Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Expression

  • Arrheniu expression
  • Fa expression
  • Fo expression
  • GU expression
  • LPS-induce expression
  • NO expression
  • aberrant expression
  • aberrant gene expression
  • abnormal expression
  • abundant expression
  • ace expression
  • ace2 expression
  • acid expression
  • acidic protein expression
  • actin expression
  • adenoviral expression
  • adhesion molecule expression
  • aggrecan gene expression
  • allele expression
  • allelic expression
  • altered expression
  • altered gene expression
  • analytic expression
  • analytical expression
  • androgen receptor expression
  • anger expression
  • ank expression
  • antigen expression
  • ap expression
  • apc expression
  • app expression
  • approximate expression
  • ar expression
  • arc expression
  • aromatase expression
  • artistic expression
  • atpase expression
  • b expression
  • b-dependent gene expression
  • b7-h1 expression
  • bacterial gene expression
  • basal expression
  • baseline expression
  • bax expression
  • bax protein expression
  • bcl-2 expression
  • bcl-2 protein expression
  • bcl-xl expression
  • bdnf expression
  • behavioral expression
  • bmp-2 expression
  • brain expression
  • c expression
  • c-Fo expression
  • c-fo expression
  • c-fo mrna expression
  • c-kit expression
  • c-met expression
  • c-myc expression
  • cadherin expression
  • car expression
  • catenin expression
  • ccl2 expression
  • ccr5 expression
  • ccr7 expression
  • cd10 expression
  • cd105 expression
  • cd11b expression
  • cd14 expression
  • cd154 expression
  • cd16 expression
  • cd20 expression
  • cd203c expression
  • cd25 expression
  • cd34 expression
  • cd36 expression
  • cd38 expression
  • cd4 expression
  • cd40 expression
  • cd44 expression
  • cd44v6 expression
  • cd63 expression
  • cd86 expression
  • cdc42 expression
  • cdcp1 expression
  • cdx2 expression
  • cell adhesion molecule expression
  • cell expression
  • cell gene expression
  • cell nuclear antigen expression
  • cell surface expression
  • cell type-specific expression
  • cell-free expression
  • cell-specific expression
  • cell-surface expression
  • cellular expression
  • cellular gene expression
  • cftr expression
  • chain expression
  • channel expression
  • chemokine expression
  • chemokine gene expression
  • chemokine receptor expression
  • chromosome expression
  • ck19 expression
  • class i expression
  • class ii expression
  • claudin expression
  • clinical expression
  • clock gene expression
  • closed form expression
  • closed-form expression
  • clusterin expression
  • co-stimulatory molecule expression
  • collagen expression
  • collagen gene expression
  • collagen mrna expression
  • colour expression
  • comparing expression
  • comparing gene expression
  • complex expression
  • concomitant expression
  • concurrent expression
  • conditional expression
  • connexin expression
  • consistent expression
  • constitutive expression
  • continuous expression
  • control expression
  • coordinated expression
  • correct expression
  • costimulatory molecule expression
  • cox-2 expression
  • cox-2 gene expression
  • cox-2 mrna expression
  • cox-2 protein expression
  • cre expression
  • cre recombinase expression
  • crh expression
  • ctgf expression
  • ctla-4 expression
  • cultural expression
  • cutaneous expression
  • cx43 expression
  • cxcl12 expression
  • cxcr3 expression
  • cxcr4 expression
  • cyclin d1 expression
  • cyclin d3 expression
  • cyclin e expression
  • cyclooxygenase-2 expression
  • cytokeratin expression
  • cytokine expression
  • cytokine gene expression
  • cytokine mrna expression
  • cytoplasmic expression
  • d1 expression
  • d3 expression
  • de novo expression
  • decreased expression
  • decreased mrna expression
  • decreased protein expression
  • delayed expression
  • dependent expression
  • detectable expression
  • developmental expression
  • different expression
  • differential expression
  • differential gene expression
  • differential protein expression
  • diffuse expression
  • diminished expression
  • disease expression
  • distinct expression
  • dr expression
  • driving expression
  • dynamic expression
  • dysregulated expression
  • dystrophin expression
  • e expression
  • e-cadherin expression
  • eNO expression
  • eNO protein expression
  • early expression
  • early gene expression
  • ectopic expression
  • efficient expression
  • egfp expression
  • egfr expression
  • elevated expression
  • embryonic expression
  • emotional expression
  • emotional facial expression
  • empirical expression
  • endogenous expression
  • endogenous gene expression
  • endothelial cell expression
  • endothelial expression
  • endothelial growth factor expression
  • energy expression
  • enforced expression
  • enhanced expression
  • enzyme expression
  • epidermal growth factor receptor expression
  • epithelial expression
  • er expression
  • erbb2 expression
  • erk expression
  • estrogen receptor expression
  • ex vivo expression
  • exact expression
  • exclusive expression
  • exogenous expression
  • explicit expression
  • extracellular expression
  • eye-specific expression
  • ezh2 expression
  • ezrin expression
  • facial expression
  • factor expression
  • factor gene expression
  • factor receptor expression
  • fak expression
  • fasl expression
  • fearful expression
  • ferritin expression
  • fgf8 expression
  • fibrillary acidic protein expression
  • fibronectin expression
  • forced expression
  • form expression
  • foxp3 expression
  • foxp3 mrna expression
  • frequent expression
  • full expression
  • functional expression
  • galactosidase expression
  • gdnf expression
  • gene expression
  • general expression
  • genome expression
  • genome-wide expression
  • gfap expression
  • gfp expression
  • glial expression
  • glial fibrillary acidic protein expression
  • global gene expression
  • globin gene expression
  • glut-1 expression
  • glut1 expression
  • glutamate receptor expression
  • greater expression
  • growth factor expression
  • growth factor gene expression
  • growth factor receptor expression
  • grp78 expression
  • h. expression
  • hb-egf expression
  • hedgehog expression
  • hepatic expression
  • hepatic gene expression
  • hepatic mrna expression
  • her-2/neu expression
  • her2 expression
  • heterogeneous expression
  • heterologous expression
  • heterologous gene expression
  • high expression
  • high ezh2 expression
  • high level expression
  • high-level expression
  • highest expression
  • hla-dr expression
  • hla-e expression
  • hla-g expression
  • ho-1 expression
  • hsp expression
  • hsp27 expression
  • hsp70 expression
  • hsp72 expression
  • htert expression
  • htert mrna expression
  • hur expression
  • hydroxylase expression
  • hypothalamic expression
  • i collagen expression
  • i expression
  • i gene expression
  • iNO expression
  • iNO gene expression
  • iNO mrna expression
  • iNO protein expression
  • icam-1 expression
  • id2 expression
  • ido expression
  • igf2 expression
  • ii collagen expression
  • ii expression
  • ii gene expression
  • il-10 expression
  • il-12 expression
  • il-17 expression
  • il-18 expression
  • il-18 mrna expression
  • il-2 expression
  • il-4 expression
  • il-4 mrna expression
  • il-5 expression
  • il-6 expression
  • il-6 mrna expression
  • il-8 expression
  • il-8 mrna expression
  • immediate early gene expression
  • immunohistochemical expression
  • impaired expression
  • inappropriate expression
  • increase expression
  • increased cox-2 expression
  • increased expression
  • increased gene expression
  • increased mrna expression
  • increased protein expression
  • increasing expression
  • individual expression
  • induced cox-2 expression
  • induced expression
