. Technical education that fails to take account of the need to apply rules in a way that accounts for a wide variety of situations is likely to be unsuccessful. Winch offers an account of professional judgment based on Stephen Toulmin's theory of argumentation and discusses progression from novice to expert in terms of Toulmin's analysis. He also considers the relation between vocational education and other practices in the context of the wider civic implications of occupational practice. [source]


    Noel Hyndman
    The concept of governance has been widely discussed in both the business and non-business sectors. The debate has also been entered into within the charity sector, which comprises over 169,000 organizations in the UK. The UK-based Charity Commission, which describes itself as existing to ,promote sound governance and accountability', has taken a lead in this debate by promoting greater regulation and producing numerous recommendations with regard to the proper governance of charitable organizations. However, the concept of what is meant by governance is unclear and a myriad of ideas are placed under the umbrella of ,good governance'. This paper explores the major themes that form the basis of much of this discussion, examining both the theoretical underpinnings and empirical investigations relating to this area (looking from the perspective of the key stakeholders in the charity sector). Based on an analysis of the extant literature, this paper presents a broad definition of governance with respect to charities and outlines a future research agenda for those interested in adding to knowledge in this area [source]


    J. A. Bojesen-Koefoed
    Organic geochemical screening and biological marker analysis was carried out on a total of 45 Albian-Cenomanian sandstone and mudstone samples collected from a landslide block on thenorth coast of Disko island, central West Greenland. The landslide block covers an area of severalsquare kilometres, and originated approximately 400 m up-section from where it moved to itspresent position after the last glaciation. The mudstones are generally rich in organic carbon butshow no potential for petroleum generation. However, biodegraded oil stains were found in thepoorly lithified sandstones. Staining by undegraded or only slightly degraded oil in volcanic rocks iscommon in this region, but the occurrence described here is the only known outcrop where staining occurs in siliciclastic sediments, and also the only one known in which the oil is severely biodegraded. The oil stains appear to represent a biodegraded variety of the Cretaceous marine shale derived Itilli oil type which is known from many locations in the Disko-Nussusaq-Svartenhuk Halvø region. The oils entered the sandstones before the landslide event, probably during or beforethe extrusion of the volcanic succession in the Paleogene. This is the first time that a petroleum seepage has been found to the east of the Kuugannguaq-Qunnillik fault zone, which is located approximately 30 km west of Asuk. The presence of stainingby marine oil at Asuk demonstrates that marine petroleum source rocks were deposited muchfurther eastwards than was previously thought, thus expanding the area of potential explorationsignificantly. The presence of marine source rocks to the east of the Kuugannguaq-Qunnillik faultzone may explain the frequent observation of Direct Hydrocarbon Indicators in seismic datacollected in the Vaigat Sound. [source]


    J. J. Mandujano V.
    The NW-SE trending Cantarell structure in the Gulf of Campeche hosts the largest oilfield in Mexico. The oil occurs predominantly in latest Cretaceous , earliest Tertiary breccias with subsidiary reserves in Upper Jurassic (Oxfordian and Kimmeridgian) and Lower Cretaceous oolitic and partially dolomitized limestones, dolomites and shaly limestones. Cantarell has been interpreted both as a fold-and-thrust zone and as a dextral transpressional structure. Analysis of structure contours at 100m intervals, on the tops of the Tertiary breccia and the Kimmeridgian (Upper Jurassic) dolomite, indicates that the structure is an upright cylindrical fold with gently plunging conical terminations; there is also a conical portion in the central part of the structure. The axes of the central, NW and SE cones are subvertical. This geometry indicates that the two fold terminations and the central cone are aprons rather than points, with the NW and central cone axes intersecting the cylindrical fold axis at the point where the geometry switches from conical to cylindrical. The apical angle (i.e. the angle between the fold and cone axes) varies as follows: (i) in the NW cone, it is ,70° in the breccia and ,76° in the Kimmeridgian dolomite; (ii) in the central cone, it is ,77° in the breccia and ,73° in the Kimmeridgian dolomite; and (iii) in the SE cone, it is ,64° in the breccia and ,57° in the Kimmeridgian dolomite. This indicates that whereas the fold opens with depth in the NW cone, it tightens with depth in the central and SE cones. Assuming a parallel fold geometry, these apical angles indicate an increase in volume in the NW cone (i.e. larger hydrocarbon reservoirs), compared to the central and SE cones. Theoretical considerations indicate that the curvature increases dramatically towards the point of the cone. In the case of the Cantarell structure, the apices of the cones are located at the conical-cylindrical fold junctions, where the highest curvature may have resulted in a higher degree of fracturing. The coincidence of maximum curvature and the intersection of the conical and cylindrical fold axes in the fold culminations with porous and permeable reservoir rocks may have made these locations favourable for the accumulation of hydrocarbons. [source]


