Distribution by Scientific Domains

Kinds of Exhumation

  • rapid exhumation

  • Terms modified by Exhumation

  • exhumation history
  • exhumation paths
  • exhumation rate

  • Selected Abstracts

    Exhumation during oblique transpression: The Feiran,Solaf region, Egypt

    T. S. ABU-ALAM
    Abstract The Feiran,Solaf metamorphic complex of Sinai, Egypt, is one of the highest grade metamorphic complexes of a series of basement domes that crop out throughout the Arabian-Nubian Shield. In the Eastern Desert of Egypt these basement domes have been interpreted as metamorphic core complexes exhumed in extensional settings. For the Feiran,Solaf complex an interpretation of the exhumation mechanism is difficult to obtain with structural arguments as all of its margins are obliterated by post-tectonic granites. Here, metamorphic methods are used to investigate its tectonic history and show that the complex was characterized by a single metamorphic cycle experiencing peak metamorphism at ,700,750 C and 7,8 kbar and subsequent isothermal decompression to ,4,5 kbar, followed by near isobaric cooling to 450 C. Correlation of this metamorphic evolution with the deformation history shows that peak metamorphism occurred prior to the compressive deformation phase D2, while the compressive D2 and D3 deformation occurred during the near isothermal decompression phase of the P,T loop. We interpret the concurrence of decompression of the P,T path and compression by structural shortening as evidence for the Najd fault system exhuming the complex in an oblique transpressive regime. However, final exhumation from ,15 km depth must have occurred due to an unrelated mechanism. [source]

    Cenozoic Exhumation of Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica: Evidence from Apatite Fission-track Thermochronology

    Xuanhua CHEN
    Abstract: Does Cenozoic exhumation occur in the Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica? In the present paper, we conducted an apatite fission-track thermochronologic study across the Larsemann Hills of East Antarctica. Our work reveals a Cenozoic exhumation event at 49.8 12 Ma, which we interpret to be a result of exhumation caused by crustal extension. Within the uncertainty of our age determination, the timing of extension in East Antarctica determined by our study is coeval with the onset time of rifting in West Antarctica at c.55 Ma. The apatite fission-track cooling ages vary systematically in space, indicating a coherent block rotation of the Larsemann Hills region from c.50 Ma to c.10 Ma. This pattern of block tilting was locally disrupted by normal faulting along the Larsemann Hills detachment fault at c.5.4 Ma. The regional extension in the Larsemann Hills, East Antarctica was the result of tectonic evolution in this area, and may be related to the global extension. Through the discussion of Pan-Gondwanaland movement, and Mesozoic and Cenozoic extensions in West and East Antarctica and adjacent areas, we suggest that the protracted Cenozoic cooling over the Larsemann Hills area was caused by extensional tectonics related to separation and formation of the India Ocean at the time of Gondwanaland breakup. [source]

    Cenozoic Exhumation and Thrusting in the Northern Qilian Shan, Northeastern Margin of the Tibetan Plateau: Constraints from Sedimentological and Apatite Fission-Track Data

    Zhaojie GUO
    Abstract: The Qilian Shan lies along the northeastern edge of the Tibetan Plateau. To constrain its deformation history, we conducted integrated research on Mesozoic,Cenozoic stratigraphic sections in the Jiuxi Basin immediately north of the mountain range. Paleocurrent measurements, sandstone compositional data, and facies analysis of Cenozoic stratigraphic sections suggest that the Jiuxi Basin received sediments from the Altyn Tagh Range in the northwest, initially in the Oligocene (,33 Ma), depositing the Huoshaogou Formation in the northern part of the basin. Later, the source area of the Jiuxi Basin changed to the Qilian Shan in the south during Late Oligocene (,27 Ma), which led to the deposition of the Baiyanghe Formation. We suggest that uplift of the northern Qilian Shan induced by thrusting began no later than the Late Oligocene. Fission-track analysis of apatite from the Qilian Shan yields further information about the deformation history of the northern Qilain Shan and the Jiuxi Basin. It shows that a period of rapid cooling, interpreted as exhumation, initiated in the Oligocene. We suggest that this exhumation marked the initial uplift of the Qilian Shan resulting from the India,Asia collision. [source]

    40Ar/39Ar Dating of Deformation Events and Reconstruction of Exhumation of Ultrahigh-Pressure Metamorphic Rocks in Donghai, East China

    LI Jinyi
    Abstract Recent investigations reveal that the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) rocks in the Donghai region of East China underwent ductile and transitional ductile-brittle structural events during their exhumation. The earlier ductile deformation took place under the condition of amphibolite facies and the later transitional ductile-brittle deformation under the condition of greenschist facies. The hanging walls moved southeastward during both of these two events. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of muscovites from muscovite-plagioclase schists in the Haizhou phosphorous mine, which are structurally overlain by UHPM rocks, yields a plateau age of 218.02.9 Ma and isochron age of 219.8Ma, indicating that the earlier event of the ampibolite-facies deformation probably took place about 220 Ma ago. The 40Ar/39Ar dating of oriented amphiboles parallel to the movement direction of the hanging wall on a decollement plane yields a plateau age of 213.1 0.3 Ma and isochron age of 213.44.1 Ma, probably representing the age of the later event. The dating of pegmatitic biotites and K-feldspars near the decollement plane from the eastern Fangshan area yield plateau ages of 203.40.3 Ma, 203.60.4 Ma and 204.82.2 Ma, and isochron ages of 204.02.0 Ma, 200.63.1 Ma and 204.05.0 Ma, respectively, implying that the rocks in the studied area had not been cooled down to closing temperature of the dated biotites and K-feldspars until the beginning of the Jurassic (about 204 Ma). The integration of these data with previous chronological ages on the ultrahigh-pressure metamorphism lead to a new inference on the exhumation of the UHPM rocks. The UHPM rocks in the area were exhumed at the rate of 3,4 km/Ma from the mantle (about 80,100 km below the earth's surface at about 240 Ma) to the lower crust (at the depth of about 20-30km at 220 Ma), and at the rate of 1,2 km/Ma to the middle crust (at the depth of about 15 km at 213 Ma), and then at the rate of less than 1 km/Ma to the upper crust about 10 km deep at about 204 Ma. [source]

    Multi-phase evolution of gnammas (weathering pits) in a Holocene deglacial granite landscape, Minnesota (USA)

    David Domnguez-Villar
    Abstract The morphometry of 85 gnammas (weathering pits) from Big Stone County in western Minnesota allows the assessment of the relative ages of the gnamma population. The ratio between maximum and minimum depths is independent of the initial size of the cavity and only depends on the weathering evolution. Therefore, the distribution of depth ratios can be used to assess the gnamma population age and the history of weathering. The asymmetrical distribution of depth ratios measured in Big Stone County forms three distinct populations. When these sets are analyzed independently, the correlation (r2) between maximum and minimum depths is greater than 095. Each single population has a normal distribution of depth ratios and the average depth ratios (, -value) for each population are ,1 = 160 005, ,2 = 209 004 and ,3 = 242 008. The initiation of gnamma formation followed the exhumation of the granite in the region. This granite was till and saprolite covered upon retreat of the ice from the Last Glacial Maximum. Nearby outcrops are striated, but the study site remained buried until it was exhumed by paleofloods issuing from a proglacial lake. These Holocene-aged gnammas in western Minnesota were compared with gnammas of other ages from around the world. Our new results are in accordance with the hypothesis that , -values represent the evolution of gnammas with time under temperate- to cold-climate dynamics. Phases of the formation of new gnammas may result from changes in weathering processes related to climate changes. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Cathedral Cave, Wellington Caves, New South Wales, Australia.