  • inducible expression
  • inducible gene expression
  • inducible nitric oxide synthase expression
  • inducible nitric oxide synthase mrna expression
  • inflammatory gene expression
  • insulin gene expression
  • integral expression
  • integrin expression
  • intense expression
  • intracellular cytokine expression
  • intracellular expression
  • intrahepatic expression
  • ion channel expression
  • isg expression
  • isoform expression
  • jun expression
  • ki-67 expression
  • ki67 expression
  • kinetic expression
  • kiss-1 expression
  • kiss1 mrna expression
  • kit expression
  • l1 expression
  • lacz expression
  • large-scale expression
  • lat1 expression
  • late gene expression
  • leptin expression
  • level expression
  • lif expression
  • ligand expression
  • limited expression
  • linear expression
  • linguistic expression
  • liver-specific gene expression
  • lmp1 expression
  • local expression
  • logical expression
  • long-term expression
  • low expression
  • low-level expression
  • lower expression
  • lowest expression
  • luciferase expression
  • macrophage expression
  • marked expression
  • marker expression
  • marker gene expression
  • maternal expression
  • mathematical expression
  • matrix metalloproteinase expression
  • matrix protein expression
  • maximal expression
  • maximum expression
  • mbp expression
  • mcl-1 expression
  • mcp-1 expression
  • membrane expression
  • membrane protein expression
  • membranous expression
  • messenger rna expression
  • metabolic gene expression
  • metalloproteinase expression
  • metallothionein expression
  • mgmt expression
  • mhc class ii expression
  • mhc-ii expression
  • microglial expression
  • microrna expression
  • mirna expression
  • mitf expression
  • mkp-1 expression
  • mmp expression
  • mmp-1 expression
  • mmp-13 expression
  • mmp-2 expression
  • mmp-7 expression
  • mmp-9 expression
  • mmr protein expression
  • model expression
  • moderate expression
  • modified expression
  • molecular expression
  • molecule expression
  • monoallelic expression
  • monocyte adhesion molecule expression
  • monocyte expression
  • mrna expression
  • mrp1 expression
  • muc1 expression
  • muc5ac expression
  • mucin expression
  • mucin gene expression
  • mucosal expression
  • muscle actin expression
  • myod expression
  • nNO expression
  • ncam expression
  • negative expression
  • nestin expression
  • neural cell adhesion molecule expression
  • neurocan expression
  • neuronal expression
  • new expression
  • ngf expression
  • nitric oxide synthase expression
  • nitric oxide synthase mrna expression
  • nmda receptor expression
  • no synthase expression
  • normal expression
  • nos2 expression
  • novel expression
  • novo expression
  • npy expression
  • nrf2 expression
  • nuclear antigen expression
  • nuclear expression
  • occludin expression
  • oncogene expression
  • oncoprotein expression
  • ontogenetic expression
  • opg expression
  • opn expression
  • ornament expression
  • osteopontin expression
  • osteopontin gene expression
  • overt expression
  • oxidase expression
  • oxide synthase expression
  • oxide synthase mrna expression
  • p-akt expression
  • p-cadherin expression
  • p-glycoprotein expression
  • p-gp expression
  • p-selectin expression
  • p16ink4a expression
  • p21waf1 expression
  • p27kip1 expression
  • pai-1 expression
  • pai-1 gene expression
  • pcna expression
  • pd-1 expression
  • pde5 expression
  • peptide expression
  • perforin expression
  • persistent expression
  • pgp expression
  • phenotypic expression
  • phosphatase expression
  • placental expression
  • plasma membrane expression
  • platelet p-selectin expression
  • platelet surface expression
  • political expression
  • pomc gene expression
  • poor expression
  • positive expression
  • possible expression
  • postnatal expression
  • pr expression
  • pr-1 expression
  • prb expression
  • predominant expression
  • preferential expression
  • primary expression
  • prl-3 expression
  • pro-inflammatory cytokine expression
  • pro-inflammatory gene expression
  • proinflammatory cytokine expression
  • proinflammatory gene expression
  • prominent expression
  • proper expression
  • protein expression
  • protein gene expression
  • psa expression
  • pten expression
  • r expression
  • rank expression
  • rankl expression
  • rankl mrna expression
  • rate expression
  • receptor expression
  • receptor gene expression
  • receptor mrna expression
  • receptor protein expression
  • receptor subunit expression
  • recombinant expression
  • recombinant protein expression
  • recombinase expression
  • reduced expression
  • reduced mrna expression
  • reductase expression
  • referring expression
  • region-specific expression
  • regional expression
  • regulated expression
  • regulated gene expression
  • relative expression
  • relative mrna expression
  • renal expression
  • reporter expression
  • reporter gene expression
  • reporter transgene expression
  • restricted expression
  • rhythmic expression
  • ri expression
  • rna expression
  • robust expression
  • runx2 expression
  • s100a6 expression
  • sad expression
  • sdf-1 expression
  • selective expression
  • sequential expression
  • sert expression
  • sex expression
  • sexual expression
  • shh expression
  • significant differential expression
  • significant expression
  • similar expression
  • simple analytical expression
  • simple expression
  • simultaneous expression
  • situ expression
  • sma expression
  • smad4 expression
  • smooth muscle actin expression
  • snail expression
  • snail mrna expression
  • socs3 expression
  • soluble expression
  • sox9 expression
  • sparc expression
  • spatial expression
  • spatio-temporal expression
  • spatiotemporal expression
  • specific expression
  • specific gene expression
  • sry expression
  • stable expression
  • stage-specific expression
  • stat3 expression
  • steroid receptor expression
  • strong expression
  • stronger expression
  • strongest expression
  • subcellular expression
  • subsequent expression
  • subunit expression
  • suppressed expression
  • surface expression
  • surface marker expression
  • surface molecule expression
  • survivin expression
  • sustained expression
  • symptom expression
  • synthase expression
  • synthase mrna expression
  • target gene expression
  • targeted expression
  • tau expression
  • telomerase expression
  • temporal expression
  • temporal gene expression
  • tenascin expression
  • th expression
  • theoretical expression
  • timp-1 expression
  • tissue expression
  • tissue factor expression
  • tissue gene expression
  • tissue specific expression
  • tissue-specific expression
  • total protein expression
  • trait expression
  • transcript expression
  • transcriptional expression
  • transgene expression
  • transgenic expression
  • transient expression
  • transient gene expression
  • transporter expression
  • transporter gene expression
  • trka expression
  • trpv1 expression
  • tubular expression
  • tumor expression
  • type expression
  • type i collagen expression
  • type ii collagen expression
  • type-specific expression
  • ubiquitous expression
  • uniform expression
  • unique expression
  • up-regulated expression
  • upregulated expression
  • variable expression
  • vascular endothelial growth factor expression
  • vcam-1 expression
  • vdr expression
  • vegf expression
  • vegf gene expression
  • vegf mrna expression
  • vegf protein expression
  • vegfr-2 expression
  • verbal expression
  • vimentin expression
  • viral gene expression
  • virulence gene expression
  • virus expression
  • vitro expression
  • vivo expression
  • weak expression
  • weaker expression
  • widespread expression
  • wt1 expression
  • yb-1 expression
  • zap-70 expression
  • zygotic expression