    We use data from 220 individuals in 45 teams to examine team member roles as a cross-level linking mechanism between personality traits and team-level outcomes. At the individual level, peer ratings of task role behavior relate positively with Conscientiousness and negatively with Neuroticism and Extraversion. Peer ratings of social role behavior relate positively with Agreeableness and negatively with Openness to Experience. At the team level, a composition process of aggregation operates such that the mean for social roles corresponds with social cohesion. Compilation processes of aggregation also occur, as the variance of social roles corresponds negatively with task performance, and the variance of task roles corresponds negatively with cohesion. Skew of the distribution for social roles within each team,a measure of critical mass of members individually enacting the role,also correlates with social cohesion. [source]


    Ricky Emanuel
    The author describes the potentially annihilating terror implicit in the experience of contact with the void,the ,domain of the non-existent' or nothingness, conceived as an immensely hostile object, terrifying space or a place of ,nameless dread'. All manifestations of existence are threatened by contact with the void, necessitating the deployment of a variety of defences. These various defences,universally employed to avoid contact with this domain,are then discussed. These include trying to search for a fixed sense of identity that can often propel people to seek refuge inside an object or state of mind, as described in Meltzer's ,claustrum' and Steiner's ,psychic retreat'. Other defences, including distraction and grandiosity, are also described. The author then goes on to discuss techniques for helping patients to tolerate contact with mental states engendered by the threat of potential contact with the void, in order to strengthen their capacity to feel and thus enlarge their repertoire of coping with anxiety in a non-reactive and thus growth-inducing manner. This involves discussion about psychoanalytically informed Buddhist understanding of these states and the nature of identity itself, as well as the correlation between these insights and those offered by Bion and other psychoanalytic writers. [source]


    Xinting Fan
    Abstract Because they are scaled by price, the ability of size (i.e., the market capitalization of a firm) and the book-to-market equity ratio to determine expected returns may, according to Berk (1995), reflect only a simultaneity bias. The two-stage least squares approach is used to control for this bias and to investigate the economic meanings of these variables. We discover that size and the book-to-market ratio contain distinct and significant components of financial distress, growth options, the momentum effect, liquidity, and firm characteristics. Our findings support Berk in his contention that that size and the book-to-market ratio reflect a combination of different economic mechanisms that are misspecified in the expected return process. [source]


    ANZ JOURNAL OF SURGERY, Issue 6 2008
    Andrew J. M. Campbell-Lloyd
    Background: The treatment of common bile duct stones discovered at routine intraoperative cholangiography includes postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiography or intraoperative laparoscopic common bile duct exploration. Given the equivalence of short-term outcome data for these two techniques, the choice of one over the other may be influenced by long-term follow-up data. We aimed to establish the long-term outcomes following laparoscopic common bile duct exploration and compare this with endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Methods: One hundred and fifty consecutive patients underwent laparoscopic common bile duct exploration between March 1998 and March 2006 carried out by a single surgeon. All were prospectively studied for 1 month followed by a late-term phone questionnaire ascertaining the prevalence of adverse symptoms. Patients presented with a standardized series of questions, with reports of symptoms corroborated by review of medical records. Results: In 150 patients, operations included laparoscopic transcystic exploration (135), choledochotomy (10) and choledochoduodenostomy (2). At long-term follow up (mean 63 months), 116 (77.3%) patients were traceable, with 24 (20.7%) reporting an episode of pain and 18 (15.5%) had more than a single episode of pain. There was no long-term evidence of cholangitis, stricture or pancreatitis identified in any patient. Conclusion: Laparoscopic bile duct exploration appears not to increase the incidence of long-term adverse sequelae beyond the reported prevalence of postcholecystectomy symptoms. There was no incidence of bile duct stricture, cholangitis or pancreatitis. It is a safe procedure, which obviates the need and expense of preoperative or postoperative endoscopic retrograde cholangiography in most instances. [source]



    Illustrative Hybrid Visualization and Exploration of Anatomical and Functional Brain Data