    A multiphase, non-fluvial cave
    Abstract Cathedral Cave is an outstanding example of a class of multiphase caves with largely non-fluvial origins. It contains large cavities such as cathedrals and cupolas, characteristic of excavation by convection currents in rising waters. Smaller-scale features such as rising half-tubes, pseudonotches, curved juts, projecting corners, blades and bridges indicate intersection and exhumation of older cavities during the formation of younger ones. It is possible to recognize at least ten significant phases of speleogenesis by morphostratigraphy, in addition to the four generations of cave-filling palaeokarst deposits intersected by the cave. The cave we see today results from the progressive integration of a number of previously disconnected or poorly connected solution cavities. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Long-term landscape evolution: linking tectonics and surface processes

    Paul Bishop
    Abstract Research in landscape evolution over millions to tens of millions of years slowed considerably in the mid-20th century, when Davisian and other approaches to geomorphology were replaced by functional, morphometric and ultimately process-based approaches. Hack's scheme of dynamic equilibrium in landscape evolution was perhaps the major theoretical contribution to long-term landscape evolution between the 1950s and about 1990, but it essentially ,looked back' to Davis for its springboard to a viewpoint contrary to that of Davis, as did less widely known schemes, such as Crickmay's hypothesis of unequal activity. Since about 1990, the field of long-term landscape evolution has blossomed again, stimulated by the plate tectonics revolution and its re-forging of the link between tectonics and topography, and by the development of numerical models that explore the links between tectonic processes and surface processes. This numerical modelling of landscape evolution has been built around formulation of bedrock river processes and slope processes, and has mostly focused on high-elevation passive continental margins and convergent zones; these models now routinely include flexural and denudational isostasy. Major breakthroughs in analytical and geochronological techniques have been of profound relevance to all of the above. Low-temperature thermochronology, and in particular apatite fission track analysis and (U,Th)/He analysis in apatite, have enabled rates of rock uplift and denudational exhumation from relatively shallow crustal depths (up to about 4 km) to be determined directly from, in effect, rock hand specimens. In a few situations, (U,Th)/He analysis has been used to determine the antiquity of major, long-wavelength topography. Cosmogenic isotope analysis has enabled the determination of the ,ages' of bedrock and sedimentary surfaces, and/or the rates of denudation of these surfaces. These latter advances represent in some ways a ,holy grail' in geomorphology in that they enable determination of ,dates and rates' of geomorphological processes directly from rock surfaces. The increasing availability of analytical techniques such as cosmogenic isotope analysis should mean that much larger data sets become possible and lead to more sophisticated analyses, such as probability density functions (PDFs) of cosmogenic ages and even of cosmogenic isotope concentrations (CICs). PDFs of isotope concentrations must be a function of catchment area geomorphology (including tectonics) and it is at least theoretically possible to infer aspects of source area geomorphology and geomorphological processes from PDFs of CICs in sediments (,detrital CICs'). Thus it may be possible to use PDFs of detrital CICs in basin sediments as a tool to infer aspects of the sediments' source area geomorphology and tectonics, complementing the standard sedimentological textural and compositional approaches to such issues. One of the most stimulating of recent conceptual advances has followed the considerations of the relationships between tectonics, climate and surface processes and especially the recognition of the importance of denudational isostasy in driving rock uplift (i.e. in driving tectonics and crustal processes). Attention has been focused very directly on surface processes and on the ways in which they may ,drive' rock uplift and thus even influence sub-surface crustal conditions, such as pressure and temperature. Consequently, the broader geoscience communities are looking to geomorphologists to provide more detailed information on rates and processes of bedrock channel incision, as well as on catchment responses to such bedrock channel processes. More sophisticated numerical models of processes in bedrock channels and on their flanking hillslopes are required. In current numerical models of long-term evolution of hillslopes and interfluves, for example, the simple dependency on slope of both the fluvial and hillslope components of these models means that a Davisian-type of landscape evolution characterized by slope lowering is inevitably ,confirmed' by the models. In numerical modelling, the next advances will require better parameterized algorithms for hillslope processes, and more sophisticated formulations of bedrock channel incision processes, incorporating, for example, the effects of sediment shielding of the bed. Such increasing sophistication must be matched by careful assessment and testing of model outputs using pre-established criteria and tests. Confirmation by these more sophisticated Davisian-type numerical models of slope lowering under conditions of tectonic stability (no active rock uplift), and of constant slope angle and steady-state landscape under conditions of ongoing rock uplift, will indicate that the Davis and Hack models are not mutually exclusive. A Hack-type model (or a variant of it, incorporating slope adjustment to rock strength rather than to regolith strength) will apply to active settings where there is sufficient stream power and/or sediment flux for channels to incise at the rate of rock uplift. Post-orogenic settings of decreased (or zero) active rock uplift would be characterized by a Davisian scheme of declining slope angles and non-steady-state (or transient) landscapes. Such post-orogenic landscapes deserve much more attention than they have received of late, not least because the intriguing questions they pose about the preservation of ancient landscapes were hinted at in passing in the 1960s and have recently re-surfaced. As we begin to ask again some of the grand questions that lay at the heart of geomorphology in its earliest days, large-scale geomorphology is on the threshold of another ,golden' era to match that of the first half of the 20th century, when cyclical approaches underpinned virtually all geomorphological work. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Growth and albitization of K-feldspar in crystalline rocks in the shallow crust: a tracer for fluid circulation during exhumation?