  • Terms modified by Expression

  • expression abnormality
  • expression alone
  • expression alteration
  • expression analysis
  • expression approach
  • expression array
  • expression cassette
  • expression change
  • expression characteristic
  • expression cloning
  • expression consistent
  • expression construct
  • expression data
  • expression data set
  • expression decrease
  • expression decreased
  • expression difference
  • expression domain
  • expression dynamics
  • expression experiment
  • expression increase
  • expression intensity
  • expression inventory
  • expression kinetics
  • expression level
  • expression level change
  • expression libraries
  • expression library
  • expression marker
  • expression measurement
  • expression mechanism
  • expression microarray
  • expression microarray analysis
  • expression only
  • expression pattern
  • expression pattern analysis
  • expression pattern similar
  • expression plasmid
  • expression positively
  • expression products
  • expression profile
  • expression profiling
  • expression program
  • expression rate
  • expression ratio
  • expression recognition
  • expression regulation
  • expression response
  • expression score
  • expression screening
  • expression signature
  • expression similar
  • expression site
  • expression status
  • expression studies
  • expression study
  • expression system
  • expression take
  • expression techniques
  • expression value
  • expression variation
  • expression vector

  • Selected Abstracts


    EVOLUTION, Issue 11 2007
    S. S. Renner
    The northern hemisphere tree genus Acer comprises 124 species, most of them monoecious, but 13 dioecious. The monoecious species flower dichogamously, duodichogamously (male, female, male), or in some species heterodichogamously (two morphs that each produce male and female flowers but at reciprocal times). Dioecious species cannot engage in these temporal strategies. Using a phylogeny for 66 species and subspecies obtained from 6600 nucleotides of chloroplast introns, spacers, and a protein-coding gene, we address the hypothesis (Pannell and Verdú, Evolution 60: 660,673. 2006) that dioecy evolved from heterodichogamy. This hypothesis was based on phylogenetic analyses (Gleiser and Verdú, New Phytol. 165: 633,640. 2005) that included 29,39 species of Acer coded for five sexual strategies (duodichogamous monoecy, heterodichogamous androdioecy, heterodichogamous trioecy, dichogamous subdioecy, and dioecy) treated as ordered states or as a single continuous variable. When reviewing the basis for these scorings, we found errors that together with the small taxon sample, cast doubt on the earlier inferences. Based on published studies, we coded 56 species of Acer for four sexual strategies, dioecy, monoecy with dichogamous or duodichogamous flowering, monoecy with heterodichogamous flowering, or labile sex expression, in which individuals reverse their sex allocation depending on environment,phenotype interactions. Using Bayesian character mapping, we infer an average of 15 transformations, a third of them involving changes from monoecy-cum-duodichogamy to dioecy; less frequent were changes from this strategy to heterodichogamy; dioecy rarely reverts to other sexual systems. Contra the earlier inferences, we found no switches between heterodichogamy and dioecy. Unexpectedly, most of the species with labile sex expression are grouped together, suggesting that phenotypic plasticity in Acer may be a heritable sexual strategy. Because of the complex flowering phenologies, however, a concern remains that monoecy in Acer might not always be distinguishable from labile sex expression, which needs to be addressed by long-term monitoring of monoecious trees. The 13 dioecious species occur in phylogenetically disparate clades that date back to the Late Eocene and Oligocene, judging from a fossil-calibrated relaxed molecular clock. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 9 2007
    Janette A. Steets
    Although a large portion of plant and animal species exhibit intermediate levels of outcrossing, the factors that maintain this wealth of variation are not well understood. Natural enemies are one relatively understudied ecological factor that may influence the evolutionary stability of mixed mating. In this paper, we aim for a conceptual unification of the role of enemies in mating system expression and evolution in both hermaphroditic animals and plants. We review current theory and detail the potential effects of enemies on fundamental mating system parameters. In doing so, we identify situations in which consideration of enemies alters expectations about the stability of mixed mating. Generally, we find that inclusion of the enemy dimension may broaden conditions in which mixed mating systems are evolutionarily stable. Finally, we highlight avenues ripe for future theoretical and empirical work that will advance our understanding of enemies in the expression and evolution of mixed mating in their hosts/victims, including examination of feedback cycles between victims and enemies and quantification of mating system-related parameters in victim populations in the presence and absence of enemies. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 4 2005
    Michael A. D. Goodisman
    Abstract Holometabolous insects inhabit almost every terrestrial ecosystem. The evolutionary success of holometabolous insects stems partly from their developmental program, which includes discrete larval and adult stages. To gain an understanding of how development differs among holometabolous insect taxa, we used cDNA microarray technology to examine differences in gene expression between larval and adult Camponotus festinatus ants. We then compared expression patterns obtained from our study to those observed in the fruitfly Drosophila melanogaster. We found that many genes showed distinct patterns of expression between the larval and adult ant life stages, a result that was confirmed through quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Genes involved in protein metabolism and possessing structural activity tended to be more highly expressed in larval than adult ants. In contrast, genes relatively upregulated in adults possessed a greater diversity of functions and activities. We also discovered that patterns of expression observed for homologous genes in D. melanogaster differed substantially from those observed in C. festinatus. Our results suggest that the specific molecular mechanisms involved in metamorphosis will differ substantially between insect taxa. Systematic investigation of gene expression during development of other taxa will provide additional information on how developmental pathways evolve. [source]