    W. M. Jainek
    Abstract Common practice in brain research and brain surgery involves the multi-modal acquisition of brain anatomy and brain activation data. These highly complex three-dimensional data have to be displayed simultaneously in order to convey spatial relationships. Unique challenges in information and interaction design have to be solved in order to keep the visualization sufficiently complete and uncluttered at the same time. The visualization method presented in this paper addresses these issues by using a hybrid combination of polygonal rendering of brain structures and direct volume rendering of activation data. Advanced rendering techniques including illustrative display styles and ambient occlusion calculations enhance the clarity of the visual output. The presented rendering pipeline produces real-time frame rates and offers a high degree of configurability. Newly designed interaction and measurement tools are provided, which enable the user to explore the data at large, but also to inspect specific features closely. We demonstrate the system in the context of a cognitive neurosciences dataset. An initial informal evaluation shows that our visualization method is deemed useful for clinical research. [source]

    Exploration and Exploitation in Innovation: Reframing the Interpretation

    Ying Li
    There has been a burgeoning literature about exploitation and exploration since March's seminal article in 1991. However, in reviewing the extant literature we find different interpretations of both concepts leading to ambiguity and even some inconsistency. This paper focuses in particular on the interpretation of exploration and exploitation in the literature on technological innovation. It addresses two critical research questions. First, what are the different interpretations of exploitation and exploration? Second, how can we set up a framework that reconciles these differences and reduces the ambiguity that we find in the literature? To answer these two questions, we first explain what the root causes of these different viewpoints are. Second, we provide a theoretical framework that integrates the different perspectives, sets up a new typology to define exploration and exploitation, identifies white spaces in the current research and provides guidance for future research. [source]

    Organizational Output Innovativeness: A Theoretical Exploration, Illustrated by a Case of a Popular Music Festival

    Iván Orosa Paleo
    Different interpretations of innovation and innovativeness lead to different approaches and different methods to measure organizational output innovativeness. Two indicators of innovativeness are derived from two divergent approaches: the Referent Innovativeness Index and the Classification Innovativeness Index. The article uses the case of the popular music festival to discuss how these indexes can be operationalized and calculated, as well as to outline the implications of the differences between the methods. [source]

    Late Devonian tetrapod remains from Red Hill, Pennsylvania, USA: how much diversity?

    ACTA ZOOLOGICA, Issue 2009
    Edward B. Daeschler
    Abstract The remains of Late Devonian tetrapods from the Red Hill locality in Pennsylvania help to elucidate the early stages of tetrapod evolution. Red Hill is a particularly informative site that preserves a diverse fauna and flora within a depositional setting suggesting penecontemporaneous deposition of locally derived material. Here, for the first time, we report on the full suite of early tetrapod remains from Red Hill and consider the implications for tetrapod diversity within the Red Hill ecosystem. Previously described material is reviewed and considered in relation to newly reported specimens. New material described includes isolated skull elements (two jugals, a postorbital, a lacrimal and a coronoid) and postcranial elements (a femur and a gastral scale). The characteristics of many of the Red Hill tetrapod specimens conform to the morphological expectations of Late Devonian forms. Several elements, however, illustrate more derived characteristics and strongly suggest the presence of the oldest known whatcheeriid-like tetrapod. This study demonstrates the difficulty in making taxonomic associations with isolated remains, even when found in close proximity to one another. Exploration of the characteristics of each element, however, demonstrates the presence of at least three early tetrapod taxa at the Red Hill site. [source]

    The spatial and temporal patterns of aggradation in a temperate, upland, gravel-bed river

    Emma K. Raven
    Abstract Intensive field monitoring of a reach of upland gravel-bed river illustrates the temporal and spatial variability of in-channel sedimentation. Over the six-year monitoring period, the mean bed level in the channel has risen by 0·17 m with a maximum bed level rise of 0·5 m noted at one location over a five month winter period. These rapid levels of aggradation have a profound impact on the number and duration of overbank flows with flood frequency increasing on average 2·6 times and overbank flow time increasing by 12·8 hours. This work raises the profile of coarse sediment transfer in the design and operation of river management, specifically engineering schemes. It emphasizes the need for the implementation of strategic monitoring programmes before engineering work occurs to identify zones where aggradation is likely to be problematic. Exploration of the sediment supply and transfer system can explain patterns of channel sedimentation. The complex spatial, seasonal and annual variability in sediment supply and transfer raise uncertainties into the system's response to potential changes in climate and land-use. Thus, there is a demand for schemes that monitor coarse sediment transfer and channel response. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Exploration of Stable Sonoelectrocatalysis for the Electrochemical Reduction of Oxygen

    ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 12 2005
    Biljana S, ljuki
    Abstract A series of modified electrodes were prepared both via solvent evaporation and electrochemical cycling of azobenzene and derivatives and various quinones and assessed for their suitability as oxygen reduction electrocatalysts and sonoelectrocatalysts. Glassy carbon electrodes were modified via solvent evaporation with 1,2-dihydroxyanthraquinone and 1,2-diazonium-9,10-anthraquinone while edge plane and basal plane pyrolytic graphite electrodes were modified by the same procedure with 9,10-phenanthraquinone. The stability of the attached moiety was accessed in each case under ultrasound. For comparison the same electrode substrates were modified with 9,10-phenanthraquinone by electrochemical cycling and also exposed to ultrasound. The observed results suggest the use of the glassy carbon electrodes modified with azobenzene and derivatives via solvent evaporation as the optimal carbon based sonoelectrocatalysts for oxygen reduction in term of stability under insonation and high catalytic rate. [source]

    Alternative Knowledge Strategies, Competitive Environment, and Organizational Performance in Small Manufacturing Firms

    Paul E. Bierly III
    This study examines the relationship between knowledge strategy (exploration or exploitation) and performance, and the possible moderating role of external environment variables. Results from a sample of small manufacturing firms indicate that exploration and exploitation are distinct and complementary constructs. The relationship between exploration and performance is linear and positive, while the relationship between exploitation and performance is concave, indicating that there is a point at which focusing on exploitation leads to reduced returns. Additionally, we find that the competitive environment moderates the relationship between exploitation and performance, such that exploitation has a stronger impact on performance in stable and high-tech environments than in dynamic and low-tech environments. Exploration also has a stronger impact on performance in high-tech environments than in low-tech environments. [source]

    Variation and Repeatability of Female Choice in a Chorusing Katydid, Ephippiger ephippiger: an Experimental Exploration of the Precedence Effect

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 4 2004
    Michael D. Greenfield
    Female choice in various species of acoustic insects and anurans entails a psychoacoustic preference for male calls that lead their neighbors by a brief time interval. This discrimination, which can be termed a precedence effect, may select for various mechanisms with which males adjust call rhythm and thus reduce their incidence of ineffective following calls. At a collective level, alternating and synchronous choruses may emerge from these call timing mechanisms. Using playback experiments, we characterized the precedence effect in females of the katydid Ephippiger ephippiger, an alternating choruser in which males use a rhythm adjustment mechanism that prevents calling during brief intervals following their neighbors' calls. E. ephippiger females oriented toward leading male calls in >75% of trials when relatively young (<40 d old) and when playbacks were timed so that following calls began within 100,250 ms of the leading ones. However, this preference declined to below 60% as females aged and the interval separating leading and following call onsets increased. The strength of this precedence effect varied greatly between females, but within broad age classes the effect in a given female was statistically repeatable. Such repeatability indicates the possibility that additive genetic variance could be a significant component of variation in the precedence effect. We discuss the implications of our findings and inference on genetic variance for evolution of the precedence effect and for chorusing. [source]

    Exploration of the functional hierarchy of the basal layer of human epidermis at the single-cell level using parallel clonal microcultures of keratinocytes

    Nicolas O. Fortunel
    Please cite this paper as: Exploration of the functional hierarchy of the basal layer of human epidermis at the single-cell level using parallel clonal microcultures of keratinocytes. Experimental Dermatology 2010. Abstract:, The basal layer of human epidermis contains both stem cells and keratinocyte progenitors. Because of this cellular heterogeneity, the development of methods suitable for investigations at a clonal level is dramatically needed. Here, we describe a new method that allows multi-parallel clonal cultures of basal keratinocytes. Immediately after extraction from tissue samples, cells are sorted by flow cytometry based on their high integrin-,6 expression and plated individually in microculture wells. This automated cell deposition process enables large-scale characterization of primary clonogenic capacities. The resulting clonal growth profile provided a precise assessment of basal keratinocyte hierarchy, as the size distribution of 14-day-old clones ranged from abortive to highly proliferative clones containing 1.7 × 105 keratinocytes (17.4 cell doublings). Importantly, these 14-day-old primary clones could be used to generate three-dimensional reconstructed epidermis with the progeny of a single cell. In long-term cultures, a fraction of highly proliferative clones could sustain extensive expansion of >100 population doublings over 14 weeks and exhibited long-term epidermis reconstruction potency, thus fulfilling candidate stem cell functional criteria. In summary, parallel clonal microcultures provide a relevant model for single-cell studies on interfollicular keratinocytes, which could be also used in other epithelial models, including hair follicle and cornea. The data obtained using this system support the hierarchical model of basal keratinocyte organization in human interfollicular epidermis. [source]

