Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Physics and Astronomy

Selected Abstracts

Enteroviruses and type 1 diabetes

Ruben Varela-Calvino
Abstract The development of type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) has been linked to exposure to environmental triggers, with Enteroviruses (EV) historically considered the prime suspects. Early serological studies suggested a link between EV infections and the development of T1DM and, though controversial, have been bolstered by more recent studies using more sensitive techniques such as direct detection of the EV genome by RT-PCR in peripheral blood. In this review, we consider the weight of evidence that EV can be considered a candidate trigger of T1DM, using three major criteria: (1) is EV infection associated with clinical T1DM, (2) can EV trigger the development of autoimmunity and (3) what would explain the putative association? Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Seishu Hayashi
The hemodynamics and non-surgical treatment of gastric fundic varices (FV) are reviewed. FV are more frequently supplied by the short and posterior gastric veins than esophageal varices (EV), and are formed mostly by large spontaneous shunts in which the gastric or splenic vein is continuous with the left renal vein via the inferior phrenic veins and the suprarenal vein (so-called gastric-renal shunt). Concomitant collaterals such as EV, para-esophageal vein, and para-umbilical vein were also observed in nearly 60% of FV. Endoscopic injection sclerotherapy (EIS) with Histoacryl is thought to be the most approved treatment for hemorrhage from FV, but repeated treatment for residual FV and care for ensuing hepatic failure are required. Balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (B-RTO) is a notable interventional radiological procedure specially developed for the elective or prophylactic treatment of FV. If the procedure is technically successful, long-term eradication of treated FV is found in most patients without recurrence. B-RTO includes another significance, obliteration of the unified portal-systemic shunt. Follow-up abdominal CT scan revealed a high incidence of long-term obliteration of the gastric-renal shunt after B-RTO. Benefits such as elevation of serum albumin, improvement in 15-min retention rate of indocyanine green, decrease in blood ammonia levels, and improvement of encephalopathy are sometimes observed. [source]

Fast visible dye staining of proteins in one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gels compatible with matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry

Jung-Kap Choi
Abstract A fast and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) compatible protein staining method in one- and two-dimensional sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (1- and 2-D SDS-PAGE) is described. It is based on the counterion dye staining method that employs oppositely charged two dyes, zincon (ZC) and ethyl violet (EV) to form an ion-pair complex. The protocol, including fixing, staining and quick washing steps, can be completed in 1,1.5 h depending upon gel thickness. It has a sensitivity of 4,8 ng, comparable to that of colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue G (CBBG) staining with phosphoric acid in the staining solution. The counterion dye stain does not induce protein modifications that complicate interpretation of peptide mapping data from MS. Considering the speed, sensitivity and compatibility with MS, the counterion dye stain may be more practical than any other dye-based protein stains for routine proteomic researches. [source]

Background-free, fast protein staining in sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel using counterion dyes, zincon and ethyl violet

Jung-Kap Choi
Abstract A background-free, fast protein staining method in polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using an acidic dye, zincon (ZC) and a basic dye, ethyl violet (EV) is described. It is based on the counterion dye staining technique that employs two oppositely charged dyes to form an ion-pair complex in staining solution. The selective binding of free dye molecules to proteins in acidic solution produces bluish violet-colored bands. It is a rapid and end-point staining procedure, involving only fixing and staining steps that are completed in 1,1.5 h. The detection limit of this method is 8,15 ng of protein that is comparable to the sensitivity of the colloidal Coomassie Brilliant Blue G (CBBG) stain. Due to its sensitivity and speed, this stain may be more practical than any other dye-based stains for routine laboratory purposes. [source]

Optimal design of an induction motor for an electric vehicle

Jawad Faiz
Abstract In this paper a squirrel-cage three-phase induction motor, selected as the driving power of an electric vehicle (EV), is designed optimally using a modified-Hooke,Jeeves optimization technique. The optimal designs are analyzed and compared with varying pole number, rated base speed and slot shapes. This optimization technique has the same advantages such as simple programming, non-gradient, short convergence time and independent variation of each parameter. Variation of design parameters of optimally designed motors versus rated base speed for 2- and 4-pole motors are presented and discussed. The results show that a 2-pole motor with parallel-sided stator and rotor slots and rated speed 1800,rpm has the best performance. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Sustained virologic response prevents the development of esophageal varices in compensated, Child-Pugh class A hepatitis C virus,induced cirrhosis.

HEPATOLOGY, Issue 6 2010
A 12-year prospective follow-up study
The incidence of de novo development of esophageal varices (EV) in patients with compensated liver cirrhosis has been determined by few studies in the short term and never in the long term. The aims of the present study were to determine the incidence and the risk factors associated with the development of EV and to assess whether antiviral treatment and achievement of sustained virologic response (SVR) may prevent de novo EV development in patients with HCV-induced cirrhosis. We studied 218 patients with compensated EV-free, HCV-induced cirrhosis consecutively enrolled between 1989 and 1992 at three referral centers in Milan, Italy. Endoscopic surveillance was performed at 3-year intervals according to international guidelines. SVR was defined as undetectable serum HCV-RNA 24 weeks after treatment discontinuation. During a median follow-up of 11.4 years, 149/218 (68%) patients received antiviral treatment and 34 (22.8%) achieved SVR. None of the SVR patients developed EV compared with 22 (31.8%) of the 69 untreated subjects (P < 0.0001) and 45 (39.1%) of the 115 non-SVR patients (P < 0.0001). On multivariate analysis, HCV genotype 1b (hazard ratio [HR] 2.40; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.17-4.90) and baseline model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (HR 1.20; 95% CI 1.07-1.35 for 1 point increase) were independent predictors of EV. Conclusion: In the long term, the achievement of SVR prevents the development of EV in patients with compensated HCV-induced cirrhosis. Therefore, in these patients, endoscopic surveillance can be safely delayed or avoided. Genotype 1b infection and MELD score identify the subset of patients at higher risk of EV development who need tailored endoscopic surveillance. Hepatology 2010 [source]