    EVOLUTION, Issue 3 2004
    Dany Garant
    Abstract Despite great interest in sexual selection, relatively little is known in detail about the genetic and environmental determinants of secondary sexual characters in natural populations. Such information is important for determining the way in which populations may respond to sexual selection. We report analyses of genetic and large-scale environmental components of phenotypic variation of two secondary sexual plumage characters (forehead and wing patch size) in the collared flycatcher Ficedula albicollis over a 22-year period. We found significant heritability for both characters but little genetic covariance between the two. We found a positive association between forehead patch size and a large-scale climatic index, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) index, but not for wing patch. This pattern was observed in both cross-sectional and longitudinal data suggesting that the population response to NAO index can be explained as the result of phenotypic plasticity. Heritability of forehead patch size for old males, calculated under favorable conditions (NAO index median), was greater than that under unfavorable conditions (NAO index < median). These changes occurred because there were opposing changes in additive genetic variance (VA) and residual variance (VR) under favorable and unfavorable conditions, with VA increasing and VR decreasing in good environments. However, no such effect was detected for young birds, or for wing patch size in either age class. In addition to these environmental effects on both phenotypic and genetic variances, we found evidence for a significant decrease of forehead patch size over time in older birds. This change appears to be caused by a change in the sign of viability selection on forehead patch size, which is associated with a decline in the breeding value of multiple breeders. Our data thus reveal complex patterns of environmental influence on the expression of secondary sexual characters, which may have important implications for understanding selection and evolution of these characters. [source]


    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 1 2004
    Li-rong Shen
    Abstract, The venomous phospholipase A2 (AcPLA2) coding reading region of the Chinese honeybee (Apis cerana cerana), which is composed of 405 bp encoding a mature glycosylated peptide with 134 amino residues was transformed into the expression vector pETblue-1. Then the recombinant vector was introduced into Escherichia coli Tuner (DE3) plac I for expression. Analysis result of SDS-PAGE showed that the expression products had a protein band of about 15kD. Detection of western blot using ant-European honeybee (Apis mellifera) phospholipase A2 (AmPLA2) polyclonal serum as the first antibody showed that the expression products appeared a special blot same as the native AmPLA2. The result demonstrated that the AcPLA2 peptide had been expressed in E. coli and the AcPLA2 has the similar antigenicity as the AmPLA2. [source]


    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 2 2003
    LIN Xin-da
    Abstract Wg/Wnt signaling is a key signaling pathway in Drosophila. Many genes involved in Wingless(wg) signal transduction pathway downstream of Wg, or it s vertebrate Wg homologue Wnt, have been identified. Transduction of the Wg signal downstream of Wg is mediated by nuclear TCF/LEF-1, through association with Armadillo (Arm),-catenin. Pygopus (pygo) is a new identified component in this pathway. Cellular localization experiment showed that pygo was expressed specifically in the nucleus. The expression profile of pygo in embryos was examined using in situ hybridization. Although pygo expressed ubiquitously in the embryos, it expressed at relatively high level in pre-blastoderm embryos which indicate a high degree of maternally provided message, followed by a low level of ubiquitous zygotic expression. This continues into larval tissues (including wing disc, eye disc and leg disc), where pygo appears to be expressed at low level. Comparison of pygo expression levels, in the wing disc, eye disc and leg disc, showed pygo expression level in the wing disc pouch and leg disc were relative higher. [source]


    INSECT SCIENCE, Issue 1 2003
    LI Zhao-fei
    Abstract Ubiquitin (UBI) plays a very important role in regulated non-lysosomal ATP dependent protein degradation. In the present work, the coding sequence of Spodoptera litura UBI gene was isolated (GenBank Accession No. AF436066). The length of this ORF is 228bp, encoding a protein with Mr of 8.56 kD and isoelectric point of 6.56. Multiple sequence alignment indicated that S. litura UBI is very similar to the homologous proteins of other eukaryotic species and it has 84% identity with S. litura nucleopolyhedrovirus (SpltMNPV) UBI at amino acid level. RT-PCR analysis showed that S. litura UBI gene is ubiquitously expressed in larva tissues which are susceptible to SpltMNPV infection. By constructing E. coli expression vector, S. litura UBI was highly expressed and the recombinant protein was purified using Ni-NTA resin column, and currently further study on the function of S. litura UBI in SpltMNPV infection is underway. [source]


    JOURNAL OF PHYCOLOGY, Issue 5 2009
    Espen Granum
    Diel periodicity and effects of inorganic carbon (Ci) and NO3, on the expression of 11 key genes for primary carbon and nitrogen metabolism, including potential C4 photosynthesis, in the marine diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana Hasle et Heimdal were investigated. Target gene transcripts were measured by quantitative reverse transcriptase,PCR, and some of the gene-encoded proteins were analyzed by Western blotting. The diatom was grown with a 12 h photoperiod at two different Ci concentrations maintained by air-equilibration with either 380 ,L · L,1 (near-ambient) or 100 ,L · L,1 (low) CO2. Transcripts of the principal Ci and NO3, assimilatory genes RUBISCO LSU (rbcL) and nitrate reductase displayed very strong diel oscillations with peaks at the end of the scotophase. Considerable diel periodicities were also exhibited by the ,-carboxylase genes phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC1 and PEPC2) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK), and the Benson,Calvin cycle gene sedoheptulose,bisphosphatase (SBPase), with peaks during mid- to late scotophase. In accordance with the transcripts, there were substantial diel periodicities in PEPC1, PEPC2, PEPCK, and especially rbcL proteins, although they peaked during early to mid-photophase. Inorganic carbon had some transient effects on the ,-carboxylase transcripts, and glycine decarboxylase P subunit was highly up-regulated by low Ci concentration, indicating increased capacity for photorespiration. Nitrogen-starved cells had reduced amounts of carbon metabolic gene transcripts, but the PEPC1, PEPC2, PEPCK, and rbcL transcripts increased rapidly when NO3, was replenished. The results suggest that the ,-carboxylases in T. pseudonana play key anaplerotic roles but show no clear support for C4 photosynthesis. [source]