    GEOFLUIDS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 2 2003
    M. B. Holness
    Abstract A general feature of medium- to coarse-grained, sheet-silicate bearing, quartzo-feldspathic rocks of either metamorphic or igneous affinity is the retrograde development of lenses of pure K-feldspar at the grain boundaries between sheet silicate (0 0 1) faces and original feldspar grains. The growth of these lenses acts to displace and deform the sheet silicate grain by a force of crystallization, although the substrate feldspar and adjacent quartz are not deformed. Subsequent to the growth of the lenses they are replaced to variable degrees by pure albite, which grows into the lens from the substrate feldspar behind an irregular replacement front. The composition and texture of both K-feldspar and replacive albite suggest a strong affinity with authigenic feldspars, although it is considered likely that the K-feldspar of the lenses is derived from low-temperature biotite-breakdown reactions. A model is proposed whereby the lenses grow into open pores at dilatant sites in response to infiltration of aqueous fluids as the crystalline rocks are exhumed under brittle conditions. Continued circulation of infiltrating fluids in a temperature gradient results in the replacement of K-feldspar by albite via an alkali exchange process. The lenses point to a significant grain-scale permeability in crystalline rock at shallow levels in the crust. [source]

    Deformation during exhumation of medium- and high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Variscan chain in northern Sardinia (Italy)

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3 2009
    Rodolfo Carosi
    Abstract The Anglona and SW Gallura regions represent key places to investigate the tectonic evolution of medium- and high-grade metamorphic rocks cropping out in northern Sardinia (Italy). From south to north we distinguish two different metamorphic complexes recording similar deformation histories but different metamorphic evolution: the Medium Grade Metamorphic Complex (MGMC) and the High Grade Metamorphic Complex (HGMC). After the initial collisional stage (D1 deformation phase), both complexes were affected by three contractional deformational phases (D2, D3 and D4) followed by later extensional tectonics. The D2 deformation phase was the most significant event producing an important deformation partitioning that produced localized shearing and folding domains at the boundary between the two metamorphic complexes. We highlight the presence of two previously undocumented systems of shear belts with different kinematics but analogous orientation in the axial zone of Sardinia. They became active at the boundary between the MGMC and HGMC from the beginning of D2. They formed a transpressive regime responsible for the exhumation of the medium- and high-grade metamorphic rocks, and overall represent a change from orthogonal to orogen-parallel tectonic transport. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Deformation history of the eclogite- and jadeitite-bearing mlange from North Motagua Fault Zone, Guatemala: insights in the processes of a fossil subduction channel

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 2 2009
    Michele Marroni
    Abstract In Guatemala, along the northern side of the Motagua Valley, a mlange consisting of blocks of eclogite and jadeitite set in a metaserpentinitic and metasedimentary matrix crops out. The metasedimentary rocks display a complex deformation history that includes four tectonic phases, from D1 to D4. The D1 phase occurs only as a relic and is characterized by a mineral assemblage developed under pressure temperature (P,T) conditions of 1.00,1.25,GPa and 206,263C. The D2 phase, characterized by isoclinal folds, schistosity and mineral/stretching lineation, developed at P,T conditions of 0.70,1.20,GPa and 279,409C. The following D3 and D4 phases show deformations developed at shallower structural levels. Whereas the D1 phase can be interpreted as the result of underplating of slices of oceanic lithosphere during an intraoceanic subduction, the following phases have been acquired by the mlange during its progressive exhumation through different mechanisms. The deformations related to the D2 and D3 phases can be regarded as acquired by extrusion of the mlange within a subduction channel during a stage of oblique subduction. In addition, the structural evidences indicate that the coupling and mixing of different blocks occurred during the D2 phase, as a result of flow reverse and upward trajectory in the subduction channel. By contrast, the D4 phase can be interpreted as related to extension at shallow structural levels. In this framework, the exhumation-related structures in the mlange indicate that this process, probably long-lived, developed through different mechanisms, active in the subduction channel through time. Copyright 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Polyphase evolution and reaction sequence of compositional domains in metabasalt: a model based on local chemical equilibrium and metamorphic differentiation

    GEOLOGICAL JOURNAL, Issue 3-4 2000
    T. M. Toth
    Abstract Eclogitic garnet amphibolite samples from the Southern Steep Belt of the Central Alps show evidence of several stages of metamorphic evolution and exhumation. A method for unravelling this evolution is presented and applied to these samples. It involves a combination of detailed petrographic analysis and microchemical characterization with quantitative models of the thermodynamically stable phase relations for specific compositional domains of each sample. Preserved mineral relics and textural evidence are compared to model predictions to identify the important irreversible reactions. The interpretation of the exhumation history is thus based on the consistency of a wide spectrum of observations with predicted phase diagrams, leading to robust reconstruction of a pressure,temperature (P,T) path even where the mineralogical relics in samples are insufficient, due to retrogression, to warrant application of multi-equilibrium thermobarometric techniques. The formation of compositionally different domains in the metabasalt samples studied is attributed to prograde growth of porphyroblasts (e.g. garnet, plagioclase, zoisite) in the matrix, implying substantial metamorphic differentiation at the scale of a few millimetres. Chemical interaction among different domains during the subsequent P,T evolution is shown to have been very limited. This led to different reaction sequences during exhumation, in which relics preserved in different domains reflect a range of continually changing P,T conditions. For samples from a single outcrop, we deduce a Barrovian prograde path to eclogite facies (23,,3,kbar, 750,,50C), followed by (rapid) decompression to 8,,1,kbar and 675,,25C, and a final heating phase at similar pressures reaching 750,,40C. This evolution is attributed to the Alpine cycle involving subduction,collision and slab breakoff,extrusion of tectonic fragments that make up the Southern Steep Belt of the Central Alps. Copyright 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Late Cretaceous-Cenozoic exhumation of the Yanji area, northeast China: Constraints from fission-track thermochronology

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 1 2010
    Xiaoming Li
    Abstract The Yanji area, located at the border of China, Russia, and Korea, where the Phanerozoic granitoids have been widely exposed, was considered part of the orogenic collage between the North China Block in the south and the Jiamusi,Khanka Massifs in the northeast. In this study, the cooling and inferred uplift and denudation history since the late Mesozoic are intensively studied by carrying out apatite and zircon fission-track analyses, together with electron microprobe analyses (EMPA) of chemical compositions of apatite from the granitoid samples in the Yanji area. The results show that: (i) zircon and apatite fission-track ages range 91.7,99.6 Ma and 76.5,85.4 Ma, respectively; (ii) all apatite fission-track length distributions are unimodal and yield mean lengths of 12,13.2 m, and the apatites are attributed to chlorine-bearing fluorapatite as revealed by EMPA results; and (iii) the thermal history modeling results based on apatite fission-track grain ages and length distributions indicate that the time,temperature paths display similar patterns and the cooling has been accelerated for each sample since ca 15 Ma. Thus, we conclude that sequential cooling, involving two rapid (95,80 Ma and ca 15,0 Ma) and one slow (80,15 Ma) cooling, has taken place through the exhumation of the Yanji area since the late Cretaceous. The maximum exhumation is more than 5 km under a steady-state geothermal gradient of 35C/km. Combined with the tectonic setting, this exhumation is possibly related to the subduction of the Pacific Plate beneath the Eurasian Plate since the late Cretaceous. [source]

    Eclogites from the Chinese continental scientific drilling borehole, their petrology and different P-T evolutions