    Defining Factors of Successful University-Community Collaborations: An Exploration of One Healthy Marriage Project

    FAMILY RELATIONS, Issue 1 2009
    Erik L. Carlton
    This study explored university-community collaborations by examining the workings of 1 healthy marriage initiative. An ethnographic case study research strategy was used to study the process of this initiative, specifically looking at how participants worked through and overcame traditional university-community collaboration challenges. Data consist of qualitative interviews with key initiative collaborators. Findings are organized into a model that offers a new way of looking at university-community collaborations in light of challenge points to be addressed and either resolved or unresolved. The model provides implications for other collaborative efforts and outreach scholarship. [source]

    Preparation and Certification of High-Grade Gold Ore Reference Materials (GAu 19-22)

    Tiexin Gu
    materiau de référence certifié; gisement d 'or,GAu 19-22,IGGE,valeurs certifiées Two types of gold deposit with both good homogeneity and a high-grade of gold were selected to prepare four gold ore reference materials (GAu-19,GAu-20,GAu-21 and GAu-22) by the Institute of Geophysical and Geochemical Exploration (IGGE),China. Seven laboratories participated in the certification programme. Volumetric methods for GAu19-21 and atomic absorption spectrometry for GAu-22 were used for the homogeneity testing,the coefficient of variation being found to be less than 3%. After sample digestion and preconcentration,the samples were analysed by flame atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS),colorimetry,neutron activation analysis (NAA)and volumetric analysis. The certified values for the gold concentration in GAu19-22 are 18.3 ,g g -1, 32.3 ,g g -1, 53.0 ,g g -1 and 5.72 ,g g -1,respectively. Deux types de gisements d'or, présentant à la foisune bonne homogénéité et une teneur élevée en or, ont été sélectionnés par l'Institut d 'Exploration Géophysique et Géochimique de Chine (IGGE)afin de préparer quatre matériaux de référence pour l'or (GAu-19,GAu-20,GAu-21 et Gau-22). Sept laboratoires ont participé au programme de certification. Des méthodes volumétriques (GAu-19-21)et de spectrométrie par absorption atomique (GAu 22)ont été utilisées pour tester l'homogénéité de ces échantillons;les coefficients de variation se sont révélés inférieurs à 3%.Après la mise en solution et la préconcentration des échantillons,ceux-ci ont eté analysés par spectrométrie d 'absorption atomique (AAS), colorimétrie,activation neutronique (NAA)et analyse volumétrique.Les valeurs certifiées pour la concentration en or de GAu19-22 sont respectivement de 18.3 ,g.g -1,32.3 ,g g -1, 53.0 ,g g -1 et 5.72 ,g g -1. [source]

    Liver stem cells and hepatocellular carcinoma,

    HEPATOLOGY, Issue 1 2009
    Lopa Mishra
    Although the existence of cancer stem cells (CSCs) was first proposed over 40 years ago, only in the past decade have these cells been identified in hematological malignancies, and more recently in solid tumors that include liver, breast, prostate, brain, and colon. Constant proliferation of stem cells is a vital component in liver tissues. In these renewing tissues, mutations will most likely result in expansion of the altered stem cells, perpetuating and increasing the chances of additional mutations and tumor progression. However, many details about hepatocellular cancer stem cells that are important for early detection remain poorly understood, including the precise cell(s) of origin, molecular genetics, and the mechanisms responsible for the highly aggressive clinical picture of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Exploration of the difference between CSCs from normal stem cells is crucial not only for the understanding of tumor biology but also for the development of specific therapies that effectively target these cells in patients. These ideas have drawn attention to control of stem cell proliferation by the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-,), Notch, Wnt, and Hedgehog pathways. Recent evidence also suggests a key role for the TGF-, signaling pathway in both hepatocellular cancer suppression and endoderm formation, suggesting a dual role for this pathway in tumor suppression as well as progression of differentiation from a stem or progenitor stage. This review provides a rationale for detecting and analyzing tumor stem cells as one of the most effective ways to treat cancers such as HCC. (HEPATOLOGY 2009;49:318,329.) [source]

    Exploration of communication models in the design of distributed embedded systems

    Kazutaka Kobayashi Non-member
    Abstract Distributed embedded systems involve communication in various layers, and therefore their design is more difficult than of single embedded systems. This paper presents how communication exploration can be done in a design process of distributed embedded systems using an example of event-triggered and time-triggered communication. A design process begins from abstract specification without assuming any communication category, then explores the categories in a stepwise manner, followed by physical implementation synthesis. This encourages stepwise decision making, component and framework reuse, and early stage verification. Copyright © 2007 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan© 2007 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

    Exploration of a Standing Mesochannel System with Antimatter/Matter Atomic Probes,

    ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 24 2008
    Hiroyuki K. M. Tanaka
    Positronium, a system consisting of an electron and its antimatter, a positron, offers a new technique to explore vertical accessibility and connectivity. Here, we show how this technique can be used to map out the vertical profile of mesoporous silica channel systems by comparing a standing (perpendicular to the substrate) 2D hexagonal with a lying (parallel to the substrate) 2D hexagonal mesoporous film. [source]

    The Algorithmically Structured Systematic Exploration of Subject's State of Mind.