    RC Melcangi
    The present article summarizes recent observations obtained in our laboratory which clearly indicate that sex steroids exert relevant effects on the peripheral nervous system. In particular, the following important points have emerged: (1) Steroids exert stimulatory actions on the synthesis of the proteins proper of the peripheral myelin (e.g., glycoprotein Po and peripheral myelin protein 22) in vivo and on the Schwann cells in culture; (2) in many cases the actions of hormonal steroids are not due to their native molecular forms but rather to their metabolites (e.g., dihydroprogesterone and tetrahydroprogesterone in the case of progesterone; dihydrotestosterone and 5 alpha-androstane-3 alpha,17 beta -diol in the case of testosterone); (3) the mechanism of action of the various steroidal molecules may involve both classical (progesterone and androgen receptors) and nonclassical steroid receptors (GABA, receptor); and finally, (4) the stimulatory action of steroid hormones on the proteins of the peripheral myelin might have clinical significance in cases in which the rebuilding of myelin is needed (e.g., aging, peripheral injury, demyelinating diseases, and iabetic neuropathy). [source]


    Article first published online: 11 MAR 200
    Conti G.1, Pasquale C.1, Rostami A.3, De Pol A.2, Galimberti D.1, Scarpini E.1, Baron P.L.1, Scarlato G.1 1 Milano Italy, 2 Modena, Italy, 3Philadelphia USA. Nitric oxide (NO), during CNS demyelination, is synthesised in inflammatory cells from L-arginine by the nitric oxide synthases (NOS). NO can subserve different functions, from cytotoxicity to neuroprotection and trigger either necrotic or apoptotic cell death. In this study we detected inducible form of NOS (iNOS) gene expression in experimental allergic neuritis (EAN), induced in Lewis rats by injection of "SP26," emulsified in complete Freund's adjuvant, which clinical, electrical, and pathological features resemble those of "Guillain-Barré" syndrome. Northern blot, single nerve fiber immmunostaining, and immuno-electron microscope showed that both iNOS mRNA and protein were induced in the PNS of EAN rats by day 14 after immunization, at the beginning of EAN clinical signs. However, with the same experimental procedures, we failed to find iNOS expression during Wallerian degeneration following nerve cut. These data support the hypothesis that iNOS regulation has an active role in cell-mediated demyelination. [source]


    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    Robyn Langham


    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    Kelly Dj


    NEPHROLOGY, Issue 1 2002
    JR Rumble


    Jacques Bouveresse
    ABSTRACT The expression ,platonism in mathematics' or ,mathematical platonism' is familiar in the philosophy of mathematics at least since the use Paul Bernays made of it in his paper of 1934, ,Sur le Platonisme dans les Mathématiques'. But he was not the first to point out the similarities between the conception of the defenders of mathematical realism and the ideas of Plato. Poincaré had already stressed the ,platonistic' orientation of the mathematicians he called,Cantorian', as opposed to those who (like himself) were ,pragmatist' ones. I examine in this paper some very perplexing aspects of the use which is made at that time of a number of concepts, particularly ,idealism' (which generally designates what we would call ,mathematical realism') and ,empiricism' (which can designate almost any form of antirealism, even if, like for example intuitionism, it is not empiricist at all). There are, of course, historical reasons that may explain why it was for a time so easy and natural to use the words and the concepts in a way that may seem now very strange and to treat as if they were equivalent the two oppositions: realism/antirealism and idealism/empiricism. [source]

    The CCAAT binding factor can mediate interactions between CONSTANS-like proteins and DNA

    THE PLANT JOURNAL, Issue 3 2006
    Orna Ben-Naim
    Summary CONSTANS-Like (COL) proteins are plant-specific nuclear regulators of gene expression but do not contain a known DNA-binding motif. We tested whether a common DNA-binding protein can deliver these proteins to specific cis-acting elements. We screened for proteins that interact with two members of a subgroup of COL proteins. These COL proteins were Tomato COL1 (TCOL1), which does not seem to be involved in the control of flowering time, and the Arabidopsis thaliana CONSTANS (AtCO) protein which mediates photoperiodic induction of flowering. We show that the C-terminal plant-specific CCT (CO, CO-like, TIMING OF CAB EXPRESSION 1) domain of both proteins binds the trimeric CCAAT binding factor (CBF) via its HAP5/NF-YC component. Chromatin immunoprecipitation demonstrated that TCOL is recruited to the CCAAT motifs of the yeast CYC1 and HEM1 promoters by HAP5. In Arabidopsis, each of the three CBF components is encoded by several different genes that are highly transcribed. Under warm long days, high levels of expression of a tomato HAP5 (THAP5a) gene can reduce the flowering time of Arabidopsis. A mutation in the CCT domain of TCOL1 disrupts the interaction with THAP5 and the analogous mutation in AtCO impairs its function and delays flowering. CBFs are therefore likely to recruit COL proteins to their DNA target motifs in planta. [source]


    BRAIN PATHOLOGY, Issue 1 2005
    Colin L. Crawford MD
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Ai-Hua Pan
    SUMMARY 1ATP-gated P2X receptors in nociceptive sensory neurons participate in the transmission of pain signals from the periphery to the spinal cord. The effect of formalin on the expression of P2X3 receptors in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) was characterized using molecular and immunological approaches and the patch-clamp technique. 2Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with 100 µL of 5% formalin in the planar surface of the hindpaw and were killed 30 min and 1, 3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 h later for in vitro analyses. The expression and distribution of P2X3 receptors in the lumbar spinal cord and in L5/L6 DRG were examined; 24 and 48 h after formalin injection, currents in neurons were examined using whole-cell patch-clamp recording. 3Western blots showed that anti-P2X3 antibody recognized a major monomer of approximately 64 kDa in DRG. Immunoreactivity for P2X3 receptors was detected predominantly in the cytoplasm and plasma membrane of small (< 25 µm) and middle-sized (25,50 µm) DRG neurons. Expression of the P2X3 transcript in the DRG was unchanged 30 min and 1 h after formalin injection, but increased after 12 h. There was no distinct change in P2X3 immunostaining of the spinal cord lamina at 30 min or 1 h after injection, but after 24 h P2X3 labelling increased. At 24 h after the formalin injection, currents in isolated small and middle-sized DRG neurons were increased by 1 µmol/L ,,,-methylene-ATP. These currents were completely inhibited by 1 µmol/L A-317491, a potent and selective P2X3 receptor antagonist. 4These data suggest that formalin injection leads to early upregulation of P2X3 expression in the spinal cord and DRG and that this may be one of the mechanisms giving rise to nociception. [source]