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 4 2007
    Yong-Feng Zhu
    Abstract Four phengite-bearing eclogites, taken from different depths of the Chinese continental scientific drilling (CCSD) borehole in the Sulu ultrahigh pressure terrane, eastern China, were studied with the electron microprobe. The compositional zonations of garnet and omphacite are moderate, whereas phengite compositions generally vary significantly in a single sample from core to rim by decrease of the Si content. Various geothermobarometric methods were applied to constrain the P-T conditions of these eclogites on the basis of the compositional variability of the above minerals. The constrained P-T path for sample B218 is characterized by pressure decrease from ca 3.0 GPa (ca 600C) to 1.3 GPa (ca 550C). Eclogite B310 yielded P-T conditions of 3.0 GPa and 750C. The path for eclogite B1008 starts at about 650C and 3.6,3.9 GPa (stage I) followed by a pressure decrease to 2.8,3.0 GPa and a significant temperature rise (stages II and IIIa, 750,810C). Afterwards, this rock cooled down to 620,660C at still high pressures (2.5,2.7 GPa, stage IIIb). Retrograde conditions were about 670C and 1.3 GPa (stage IV). Eclogite B1039 yielded a P-T path starting at ca 600C and 3.3,3.9 GPa (stage I). A pressure decrease to about 3.0 GPa (stage II, 590,610C) and then a moderate isobaric temperature increase to ca 630C (stage III) followed. Stage IV is characterized by temperatures of 650C at pressures close to 1.3 GPa. During and after this stage (hydrous) fluids partially rich in potassium penetrated the rocks causing minor changes. Relatively high oxygen fugacities led to andradite and magnetite among the newly formed minerals. We think that the above findings can be best explained by mass flow in a subduction channel. Thus, we conclude that the assembly of UHP rocks of the CCSD site, eclogites, quartzofeldspathic rocks, and peridotites, cannot represent a crustal section that was already coherent at UHP conditions as it is the common belief currently. The coherency was attained after significant exhumation of these UHP rocks. [source]

    Prograde eclogites from the Tonaru epidote amphibolite mass in the Sambagawa Metamorphic Belt, central Shikoku, southwest Japan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2005
    Yasuo Miyagi
    Abstract Prograde eclogites occur in the Tonaru epidote amphibolite mass in the Sambagawa Metamorphic Belt of central Shikoku. The Tonaru mass is considered to be a metamorphosed layered gabbro, and occurs as a large tectonic block (approximately 6.5 km 1 km) in a high-grade portion of the Sambagawa schists. The Tonaru mass experienced high- P/low- T prograde metamorphism from the epidote-blueschist facies to the eclogite facies prior to its emplacement into the Sambagawa schists. The estimated P,T conditions are T = 300,450C and P = 0.7,1.1 GPa for the epidote-blueschist facies, and the peak P,T conditions for the eclogite facies are T = 700,730C and P , 1.5 GPa. Following the eclogite facies metamorphism, the Tonaru mass was retrograded to the epidote amphibolite facies. It subsequently underwent additional prograde Sambagawa metamorphism, together with the surrounding Sambagawa schists, until the conditions of the oligoclase,biotite zone were reached. The high- P/low- T prograde metamorphism of the eclogite facies in the Tonaru mass and other tectonic blocks show similar steep dP/dT geothermal gradients despite their diverse peak P,T conditions, suggesting that these tectonic blocks reached different depths in the subduction zone. The individual rocks in each metamorphic zone of the Sambagawa schists also recorded steep dP/dT geothermal gradients during the early stages of the Sambagawa prograde metamorphism, and these gradients are similar to those of the eclogite-bearing tectonic blocks. Therefore, the eclogite-bearing tectonic blocks reached greater depths in the subduction zone than the Sambagawa schists. All the tectonic blocks were ultimately emplaced into the hanging wall side of the later-subducted Sambagawa high-grade schists during their exhumation. [source]

    Jurassic depositional records and sandstone provenances in Hefei Basin, central China: Implication for Dabie orogenesis

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 2 2004
    Zhong Li
    Abstract Detrital composition and major element geochemistry of Jurassic sandstones in the south Hefei Basin, central China, show their provenance to be the Dabie Mountains, whose tectonic attributes are closely related to continent,island arc complexes. It was found that a provenance change, from recycled orogen signatures and mixed orogenic sandstones to arc orogen, occurs from the lower Middle Jurassic to the Upper Jurassic (the Zhougongshan Formation). Dissected magmatic arc sources were gradually exposed in the Dabie Mountains due to intensive exhumation during the Late Jurassic, particularly after the Fenghuangtai depositional phase. Furthermore, it can be infered that the magmatic arc was initially present in both the Early Paleozoic and the Triassic, according to isotopic dating studies in previously published reports. ,13C,,18O tracing between existing marbles of different strata in the Dabie block and marble gravels of the Fenghuangtai Formation in the Hefei Basin indicate that partial lithostratigraphic units for the Jurassic provenances have entirely disappeared from the Dabie block; therefore, it is impossible to reconstruct integral orogenic processes from studies on the remaining Dabie block alone. These findings, together with basin-fill sequences, also suggest that the Hefei Basin was mainly subjected to compressive mechanical regimes rather than extensional regimes in the Jurassic, which resulted in reverse-grading clastic depositional sequences, and is probably related to the northward intracontinental deep subduction of the Yangtze Plate. Regional exhumation properties and a tectonic model of the Late Mesozoic Dabie orogenesis are discussed in this paper. [source]

    Cooling and inferred exhumation history of the Ryoke metamorphic belt in the Yanai district, south-west Japan: Constraints from Rb,Sr and fission-track ages of gneissose granitoid and numerical modeling

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 2 2001
    Takamoto Okudaira
    Abstract The Ryoke metamorphic belt in south-west Japan consists mainly of I-type granitoids and associated low-pressure/high-temperature metamorphic rocks. In the Yanai district, it has been divided into three structural units: northern, central and southern units. In this study, we measured the Rb,Sr whole-rock,mineral isochron ages and fission-track ages of the gneissose granodiorite in the central structural unit. Four Rb,Sr ages fall in a range of ca 89,87 Ma. The fission-track ages of zircon and apatite are 68.9 2.6 Ma and 57.4 2.5 Ma (1, error), respectively. Combining the newly obtained ages with previously reported (Th,)U,Pb ages from the same unit, thermochronologic study revealed two distinctive cooling stages; 1) a rapid cooling (> 40C/Myr) for a period (~7 Myr) soon after the peak metamorphism (~ 95 Ma) and 2) the subsequent slow cooling stage (~ 5C/Myr) after ca 88 Ma. The first rapid cooling stage corresponds to thermal relaxation of the intruded granodiorite magma and its associated metamorphic rocks, and to the uplift by a displacement along low-angle faults which initiated soon after the intrusion of the magma. Uplift by the later stage deformation having formed large-scale upright folds resulted in progress of the exhumation during the first stage. The average exhumation velocity of the stage is , 2 mm/yr. During the second stage, the rocks were not accompanied by ductile deformation and were exhumed with the rate of 0.1,0.2 mm/yr. The difference in the exhumation velocity between the first and second cooling stages resulted from the difference in the thickness of the crust and in the activity of ductile deformation between the early and later stages of the orogenesis. [source]