    Abstract Objective: To develop an interview method that combined the qualities of unstructured interviews, such as openness to unexpected information, and the qualities of structured interviews, such as adequate psychometric properties. Method: The innovative principle of the Algorithmically Structured Systematic Exploration of Subject's State of Mind (Assess_Mind) is to investigate, not the contents of mental phenomenology, but five mental functions , or "registers" , that mediate the experience of patients. The functioning of these registers , affects, fears, desires, memories, and associations of ideas , is explored using a rigorously defined algorithm for interviewing. Scales have been developed to rate 390 interviews on psychopathological dimensions of interest in a study of patients undergoing in vitro fertilization (IVF) treatment. Results: As shown by vignettes from the various registers, the Assess_Mind provides detailed, comprehensive, and deep information on the five registers it investigates. Conclusion: Although the Assess_Mind uses a structured algorithm for data collection, its usefulness as a clinical research tool is based on the width and depth of its coverage of patients' current mental experience. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The Algorithmically Structured Systematic Exploration of Subject's State of Mind: II Reliability and Construct Validity

    Marie-Noëlle Le Mer
    Abstract Objective: To investigate the reliability and validity of a newly developed semistructured interview, the Algorithmically Structured Systematic Exploration of Subject's State of Mind (Assess_Mind). Method: Twelve scales have been developed and used to rate 86 Assess_Mind interviews conducted with patients undergoing in vitro fertilization treatment. For each rating scale, we assessed interrater reliability, interviewer effect, and construct validity. In addition, a factor analysis of scales was performed. To study the validity of scales and of the factors yielded by factor analysis, patients were assessed with a psychopathological battery including the Child Project Questionnaire, the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Perceived Stress Scale, and the Ways of Coping Checklist. Results: For 11 of the 12 scales, interrater reliability was fair to excellent. There was no significant interviewer effect affecting any of the scales. In addition, the validity of nine of these 11 scales was demonstrated by their correlations with questionnaires measuring similar constructs. Conclusion: Nine of the Assess_Mind scales appear to have adequate psychometric properties. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Inspiration into Installation: An Exploration of Contemporary Experience through Art

    Sheridan Horn
    This article discusses the ways in which a fine art department has successfully enabled pupils, staff and the local community to gain access to exciting and wide-ranging art experiences. Through the creation of temporary installations and exhibitions the art department at Trinity School regularly becomes a gallery resource centre for part of the year. Children across all key stages create art inspired by artists in residence (including an artist teacher) in response to challenging contemporary issues. In 2005 three collaborative installations were produced in response to a potentially disruptive phase within the educational establishment. ,Sleep-Eternal Rest' involved pupils' contributions to the installation, gallery visits and the study of different artists' work. For the exhibition ,Flesh, Fur and Feathers', a resident artist worked with students in response to a hanging deer, game and a table laden with fruit. In a building about to be demolished a group of recently graduated artists collaborated on an exhibition entitled ,Somewheretogo'. This collaborative partnership led to art becoming a central resource for different curriculum areas as well as PSHE. The success of the venture led to pupils' own work becoming an accessible artistic resource, to which they themselves could respond. As well as avoiding the potential limitations of examdriven targets and assessment, it became a source of enrichment in personal, educational and creative terms. [source]

    Modelling Audit Risk Assessments: Exploration of an Alternative to the Use of Knowledge-based Systems

    Paul Lloyd
    This paper compares decision-modelling approaches. The decision modelled is the assessment of inherent and control risk in the purchases, accounts payable and inventory cycle. It is modelled using two different approaches. Firstly, knowledge-based models are constructed using established development shells. Secondly, a model is constructed using a conventional procedural programming language. Both modelling approaches are tested against the output of human practitioners and compared to each other to determine if the more restrictive, assumption-laden approach offered by the procedural model is adequate to deal with the decision problem under examination, or if the greater flexibility offered by the knowledge-based approach is required. This comparison yields positive results. The procedural model is able to reproduce satisfactorily the output of the human decision makers and the knowledge-based models for the chosen decision problem. This result emphasises the importance of devoting time to the selection of the most appropriate modelling approach for a given decision problem. [source]