    Wei Zhang
    SUMMARY 1In coronary artery disease, the typical atheromatous plaque consists of a lipid core containing various inflammatory cells and a fibrous cap composed mostly of extracellular matrix. Both matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and inflammation are involved in the initiation of atherosclerotic plaques and plaque instability. 22,3,4˘,5-Tetrahydroxystilbene-2- O -b- d -glucoside (TSG) reduces the blood lipid content and prevents the atherosclerotic process, but the mechanism of action of TSG is unclear. The purpose of the present study was to test whether TSG can suppress MMP activation and inflammation in atherosclerotic rats. 3Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups. Atherosclerosis was induced by feeding rats a hyperlipidaemic diet; TSG (120, 60 or 30 mg/kg per day) was administered by oral gavage. After 12 weeks of treatment, rats were killed (ethyl carbamate 1200 mg/kg) and serum lipids, C-reactive protein (CRP), interleukin (IL)-6 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-a were measured. Haematoxylin,eosin (H&E) staining was used to examine histopathological changes in the aorta. The mRNA and protein expression of MMPs were assayed by reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction, immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Simvastatin (2 mg/kg per day) was administered as a positive control, whereas the vehicle (0.9% NaCl) group served as the untreated control. 4In the present study, TSG significantly and dose-dependently attenuated the hyperlipidaemic diet-induced alterations in serum lipid profile and increases in CRP, IL-6 and TNF-a levels. In addition, TSG normalized the structure of the aortic wall and suppressed the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 at both the mRNA and protein level in the rat aortic wall. 5In summary, TSG suppresses the expression of MMP-2 and MMP-9 and inhibits inflammation in the diet-induced atherosclerotic rats. [source]


    Ji-Hu Sun
    SUMMARY 1The PC12 cell line, which was cloned from a rat adrenal phaeochromocytoma, is a useful model system. It expresses neuronal properties after treatment with nerve growth factor (NGF). The nervous system-specific P2X receptor subtype P2X2 was initially cloned from PC12 cells, but little is known about the expression of other subtypes of P2X receptors in PC12 cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether PC12 cells express the other P2X receptors when exposed to NGF. 2Reverse transcription,polymerase chain reaction at the mRNA level and immunocytochemisty at the protein level showed that, among the seven P2X purinoceptor subtypes, only P2X2 was found to be expressed in undifferentiated PC12 phaeochromocytoma cells, but all seven P2X purinoceptor subtypes were expressed in differentiated PC12 cells treated with 50 µg/mL NGF. 3Electrophysiological recordings indicated that ATP (30 µmol/L) but not ,,,-methylene ATP (,,,-meATP; 30 µmol/L) evoked an inward current in undifferentiated PC12 cells, but both ,,,-meATP and ATP evoked inward currents in differentiated PC12 cells. The results indicate that the NGF-induced P2X receptors expressed in PC12 cells are functional channels. 4The present study suggests that the NGF-induced neuronal phenotype of PC12 cells may be a model for the study of P2X heteromeric receptors. [source]


    Christian Stockmann
    SUMMARY 1The mechanisms controlling the expression of the gene encoding for the hormone erythropoietin (EPO) are exemplary for oxygen-regulated gene expression. In humans and other mammals, hypoxia modulates EPO levels by increasing expression of the EPO gene. An association between polycythaemia and people living at high altitudes was first reported more than 100 years ago. 2Since the identification of EPO as the humoral regulator of red blood cell production and the cloning of the EPO gene, considerable progress has been made in understanding the regulation of EPO gene expression. This has finally led to the identification of a widespread cellular oxygen-sensing mechanism. Central to this mechanism is the transcription factor complex hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1. 3The abundance and activity of HIF-1, a heterodimer of an ,- and ,-subunit, is predominantly regulated by oxygen-dependent post-translational hydroxylation of the ,-subunit. Non-heme ferrous iron containing hydroxylases use dioxygen and 2-oxoglutarate to specifically target proline and an asparagine residue in HIF-1,. As such, the three prolyl hydroxylases (prolyl hydroxylase domain-containing protein (PHD) 1, PHD2 and PHD3) and the asparagyl hydroxylase (factor inhibiting HIF (FIH)-1) act as cellular oxygen sensors. In addition to erythropoiesis, HIF-1 regulates a broad range of physiologically relevant genes involved in angiogenesis, apoptosis, vasomotor control and energy metabolism. Therefore, the HIF system is implicated in the pathophysiology of many human diseases. 4In addition to the tight regulation by oxygen tension, temporal and tissue-specific signals limit expression of the EPO gene primarily to the fetal liver and the adult kidney. [source]


    Ariel H Polizio
    SUMMARY 1Addition of fructose to a rat diet for various periods of time leads to hypertension, hyperinsulinaemia and dyslipidaemia and provides a model for testing oxidative stress parameters in the animals. 2In the present study, oxidative stress generation, the soluble and enzymatic defence system and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) protein expression were investigated in the heart, liver and kidney of rats fed fructose for a period of 1 or 8 months. 3Compared with the control group, fructose-hypertensive rats showed increased in lipid peroxidation only in the heart after both 1 and 8 months of fructose treatment. Changes in the behaviour of the soluble and enzymatic defence system and HO-1 protein expression were different depending on the organ. Increased or unaltered activities of anti-oxidant enzymes were found in the liver and kidney, respectively. Induction of HO-1 prevented the generation of oxidative stress in the liver, where the activity of anti-oxidant defence enzymes was not reduced. Increased expression of HO-1 protein was not able to prevent the generation of oxidative stress in the heart, where fructose treatment diminished the activity of anti-oxidant enzymes. 4The results of the present study demonstrate that upregulation of HO-1 may prevent the generation of oxidative stress only when the anti-oxidant defence system is still operative. [source]

    Increased Expression of p53 Protein Correlates With the Extent of Myocyte Damage in Cardiac Allograft Rejection