    Geology of the Kokchetav UHP-HP metamorphic belt, Northern Kazakhstan

    ISLAND ARC, Issue 3 2000
    Y. Kaneko
    Abstract Ultrahigh-pressure metamorphic (UHPM) rocks of the Kokchetav Massif of Kazakhstan contain metamorphic microdiamond and coesite inclusions inside rigid capsules such as garnet and zircon. Precambrian protoliths of the UHPM rocks were metamorphosed at around 530 Ma, at pressures of about 7 GPa, which suggests that crustal protoliths were subducted to depths of over 200 km. Primary UHPM minerals are poorly preserved due to partial obliteration by subsequent Barrovian overprint during exhumation and later collision events in Caledonian times. We report the results of detailed mapping of the Kokchetav Massif and use structural data to propose intrusion and exhumation mechanisms for the UHPM rocks. Detailed mapping revealed that many subvertical structures in the ultrahigh-pressure,high-pressure (UHP,HP) units were formed due to later folding. The primary structure appears to be subhorizontal and the total thickness of the UHP rocks is estimated at around 2 km. The first order structure is sandwich-like; that is, the UHP,HP units are separated from underlying low-P metamorphic rocks of the Daulet Series and from feebly metamorphosed to unmetamorphosed sedimentary strata on the top by subhorizontal faults. Kinematic indicators show top-to-the-south sense of shear along the top, and top-to-the-north displacement along the bottom boundaries. These shear senses, together with the observed metamorphic gradients, suggest that the thin UHPM sheet was extruded toward the north. We consider wedge extrusion to have been the most effective mechanism for the exhumation of the UHPM rocks. [source]

    Zeolites in fissures of granites and gneisses of the Central Alps

    Abstract Six different Ca-zeolite minerals are widespread in various assemblages in late fissures and fractures in granites and gneisses of the Swiss Alps. The zeolites formed as a result of water,rock interaction at relatively low temperatures (<250 C) in the continental upper crust. The zeolites typically overgrow earlier minerals of the fissure assemblages, but zeolites also occur as monomineralic fissure fillings. They represent the youngest fissure minerals formed during uplift and exhumation of the Alpine orogen. A systematic study of zeolite samples showed that the majority of finds originate from three regions particularity rich in zeolite-bearing fissures: (i) in the central and eastern part of the Aar- and Gotthard Massifs; (2) Gibelsbach/Fiesch, in a fissure breccia located at the boundary of Aar Massif and Permian sedimentary rocks; and (3) in Penninic gneisses of the Simano nappe at Arvigo (Val Calanca). Rail and road tunnel construction across the Aar- and Gotthard Massif provided excellent data on zeolite frequency in Alpine fissures. It was found that 32% (Gotthard NEAT rail base tunnel, Amsteg section) and 18% (Gotthard road tunnel) of all studied fissures are filled with zeolites. The number of different zeolites is limited to six species: laumontite, stilbite and scolecite are abundant and common, whereas heulandite, chabazite and epistilbite occur occasionally. Calcium is the dominant extra-framework cation, with minor K and Na. Heulandite and chabazite contain Sr up to 29 and 10 mol.% extra-framework cations respectively. Na and K contents in zeolites tend to increase during growth as a result of changes in fluid composition and/or temperature. The K enrichment of stilbite found in surface outcrops compared to subsurface samples may indicate late stage cation exchange with surface water. Texture data, relative age sequences derived from fissure assemblages and equilibrium calculations show that the Ca-dominated zeolites precipitated from fluid with decreasing temperature in the order (old to young = hot to cold): scolecite, laumontite, heulandite, chabazite and stilbite. The necessary components for zeolite formation are derived from dissolving primary granite and gneiss minerals. The nature of these minerals depends, among other factors, on the metamorphic history of the host rock. Zeolites in the Aar Massif derived from the dissolution of epidote, secondary calcite and albite that were originally formed during Alpine greenschist metamorphism from primary granite and gneiss assemblages. Zeolite fissures occur in areas of H2O-dominated fluids. This is consistent with equilibrium calculations that predict a low CO2 tolerance of zeolite assemblages, particularly at low temperature. [source]

    Cold subduction and the formation of lawsonite eclogite , constraints from prograde evolution of eclogitized pillow lava from Corsica

    E. J. K. RAVNA
    Abstract A new discovery of lawsonite eclogite is presented from the Lancne glaucophanites within the Schistes Lustrs nappe at Dfil du Lancne in Alpine Corsica. The fine-grained eclogitized pillow lava and inter-pillow matrix are extremely fresh, showing very little evidence of retrograde alteration. Peak assemblages in both the massive pillows and weakly foliated inter-pillow matrix consist of zoned idiomorphic Mg-poor (<0.8 wt% MgO) garnet + omphacite + lawsonite + chlorite + titanite. A local overprint by the lower grade assemblage glaucophane + albite with partial resorption of omphacite and garnet is locally observed. Garnet porphyroblasts in the massive pillows are Mn rich, and show a regular prograde growth-type zoning with a Mn-rich core. In the inter-pillow matrix garnet is less manganiferous, and shows a mutual variation in Ca and Fe with Fe enrichment toward the rim. Some garnet from this rock type shows complex zoning patterns indicating a coalescence of several smaller crystallites. Matrix omphacite in both rock types is zoned with a rimward increase in XJd, locally with cores of relict augite. Numerous inclusions of clinopyroxene, lawsonite, chlorite and titanite are encapsulated within garnet in both rock types, and albite, quartz and hornblende are also found included in garnet from the inter-pillow matrix. Inclusions of clinopyroxene commonly have augitic cores and omphacitic rims. The inter-pillow matrix contains cross-cutting omphacite-rich veinlets with zoned omphacite, Si-rich phengite (Si = 3.54 apfu), ferroglaucophane, actinolite and hematite. These veinlets are seen fracturing idiomorphic garnet, apparently without any secondary effects. Pseudosections of matrix compositions for the massive pillows, the inter-pillow matrix and the cross-cutting veinlets indicate similar P,T conditions with maximum pressures of 1.9,2.6 GPa at temperatures of 335,420 C. The inclusion suite found in garnet from the inter-pillow matrix apparently formed at pressures below 0.6,0.7 GPa. Retrogression during initial decompression of the studied rocks is only very local. Late veinlets of albite + glaucophane, without breakdown of lawsonite, indicate that the rocks remained in a cold environment during exhumation, resulting in a hairpin-shaped P,T path. [source]

    The tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Balcooma Metamorphic Group, north-eastern Australia: a multidisciplinary approach