    Studying the incidence of depression: an ,interval' effect

    Jane M. Murphy
    Abstract A review of studies about the incidence of depression suggested that the length of the ,interval' of follow up may influence the findings. Exploration of these issues is carried out using data from the Stirling County Study, an investigation of psychiatric epidemiology in a general population. The study's customary method of diagnosis, DePression and AnXiety (DPAX), and the Diagnostic Interview Schedule (DIS) were used in an incidence investigation whose ,interval' was less than three years. Average annual incidence rates of depression for both DPAX and DIS were about 15 per 1000. Where longer intervals were used in the Stirling Study, rates were close to four per 1000. Projected lifetime risk based on the lower rates was more congruent with reported lifetime prevalence than that based on the higher rates. Irrespective of method, 90% or more of the incident cases gave an onset that predated the initial interview, suggesting poor reliability. This was often due to the fact that information given in the first interview met some but not all of the criteria for diagnosis. Being in the ,borderline' category at the beginning of the study significantly increased incidence. Thus, evidence from the Stirling County Study replicated findings that suggest an ,interval effect' and pointed to the need in incidence studies for distinguishing between the onset of the prodrome and the onset of diagnosable depression. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Diagnoses and Interventions Pertinent to Intellectual Disability Nursing§

    Fintan K. Sheerin BNS, PgDipEd
    PURPOSE.,The field of intellectual disability care in Ireland has been undergoing significant change, and this has called into question the role of specialist intellectual disability nursing. This review aims to identify the diagnoses and interventions that are employed by intellectual disability nurses. DATA SOURCES.,Exploration of the relevant professional literature, drawing on a broad scope of sources, was completed. DATA SYNTHESIS.,Examination and discussion within the taxonomic structure of the Nursing Interventions Classification. CONCLUSIONS.,Initial data set of diagnoses and interventions identified as a basis and justification for further systematic examination of specialist intellectual disability nursing practice. IMPLICATIONS FOR NURSING PRACTICE.,Explication and elaboration of the contribution of specialist nursing within intellectual disability care settings. CUSPÓIR.,D'aistrigh a lán rudaí sna cúram le daoine faoi mhíchumas intleachtach, in Eireann. Dá bharr sin, tháinig ceisteanna faoi páirt den banaltracht speisialta faoi mhíchumas intleachtach. Lorg an athbhreithniú seo cur ceist ar na fáthmheasa agus na headrána den speisialtóir san banaltract le daoine faoi mhíchumas intleachtach. FOINSÍ AN FAISNÉIS.,Taiscealaíocht den litríocht gairmiúil atáábhartha den ábhar. SINTÉIS AN FAISNÉIS.,Scrúdú agus suaitheadh sna cabhail den Nursing Interventions Classification. TÁTAIL.,Foireann na sonraí faoi na fáthmheasa agus na headrána chun scrúdaigh cleachtas den banaltracht speisialta faoi mhíchumas intleachtach. IMPLEACHTAÍ FAOI CLEACHTAS DEN BANALTRACHT.,sMíniú agus saothrú faoi dréacht den speisialtóir san banaltract le daoine faoi mhíchumas intleachtach sna seirbhís sláinte. [source]

    Nursing Diagnosis and Nursing Theory: Exploration of Factors Inhibiting and Supporting Simultaneous Use