    Bernadette K. McLaren MD
    Acute cardiac allograft rejection (ACAR) has been associated with a poor prognosis. The early diagnosis of ACAR necessitates the accurate detection of myocyte damage. Nuclear damage activates p53, a transcription factor that initiates apoptosis and repair. Endomyocardial biopsies (n=25) from 10 cardiac allograft recipients were stained for nuclear p53. The biopsies were divided into rejection groups based on the grading of ACAR: group 1, grade 0; group 2, grade Ia and Ib; group 3, grades II and III. While clinical indices did not correlate with myocyte damage, significantly more myocytes in group 3 stained for nuclear p53 (2.48±0.60/mm2) compared with group 1 (0.22±0.12/mm2) and group 2 (0.43±0.18/mm2). Increased expression of p53 in cardiac myocytes with grade II or grade III rejection provides an objective quantification as an aid in the diagnosis of ACAR. [source]

    Scn3b knockout mice exhibit abnormal sino-atrial and cardiac conduction properties

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2010
    P. Hakim
    Abstract Aim:, In contrast to extensive reports on the roles of Nav1.5 , -subunits, there have been few studies associating the , -subunits with cardiac arrhythmogenesis. We investigated the sino-atrial and conduction properties in the hearts of Scn3b,/, mice. Methods:, The following properties were compared in the hearts of wild-type (WT) and Scn3b,/, mice: (1) mRNA expression levels of Scn3b, Scn1b and Scn5a in atrial tissue. (2) Expression of the ,3 protein in isolated cardiac myocytes. (3) Electrocardiographic recordings in intact anaesthetized preparations. (4) Bipolar electrogram recordings from the atria of spontaneously beating and electrically stimulated Langendorff-perfused hearts. Results:,Scn3b mRNA was expressed in the atria of WT but not Scn3b,/, hearts. This was in contrast to similar expression levels of Scn1b and Scn5a mRNA. Immunofluorescence experiments confirmed that the ,3 protein was expressed in WT and absent in Scn3b,/, cardiac myocytes. Lead I electrocardiograms from Scn3b,/, mice showed slower heart rates, longer P wave durations and prolonged PR intervals than WT hearts. Spontaneously beating Langendorff-perfused Scn3b,/, hearts demonstrated both abnormal atrial electrophysiological properties and evidence of partial or complete dissociation of atrial and ventricular activity. Atrial burst pacing protocols induced atrial tachycardia and fibrillation in all Scn3b,/, but hardly any WT hearts. Scn3b,/, hearts also demonstrated significantly longer sinus node recovery times than WT hearts. Conclusion:, These findings demonstrate, for the first time, that a deficiency in Scn3b results in significant atrial electrophysiological and intracardiac conduction abnormalities, complementing the changes in ventricular electrophysiology reported on an earlier occasion. [source]

    Expression of Na+/HCO3, co-transporter proteins (NBCs) in rat and human skeletal muscle

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 1 2004
    J. M. Kristensen
    Abstract Aim:, Sodium/bicarbonate co-transport (NBC) has been suggested to have a role in muscle pH regulation. We investigated the presence of NBC proteins in rat and human muscle samples and the fibre type distribution of the identified NBCs. Methods and results:, Western blotting of muscle homogenates and sarcolemmal membranes (sarcolemmal giant vesicles) were used to screen for the presence of NBCs. Immunohistochemistry was used for the subcellular localization. The functional test revealed that approximately half of the pH recovery in sarcolemmal vesicles produced from rat muscle is mediated by bicarbonate-dependent transport. This indicates that the NBCs are preserved in the vesicles. The western blotting experiments demonstrated the existence of at least two NBC proteins in skeletal muscle. One NBC protein (approximately 150 kDa) seems to be related to the kidney/pancreas/heart isoform NBC1, whereas the other protein (approximately 200 kDa) is related to the NBC4 isoform. The two NBC proteins represent the electrogenic isoforms named NBCe1 and NBCe2. Membrane fractionation and immunofluorescence techniques confirmed that the two NBCs are located in the sarcolemmal membrane as well as in some internal membranes, probably the T-tubules. The two NBCs localized in muscle have distinct fibre type distributions. Conclusions:, Skeletal muscle possesses two variants of the sodium/bicarbonate co-transporter (NBC) isoforms, which have been called NBCe1 and NBCe2. [source]

    Simultaneous flow cytometric detection of basophil activation marker CD63 and intracellular phosphorylated p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in birch pollen allergy,

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 1 2009
    Nicolaas E. Aerts
    Abstract Background: Phosphorylation of p38 MAPK is a crucial step in IgE-receptor signaling in basophils. The relation of p38 MAPK to the well-validated diagnostic cell surface marker CD63 has not been evaluated in a clinical allergy model. Methods: Expression of CD63 and phosphorylation of p38 MAPK were analyzed flow cytometrically in anti-IgE-gated basophils from 18 birch pollen allergic patients, five grass pollen allergic patients, and five healthy individuals, after 3 and 20 min of stimulation with recombinant major birch pollen allergen (rBet v 1). Additional time points and the influence of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 were studied in birch pollen allergic patients. Results: Phospho-p38 MAPK and CD63 were expressed dose-dependently in birch pollen allergic patient basophils within 1 minute of rBet v 1 stimulation. P38 MAPK phosphorylation was fastest and subsided gradually while CD63 expression remained elevated for at least 20 min. Inhibition of p38 MAPK significantly inhibited CD63 upregulation. With optimal stimulation of the cells (1 ,g/mL), sensitivity and specificity for the discrimination between patients and a group of control individuals (grass pollen allergic patients and healthy controls) were 94% and 100% for CD63 at 3 and 20 min and for phospho-p38 MAPK at 3 min. Conclusion: Antigen-induced p38 MAPK phosphorylation in human basophils essentially contributes to CD63 upregulation. It is a sensitive and specific intracellular marker for allergy diagnosis and offers new insight into the mechanisms of basophil activation. © 2008 Clinical Cytometry Society [source]