    A. ALI
    Abstract The sequential growth of biotite, garnet, staurolite, kyanite, andalusite, cordierite and fibrolitic sillimanite, their microstructural relationships, foliation intersection axes preserved in porphyroblasts (FIAs), geochronology, P,T pseudosection (MnNCKFMASH system) modelling and geothermobarometry provide evidence for a P,T,t,D path that changes from clockwise to anticlockwise with time for the Balcooma Metamorphic Group. Growth of garnet at ,530 C and 4.6 kbar during the N,S-shortening event that formed FIA 1 was followed by staurolite, plagioclase and kyanite growth. The inclusions of garnet in staurolite porphyroblasts that formed during the development of FIAs 2 and 3 plus kyanite growth during FIA 3 reflect continuous crustal thickening from c. 443 to 425 Ma during an Early Silurian Benambran Orogenic event. The temperature and pressure increased during this time from ,530 C and 4.6 kbar to ,630 C and 6.2 kbar. The overprinting of garnet-, staurolite- and kyanite-bearing mineral assemblages by low-pressure andalusite and cordierite assemblages implies ,4-kbar decompression during Early Devonian exhumation of the Greenvale Province. [source]

    P,T,t path of the Hercynian low-pressure rocks from the Mandatoriccio complex (Sila Massif, Calabria, Italy): new insights for crustal evolution

    Abstract The tectono-metamorphic evolution of the Hercynian intermediate,upper crust outcropping in eastern Sila (Calabria, Italy) has been reconstructed, integrating microstructural analysis, P,T pseudosections, mineral isopleths and geochronological data. The studied rocks belong to a nearly complete crustal section that comprises granulite facies metamorphic rocks at the base and granitoids in the intermediate levels. Clockwise P,T paths have been constrained for metapelites of the basal level of the intermediate,upper crust (Umbriatico area). These rocks show noticeable porphyroblastic textures documenting the progressive change from medium- P metamorphic assemblages (garnet- and staurolite-bearing assemblages) towards low- P/high -T metamorphic assemblages (fibrolite- and cordierite-bearing assemblages). Peak-metamorphic conditions of ,590 C and 0.35 GPa are estimated by integrating microstructural observations with P,T pseudosections calculated for bulk-rock and reaction-domain compositions. The top level of the intermediate,upper crust (Campana area) recorded only the major heating phase at low- P (,550 C and 0.25 GPa), as documented by the static growth of biotite spots and of cordierite and andalusite porphyroblasts in metapelites. In situ U,Th,Pb dating of monazite from schists containing low -P/high -T metamorphic assemblages gave a weighted mean U,Pb concordia age of 299 3 Ma, which has been interpreted as the timing of peak metamorphism. In the framework of the whole Hercynian crustal section the peak of low -P/high -T metamorphism in the intermediate-to-upper crust took place concurrently with granulite facies metamorphism in the lower crust and with emplacement of the granitoids in the intermediate levels. In addition, decompression is a distinctive trait of the P,T evolution both in the lower and upper crust. It is proposed that post,collisional extension, together with exhumation, is the most suitable tectonic setting in which magmatic and metamorphic processes can be active simultaneously in different levels of the continental crust. [source]

    Phlogopite and quartz lamellae in diamond-bearing diopside from marbles of the Kokchetav massif, Kazakhstan: exsolution or replacement reaction?

    Abstract Exsolution lamellae of pyroxene in garnet (grt), coesite in titanite and omphacite from UHPM terranes are widely accepted as products of decompression. However, interpretation of oriented lamellae of phyllosilicates, framework silicates and oxides as a product of decompression of pyroxene is very often under debate. Results are presented here of FIB-TEM, FEG-EMP and synchrotron-assisted infrared (IR) spectroscopy studies of phlogopite (Phlog) and phlogopite + quartz (Qtz) lamellae in diamond-bearing clinopyroxene (Cpx) from ultra-high pressure (UHP) marble. These techniques allowed collection of three-dimensional information from the grain boundaries of both the single (phlogopite), two-phase lamellae (phlogopite + quartz), and fluid inclusions inside of diamond included in K-rich Cpx and understanding their relationships and mechanisms of formation. The Cpx grains contain in their cores lamellae-I, which are represented by topotactically oriented extremely thin lamellae of phlogopite (that generally are two units cell wide but locally can be seen to be somewhat broader) and microdiamond. The core composition is: (Ca0.94K0.04Na0.02) (Al0.06Fe0.08Mg0.88) (Si1.98Al0.02)O6.00. Fluid inclusions rich in K and Si are recognized in the core of the Cpx, having no visible connections to the lamellae-I. Lamellar-II inclusions consist of micron-size single laths of phlogopite and lens-like quartz or slightly elongated phlogopite + quartz intergrowths; all are situated in the rim zone of the Cpx. The composition of the rim is (Ca0.95Fe0.03Na0.02) (Al0.05Fe0.05Mg0.90)Si2O6, and the rim contains more Ca, Mg then the core, with no K there. Such chemical tests support our microstructural observations and conclusion that the phlogopite lamellae-I are exsolved from the K-rich Cpx-precursor during decompression. It is assumed that Cpx-precursor was also enriched in H2O, because diamond included in the core of this Cpx contains fluid inclusions. The synchrotron IR spectra of such diamond record the presence of OH, stretching and H2O bending motion regions. Lamellar-II inclusions are interpreted as forming partly because of modification of the lamellae-I in the presence of fluid enriched in K, Fe and Si during deformation of the host diopside; the latter is probably related to the shallower stage of exhumation of the UHP marble. This study emphasizes that in each case to understand the mechanism of lamellar inclusion formation more detailed studies are needed combining both compositional, structural and three-dimensional textural features of lamellar inclusions and their host. [source]

    The formation of foliated (garnet-bearing) granites in the Tongbai-Dabie orogenic belt: partial melting of subducted continental crust during exhumation

    L. ZHANG
    Abstract Foliated (garnet-bearing) (FGB) granites are associated closely with and are usually the major wall rocks of the high-pressure (HP) and ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphic rocks in the Tongbai-Dabie region, the mid segment of the Qinling-Dabie-Sulu orogenic belt in central China. These granites appear either as small plutons or as veins, which commonly intrude into or surround the HP and UHP metamorphic eclogites or gneisses. The veins of FGB granites usually penetrate into the retrograded eclogites or gneisses along the foliations. Condensation rims can occasionally be found along the margins of granite veins. These granites are rich in Si and alkali with high Ga/Al ratios, and depleted in Ca, Mg, Al, Ti, Sc, V, Ni, Co, Cr and Sr, which are similar to A-type granites. In a chondrite normalized diagram, the samples are light rare earth elements enriched with different extent of negative Eu anomaly. Moreover, Rb, Nb, Ta, Sr, P and Ti show different degrees of negative anomalies, whereas Ba, K, La, Zr and Hf show positive anomalies in the primitive mantle normalized diagram. Negative anomalies of Eu and Sr indicate strong influence of plagioclase. In conventional discrimination diagrams, these FGB granites belong to the A-type granite, with geochemical characteristics affinitive to post-collisional granites. The ,Nd (230 Ma) values (,15.80 to ,2.52) and TDM values (1.02,2.07 Ga) suggest that magma for the FGB granites were derived from a heterogeneous crustal source. Therefore, the FGB granites may provide clues for deciphering the formation of post-collisional granites. It is proposed that the magma of the FGB granites both in the HP and UHP units was formed in an extensional tectonic setting slightly post-dating the HP and UHP metamorphism, most likely as a result of decompressional partial melting of UHP retrograded eclogites during exhumation. [source]