    FAAN, Noreen C. Frisch PhD
    PURPOSE. To explore the values and philosophies of nursing theories that inhibit the simultaneous use of nursing diagnosis and nursing theory. SOURCES.Published articles, books, book chapters. DATA SYNTHESIS. Four factors in the literature and reflected in practice may have had a negative influence on the use of nursing diagnoses: (a) commitment to the uniqueness of each person, (b) an abandonment of the nursing process, (c) a perspective that nursing care is an evolving interaction, and (d) a belief that theory-derived language is more articulate and precise than standard classifications. PRACTICE IMPLICATIONS.Strategies for combining theory and diagnoses include emphasizing the diagnostic terms as professional shorthand and permitting flexibility in modifying diagnoses as needed; widely disseminating the concept that classification can be used effectively with newer iterations of the nursing process reflecting circular, simultaneous, and intuitive processes; developing classification language based on concepts of hypothesis and perception; and including diagnostic categories associated with theoretical perspectives. Search terms:Nursing classifications, nursing diagnoses, nursing theory Diagnostics infirmiers et théories de soins: Exploration des facteurs qui freinent et soutiennent leur utilisation simultanée BUT.Explorer les valeurs et les conceptions à la base des théories de soins qui inhibent I'utilisation des diagnostics infirmiers avec les théories de soin. SOURCES.Articles, manuels, chapitres d'ouvrages. SYNTHÈSE DES DONNÉES.Les données de la littérature professionnelle et l'examen de la pratique ont permis d'identifier quatre facteurs qui ont pu avoir une influence négative sur l'utilisation des diagnostics infirmiers: (a) l'importance donnée au caractère unique de chaque personne; (b) l'abandon de la démarche de soins; (c) l'idée que le soin est fait d'interactions en évolution constante; (d) la croyance que le langage découlant de la théorie est plus précis et articulé que les classifications normalisées. IMPLICATIONS POUR LA PRATIQUE.Quelques stratégies pourraient faciliter la combinaison de la théorie et des diagnostics, notamment: souligner le fait que les termes des diagnostics constituent une sorte de sténographie professionnelle et permettre la flexibilité pour les modifier; disséminer le fait que les classifications peuvent être utiles dans une démarche de soin rénovée, reflétant les aspects circulaires, simultanés et intuitifs du raisonnement; développer un langage basé sur les concepts d'hypothéses et de perceptions et inclure des catégories diagnostiques associées à des courants théoriques. Mots-clés:Classifications de soins, diagnostics infirmiers, théories de soins Diagnóstico de enfermagem e teoria de enfermagem: Exploração dos fatores inibidores e estimuladores do seu uso simultâneo OBJETIVO.Explorar os valores e filosofias das teorias de enfermagem que inibem o uso simultâneo dos diagnósticos de enfermagem e das teorias de enfermagem. FONTES.Artigos publicados, livros, capítulos de livros. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS.Quatro fatores citados na literatura e refletidos na prática podem ter tido uma influência negativa no uso dos diagnóstics de enfermagem: (a) compromisso com a singularidade de cada pessoa, (b) um abandono do processo de enfermagem, (c) uma perspectiva de que o cuidado de enfermagem é uma interação que evolui e (d) uma crença de que uma linguagem derivada da teoria é mais articulada e precisa do que classificações padronizadas. IMPLICAÇÕES PARA A PRÁTICA.Estratégias para combinar teoria e diagnósticos incluem enfatizar os termos diagnóstics como uma taquigrafia profissional e permitir flexibilidade para modificar diagnósticos sempre que necessário, disseminando amplamente o conceito de que a classificação pode ser usada efetivamente com novas repetições do processo de enfermagem, refletindo processos circulares, simultâneos e intuitivos; desenvolver uma linguagem de classificação baseada em conceitos de hipótese e percepção; e incluir categorias diagnósticas associadas com perspectivas teóricas. Palavras para busca:Classificações de enfermagem, diagnóstico de enfermagem, teoria de enfermagem Diagnóstico enfermero y teoría enfermera: Exploración de factores que inhiben y apoyan una utilización simultánea PROPÓSITO.Explorar los valores y filosofías de teorías enfermeras, que inhiben la utilización simultánea de diagnósticos y teorías enfermeras. FUENTES.Artículos publicados, libros, capítulos de libros. SÍNTESIS DE LOS DATOS.Cuatro factores reflejados en la práctica y en la bibliografía, pueden haber tenido una influencia negativa en la utilizatión de los diagnósticos de enfermería: (a) compromiso a la singularidad de cada persona, (b) abandono del proceso de enfermería, (c) una perspectiva de que los cuidados de enfermería son una interacción que evoluciona y (d) una creencia de que el lenguaje derivado de la teoría, es más preciso y expresa mejor que las clasificaciones estándar. IMPLICACIONES PARA LA PRÁCTICA.Las estrategias para combinar la teoría y los diagnósticos enfermeros, incluyen: Dar énfasis a los términos diagnósticos como una abreviatura profesional, permitir ser flexible al modificar diagnósticos si es necesario, diseminar ampliamente el concepto de que la clasificación puede usarse eficazmente con nuevas iteraciones del proceso enfermero que reflejen procesos circulares, simultáneos e intuitivos, desarrollar lenguajes de clasificación basados en los conceptos de hipótesis y percepción, Incluir categorías diagnósticas asociadas con perspectivas teóricas. Términos de búsqueda:Diagnósticos enfermeros, clasificaciones enfermeras y teoría enfermera [source]