    Unsupervised immunophenotypic profiling of chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    CYTOMETRY, Issue 3 2006
    Luzette K. Habib
    Abstract Background Proteomics and functional genomics have revolutionized approaches to disease classification. Like proteomics, flow cytometry (FCM) assesses concurrent expression of many proteins, with the advantage of using intact cells that may be differentially selected during analysis. However, FCM has generally been used for incremental marker validation or construction of predictive models based on known patterns, rather than as a tool for unsupervised class discovery. We undertook a retrospective analysis of clinical FCM data to assess the feasibility of a cell-based proteomic approach to FCM by unsupervised cluster analysis. Methods Multicolor FCM data on peripheral blood (PB) and bone marrow (BM) lymphocytes from 140 consecutive patients with B-cell chronic lymphoproliferative disorders (LPDs), including 81 chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLLs), were studied. Expression was normalized for CD19 totals, and recorded for 10 additional B-cell markers. Data were subjected to hierarchical cluster analysis using complete linkage by Pearson's correlation. Analysis of CLL in PB samples (n = 63) discovered three major clusters. One cluster (14 patients) was skewed toward "atypical" CLL and was characterized by high CD20, CD22, FMC7, and light chain, and low CD23. The remaining two clusters consisted almost entirely (48/49) of cases recorded as typical BCLL. The smaller "typical" BCLL cluster differed from the larger cluster by high CD38 (P = 0.001), low CD20 (P = 0.001), and low CD23 (P = 0.016). These two typical BCLL clusters showed a trend toward a difference in survival (P = 0.1090). Statistically significant cluster stability was demonstrated by expanding the dataset to include BM samples, and by using a method of random sampling with replacement. Conclusions This study supports the concept that unsupervised immunophenotypic profiling of FCM data can yield reproducible subtypes of lymphoma/chronic leukemia. Expanded studies are warranted in the use of FCM as an unsupervised class discovery tool, akin to other proteomic methods, rather than as a validation tool. © 2006 International Society for Analytical Cytology [source]

    Reduced calcium tolerance in rat cardiomyocytes after myocardial infarction

    ACTA PHYSIOLOGICA, Issue 4 2002
    I. Sjaastad
    ABSTRACT During ischaemia and reperfusion the intracellular Na+ concentration is elevated in the cardiomyocytes and the cells are depolarized, both favouring reverse mode Na,Ca-exchange loading of the cell with Ca2+. We examined whether cardiomyocytes from rats with congestive heart failure (CHF) and younger rats (HINCX) which both have a high expression of the Na,Ca-exchanger protein (NCX) showed reduced tolerance to extracellular Ca2+. The CHF was induced in Isofluran anaesthetized rats by left coronary artery ligation. Isolated cardiomyocytes were loaded with Fura-2AM and 140 mm Na+ and exposed to 0.05 mm Ca2+. Expression of the Na,Ca-exchanger protein was analysed. Fura-2 340/380 ratio rose more rapidly in HINCX and CHF than in SHAM, and the rise was abolished by Ni2+. Hypercontracture developed more frequently in HINCX and CHF than in SHAM cells. The amount of NCX was 54% higher in HINCX and 76% higher in CHF compared with SHAM. Na+ -loaded cardiomyocytes from CHF and HINCX rats are more susceptible to Ca2+ overload than SHAM cells because of the increased capacity for Na,Ca-exchange. [source]

    A cytoskeletal tropomyosin can compromise the structural integrity of skeletal muscle

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 9 2009
    Anthony J. Kee
    Abstract We have identified a number of extra-sarcomeric actin filaments defined by cytoskeletal tropomyosin (Tm) isoforms. Expression of a cytoskeletal Tm (Tm3) not normally present in skeletal muscle in a transgenic mouse resulted in muscular dystrophy. In the present report we show that muscle pathology in this mouse is late onset (between 2 and 6 months of age) and is predominately in the back and paraspinal muscles. In the Tm3 mice, Evans blue dye uptake in muscle and serum levels of creatine kinase were markedly increased following downhill exercise, and the force drop following a series of lengthening contractions in isolated muscles (extensor digitorum longus) was also significantly increased in these mice. These results demonstrate that expression of an inappropriate Tm in skeletal muscle results in increased susceptibility to contraction-induced damage. The extra-sarcomeric actin cytoskeleton therefore may have an important role in protecting the muscle from contractile stress. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2009. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Expression and alternative splicing of N-RAP during mouse skeletal muscle development,

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 12 2008
    Shajia Lu
    Abstract N-RAP alternative splicing and protein localization were studied in developing skeletal muscle tissue from pre- and postnatal mice and in fusing primary myotubes in culture. Messages encoding N-RAP-s and N-RAP-c, the predominant isoforms of N-RAP detected in adult skeletal muscle and heart, respectively, were present in a 5:1 ratio in skeletal muscle isolated from E16.5 embryos. N-RAP-s mRNA levels increased three-fold over the first 3 weeks of postnatal development, while N-RAP-c mRNA levels remained low. N-RAP alternative splicing during myotube differentiation in culture was similar to the pattern observed in embryonic and neonatal muscle, with N-RAP-s expression increasing and N-RAP-c mRNA levels remaining low. In both developing skeletal muscle and cultured myotubes, N-RAP protein was primarily associated with developing myofibrillar structures containing ,-actinin, but was not present in mature myofibrils. The results establish that N-RAP-s is the predominant spliced form of N-RAP present throughout skeletal muscle development. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2008. Published 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The Arabidopsis class VIII myosin ATM2 is involved in endocytosis

    CYTOSKELETON, Issue 6 2008
    Amirali Sattarzadeh
    Abstract Members of the class XI of the myosin superfamily comprising higher plant, actin-based molecular motors have been shown to be involved in peroxisome and Golgi vesicle trafficking comparable to yeast and animal class V myosins. The tasks of the second class of myosins of higher plants, class VIII, are unclear. In this study the class VIII myosin ATM2 from the model plant Arabidopsis thaliana was selected for the examination of cargo specificity in vivo. Fluorescent protein-fusion plasmid constructs with fragments of the ATM2 cDNA were generated and used for Agrobacterium tumefaciens -based transient transformation of Nicotiana benthamiana leaves. The resulting subcellular localization patterns were recorded by live imaging with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in epidermal leaf cells. Expression of a nearly full-length construct displayed labeling of filaments and vesicles, a head + neck fragment led to decoration of filaments only. However, expression of fluorescent protein-tagged C-terminal tail domain constructs labeled vesicular structures of different appearance. Most importantly, coexpression of different RFP/YFP-ATM2 tail fusion proteins showed colocalization and, hence, binding to the same type of vesicular target. Further coexpression experiments of RFP/YFP-ATM2 tail fusion proteins with the endosomal marker FYVE and the endosomal tracer FM4-64 demonstrated colocalization with endosomes. Colocalization was also detected by expression of the CFP-tagged membrane receptor BRI1 as marker, which is constantly recycled via endosomes. Occasionally the ATM2 tail targeted to sites at the plasma membrane closely resembling the pattern obtained upon expression of the YFP-ATM1 C-terminal tail. ATM1 is known for its localization at the plasma membrane at sites of plasmodesmata. Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]