    Exhumation during oblique transpression: The Feiran,Solaf region, Egypt

    T. S. ABU-ALAM
    Abstract The Feiran,Solaf metamorphic complex of Sinai, Egypt, is one of the highest grade metamorphic complexes of a series of basement domes that crop out throughout the Arabian-Nubian Shield. In the Eastern Desert of Egypt these basement domes have been interpreted as metamorphic core complexes exhumed in extensional settings. For the Feiran,Solaf complex an interpretation of the exhumation mechanism is difficult to obtain with structural arguments as all of its margins are obliterated by post-tectonic granites. Here, metamorphic methods are used to investigate its tectonic history and show that the complex was characterized by a single metamorphic cycle experiencing peak metamorphism at ,700,750 C and 7,8 kbar and subsequent isothermal decompression to ,4,5 kbar, followed by near isobaric cooling to 450 C. Correlation of this metamorphic evolution with the deformation history shows that peak metamorphism occurred prior to the compressive deformation phase D2, while the compressive D2 and D3 deformation occurred during the near isothermal decompression phase of the P,T loop. We interpret the concurrence of decompression of the P,T path and compression by structural shortening as evidence for the Najd fault system exhuming the complex in an oblique transpressive regime. However, final exhumation from ,15 km depth must have occurred due to an unrelated mechanism. [source]

    Polymetamorphism, zircon growth and retention of early assemblages through the dynamic evolution of a continental arc in Fiordland, New Zealand

    J. M. SCOTT
    Abstract The Marguerite Amphibolite and associated rocks in northern Fiordland, New Zealand, contain evidence for retention of Carboniferous metamorphic assemblages through Cretaceous collision of an arc, emplacement of large volumes of mafic magma, high- P metamorphism and then extensional exhumation. The amphibolite occurs as five dismembered aluminous meta-gabbroic xenoliths up to 2 km wide that are enclosed within meta-leucotonalite of the Lake Hankinson Complex. A first metamorphic event (M1) is manifest in the amphibolite as a pervasively lineated pargasite,anorthite,kyanite or corundum rutile assemblage, and as diffusion-zoned garnet in pelitic schist xenoliths within the amphibolite. Thin zones of metasomatically Al-enriched leucotonalite directly at the margins of each amphibolite xenolith indicate element redistribution during M1 and equilibration at 6.6 0.8 kbar and 618 25 C. A second phase of recrystallization (M2) formed patchy and static margarite kyanite,staurolite,chlorite,plagioclase,epidote assemblages in the amphibolite, pseudomorphs of coronas in gabbronorite, and thin high-grossular garnet rims in the pelitic schists. Conditions of M2, 8.8 0.6 kbar and 643 27 C, are recorded from the rims of garnet in the pelitic schists. Cathodoluminescence imaging and simultaneous acquisition of U-Th-Pb isotopes and trace elements by depth-profiling zircon grains from one pelitic schist reveals four stages of growth, two of which are metamorphic. The first metamorphic stage, dated as 340.2 2.2 Ma, is correlated with M1 on the basis that the unusual zircon trace element compositions indicate growth from a metasomatic fluid derived from the surrounding amphibolite during penetrative deformation. A second phase of zircon overgrowth coupled with crosscutting relationships date M2 to between 119 and 117 Ma. The Early Carboniferous event has not previously been recognized in northern Fiordland, whereas the latter event, which has been identified in Early Cretaceous batholiths, their xenoliths, and rocks directly at batholith margins, is here shown to have also affected the country rock. However, the effects of M2 are fragmentary due to limited element mobility, lack of deformation, distance from a heat source and short residence time in the lower crust during peak P and T. It is possible that many parts of the Fiordland continental arc achieved high- P conditions in the Early Cretaceous but retain earlier metamorphic or igneous assemblages. [source]

    Geochronological and petrological constraints on Palaeoproterozoic granulite facies metamorphism in southeastern margin of the North China Craton

    Y.-C. LIU
    Abstract In the southeastern margin of the North China Craton, high-pressure (HP) granulite facies meta-basic rocks exposed as bands or lenses in the Precambrian metamorphic basement (e.g. Bengbu) and as xenoliths in Mesozoic intrusions (e.g. Jiagou) are characterized by the assemblage garnet + clinopyroxene + plagioclase + quartz + rutile Ti-rich hornblende. Cathodoluminescence imaging and mineral inclusions reveal that most zircon from the three dated samples displays distinct core-mantle-rim structures. The cores show typical igneous zircon characteristics and give ages of 2.5,2.4 Ga, thus dating the protolith of the metabasites. The mantles formed at granulite facies conditions as evidenced by inclusions of the HP granulite mineral assemblage garnet + clinopyroxene + rutile + plagioclase + quartz hornblende and Ti-rich biotite and yield ages of 1839 31, 1811 19 and 1800 15 Ma. An inclusion-free rim yields an age of 176 2 Ma with the lower Th/U ratio of 0.02. The geochronological and preliminary petrological data of this study suggest that the lower crust beneath the southeastern margin of the North China Craton formed at 2.5,2.4 Ga and underwent HP granulite facies metamorphism at c. 1.8 Ga. This HT-HP metamorphic event may be ascribed to large-scale crustal heating and thickening related to mantle-derived magma underplating at the base of the lower crust, as evidenced by widespread extension, rifting and related mafic magma emplacement in the North China Craton during this period. The age of 176 2 Ma most likely records the late amphibolite facies retrogression occurring during exhumation. [source]

    Late Cretaceous blueschist facies metamorphism in southern Thrace (Turkey) and its geodynamic implications

    G. TOPUZ
    Abstract A blueschist facies tectonic sliver, 9 km long and 1 km wide, crops out within the Miocene clastic rocks bounded by the strands of the North Anatolian Fault zone in southern Thrace, NW Turkey. Two types of blueschist facies rock assemblages occur in the sliver: (i) A serpentinite body with numerous dykes of incipient blueschist facies metadiabase (ii) a well-foliated and thoroughly recrystallized rock assemblage consisting of blueschist, marble and metachert. Both are partially enveloped by an Upper Eocene wildflysch, which includes olistoliths of serpentinite,metadiabase, Upper Cretaceous and Palaeogene pelagic limestone, Upper Eocene reefal limestone, radiolarian chert, quartzite and minor greenschist. Field relations in combination with the bore core data suggest that the tectonic sliver forms a positive flower structure within the Miocene clastic rocks in a transpressional strike,slip setting, and represents an uplifted part of the pre-Eocene basement. The blueschists are represented by lawsonite,glaucophane-bearing assemblages equilibrated at 270,310 C and ,0.8 GPa. The metadiabase dykes in the serpentinite, on the other hand, are represented by pumpellyite,glaucophane,lawsonite-assemblages that most probably equilibrated below 290 C and at 0.75 GPa. One metadiabase olistolith in the Upper Eocene flysch sequence contains the mineral assemblage epidote + pumpellyite + glaucophane, recording P,T conditions of 290,350 C and 0.65,0.78 GPa, indicative of slightly lower depths and different thermal setting. Timing of the blueschist facies metamorphism is constrained to c. 86 Ma (Coniacian/Santonian) by Rb,Sr phengite,whole rock and incremental 40Ar,39Ar phengite dating on blueschists. The activity of the strike,slip fault post-dates the blueschist facies metamorphism and exhumation, and is only responsible for the present outcrop pattern and post-Miocene exhumation (,2 km). The high- P/T metamorphic rocks of southern Thrace and the Biga Peninsula are located to the southeast of the Circum Rhodope Belt and indicate Late Cretaceous subduction and accretion under the northern continent, i.e. the Rhodope Massif, enveloped by the Circum Rhodope Belt. The Late Cretaceous is therefore a time of continued accretionary growth of this continental domain. [source]

    Contrasting metamorphic histories of lenses of high-pressure rocks and host migmatites with a flat orogenic fabric (Bohemian Massif, Czech Republic): a result of tectonic mixing within horizontal crustal flow?

    Abstract Migmatites with sub-horizontal fabrics at the eastern margin of the Variscan orogenic root in the Bohemian Massif host lenses of eclogite, kyanite-K-feldspar granulite and marble within a matrix of migmatitic paragneiss and amphibolite. Petrological study and pseudosection modelling have been used to establish whether the whole area experienced terrane-wide exhumation of lower orogenic crust, or whether smaller portions of higher-pressure lower crust were combined with a lower-pressure matrix. Kyanite-K-feldspar granulite shows peak conditions of 16.5 kbar and 850 C with no clear indications of prograde path, whereas in the eclogite the prograde path indicates burial from 10 kbar and 700 C to a peak of 18 kbar and 800 C. Two contrasting prograde paths are identified within the host migmatitic paragneiss. The first path is inferred from the presence of staurolite and kyanite inclusions in garnet that contains preserved prograde zoning that indicates burial with simultaneous heating to 11 kbar and 800 C. The second path is inferred from garnet overgrowths of a flat foliation defined by sillimanite and biotite. Garnet growth in such an assemblage is possible only if the sample is heated at 7,8 kbar to around 700,840 C. Decompression is associated with strong structural reworking in the flat fabric that involves growth of sillimanite in paragneiss and kyanite-K-feldspar granulite at 7,10 kbar and 750,850 C. The contrasting prograde metamorphic histories indicate that kilometre-scale portions of high-pressure lower orogenic crust were exhumed to middle crustal levels, dismembered and mixed with a middle crustal migmatite matrix, with the simultaneous development of a flat foliation. The contrasting P,T paths with different pressure peaks show that tectonic models explaining high-pressure boudins in such a fabric cannot be the result of heterogeneous retrogression during ductile rebound of the whole orogenic root. The P,T paths are compatible with a model of heterogeneous vertical extrusion of lower crust into middle crust, followed by sub-horizontal flow. [source]

    Origin of migmatites by deformation-enhanced melt infiltration of orthogneiss: a new model based on quantitative microstructural analysis

    Abstract A detailed field study reveals a gradual transition from high-grade solid-state banded orthogneiss via stromatic migmatite and schlieren migmatite to irregular, foliation-parallel bodies of nebulitic migmatite within the eastern part of the Gfhl Unit (Moldanubian domain, Bohemian Massif). The orthogneiss to nebulitic migmatite sequence is characterized by progressive destruction of well-equilibrated banded microstructure by crystallization of new interstitial phases (Kfs, Pl and Qtz) along feldspar boundaries and by resorption of relict feldspar and biotite. The grain size of all felsic phases decreases continuously, whereas the population density of new phases increases. The new phases preferentially nucleate along high-energy like,like boundaries causing the development of a regular distribution of individual phases. This evolutionary trend is accompanied by a decrease in grain shape preferred orientation of all felsic phases. To explain these data, a new petrogenetic model is proposed for the origin of felsic migmatites by melt infiltration from an external source into banded orthogneiss during deformation. In this model, infiltrating melt passes pervasively along grain boundaries through the whole-rock volume and changes completely its macro- and microscopic appearance. It is suggested that the individual migmatite types represent different degrees of equilibration between the host rock and migrating melt during exhumation. The melt topology mimicked by feldspar in banded orthogneiss forms elongate pockets oriented at a high angle to the compositional banding, indicating that the melt distribution was controlled by the deformation of the solid framework. The microstructure exhibits features compatible with a combination of dislocation creep and grain boundary sliding deformation mechanisms. The migmatite microstructures developed by granular flow accompanied by melt-enhanced diffusion and/or melt flow. However, an AMS study and quartz microfabrics suggest that the amount of melt present did not exceed a critical threshold during the deformation to allow free movements of grains. [source]

    Formation of eclogite, and reaction during exhumation to mid-crustal levels, Snowbird tectonic zone, western Canadian Shield

    Abstract A re-evaluation of the P,T history of eclogite within the East Athabasca granulite terrane of the Snowbird tectonic zone, northern Saskatchewan, Canada was undertaken. Using calculated pseudosections in combination with new garnet,clinopyroxene and zircon and rutile trace element thermometry, peak metamorphic conditions are constrained to ,16 kbar and 750 C, followed by near-isothermal decompression to ,10 kbar. Associated with the eclogite are two types of occurrences of sapphirine-bearing rocks preserving a rich variety of reaction textures that allow examination of the retrograde history below 10 kbar. The first occurs as a 1,2 m zone adjacent to the eclogite body with a peak assemblage of garnet,kyanite,quartz interpreted to have formed during the eclogite facies metamorphism. Rims of orthopyroxene and plagioclase developed around garnet, and sapphirine,plagioclase and spinel,plagioclase symplectites developed around kyanite. The second variety of sapphirine-bearing rocks occurs in kyanite veins within the eclogite. The veins involve orthopyroxene, garnet and plagioclase layers spatially organized around a central kyanite layer that are interpreted to have formed following the eclogite facies metamorphism. The layering has itself been modified, with, in particular, kyanite being replaced by sapphirine,plagioclase, spinel,plagioclase and corundum,plagioclase symplectites, as well as the kyanite being replaced by sillimanite. Petrological modelling in the CFMAS system examining chemical potential gradients between kyanite and surrounding quartz indicates that these vein textures probably formed during further essentially isothermal decompression, ultimately reaching ,7 kbar and 750 C. These results indicate that the final reaction in these rocks occurred at mid-crustal levels at upper amphibolite facies conditions. Previous geochronological and thermochronological constraints bracket the time interval of decompression to <5,10 Myr, indicating that ,25 km of exhumation took place during this interval. This corresponds to minimum unroofing rates of ,2,5 mm year,1 following eclogite facies metamorphism, after which the rocks resided at mid-crustal levels for 80,100 Myr. [source]