Methods to control wheel locks and wheel spins on low friction coefficient roads for front and rear wheel independent drive type electric vehicles (FRID EVs)

Nobuyoshi Mutoh Member
Abstract Wheel lock and spin control methods suitable for front and rear wheel independent drive type electric vehicles (FRID EVs) are studied here. Wheel locks and spins occur easily when braking and driving operations such as deceleration and acceleration are performed on bad roads with low friction coefficient such as wet or frozen roads. The methods studied here are characterized by using the structural feature of FRID EVs which can freely distribute the driving and braking torques to front and rear wheels according to running and road surface conditions. These wheel locks and spins occurring when braking and driving on bad roads are controlled by properly distributing the braking and driving torques to front and rear wheels in consideration of the load movement caused by braking operations and slip ratios of the front and rear wheel sides. The effectiveness of the wheel lock and spin methods studied here is verified through simulations and experiments on various roads with a low friction coefficient using a prototype EV with the FRID structure. Copyright © 2009 Institute of Electrical Engineers of Japan. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

Emotional vitality in infancy as a predictor of cognitive and language abilities in toddlerhood

Amanda J. Moreno
Abstract Previous work by our group has shown that infant emotional vitality (EV), the lively expression of shared emotion both positive and negative, predicts cognitive and language abilities in toddlerhood. Specifically, infants who demonstrated a pattern of high emotional expression combined with high bids to their caregivers, fared significantly better on the Bayley II and Preschool Language Scales (PLS-3) at 2 years of age than infants who showed both low expression and low bids to mother. That study was conducted on a large, low-income, ethnically diverse sample. The current study was undertaken with a smaller but demographically similar sample as an effort to demonstrate the value of EV as a construct and to provide additional information about its links with later developmental outcomes. Replication that included a variation in the age at which EV was assessed provides support for the generalizability of the construct. In addition, this study examined EV's effects further into childhood than did the original study in order to insure they are not limited to a brief window in toddlerhood. The results indicate that over and above maternal psychological resources, EV expressed during positive/joyful and frustrating circumstances in 8-month-olds accounted for significant portions of variance in expressive language at 30 months and cognitive-developmental assessments at 24 and 36 months. This study supports EV as an important relational-emotional behaviour that increases experiences that optimize developmental outcomes. Successful replication suggests that EV holds promise as a construct with clinical utility for early interventions attempting to improve developmental outcomes in children from poor families. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Penetration of propylene glycol into dentine

E. V. Cruz
Abstract Cruz EV, Kota K, Huque J, Iwaku M, Hoshino E. Penetration of propylene glycol into dentine. International Endodontic Journal, 35, 330,336, 2002. Aim This study aimed to evaluate penetration of propylene glycol into root dentine. Methodology Safranin O in propylene glycol and in distilled water were introduced into root canals with and without artificial smear layer. Dye diffusion through dentinal tubules was determined spectrophotometrically. The time required for dye to exit through the apical foramen using propylene glycol and distilled water as vehicles was also determined. The extent and areas of dye penetration on the split surfaces of roots were assessed using Adobe Photoshop and NIH Image Software. Results Propylene glycol allowed dye to exit faster through the apical foramen. The area and depth of dye penetration with propylene glycol was significantly greater than with distilled water (P < 0.0001). Smear layer significantly delayed the penetration of dye. Conclusion Propylene glycol delivered dye through the root canal system rapidly and more effectively indicating its potential use in delivering intracanal medicaments. [source]

Emotion as a tradeable quantity

Aaron A. Reid
Abstract Three studies investigate how physiological emotional responses can be combined with symbolic information to predict preferences. The first study used a weighted proportional difference rule to combine explicitly quantified symbolic and emotional information. The proportion of emotion model was more predictive than a simple additive emotional (AE) combination in decisions about selecting dating partners. Study 2 showed that a simple proportion algorithm of emotionally derived weights and a simple AE model predicted preference equally well for decisions between equal expected value (EV) gambles. Study 3 provided additional evidence for decision mechanisms that combine physiological measures within symbolic trade-off algorithms for choices between diamond rings. Self-reported emotion measures proved to be better predictors than physiological measures. The results are discussed in the context of other major models of emotional influence on preference and provide a foundation for future research on emotional decision-making mechanisms. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Theoretical studies on the role of ,-electron delocalization in determining the conformation of N-benzylideneaniline with three types of LMO basis sets

Peng Bao
Abstract To understand the role of ,-electron delocalization in determining the conformation of the NBA (Ph,NCH,Ph) molecule, the following three LMO (localized molecular orbital) basis sets are constructed: a LFMO (highly localized fragment molecular orbital), an NBO (natural bond orbital), and a special NBO (NBO-II) basis sets, and their localization degrees are evaluated with our suggesting index DL. Afterward, the vertical resonance energy ,EV is obtained from the Morokuma's energy partition over each of three LMO basis sets. ,EV = ,EH (one electron energy) + ,Etwo (two electron energy), and ,Etwo = ,ECou (Coulomb) + ,Eex (exchange) + ,Eec (or ,,En) (electron correction). ,EH is always stabilizing, and ,ECou is destabilizing for all time. In the case of the LFMO basis set, ,ECou is so great that ,Etwo > |,EH|. Therefore, ,EV is always destabilizing, and is least destabilizing at about the , = 90° geometry. Of the three calculation methods such as HF, DFT, and MPn (n = 2, 3, and 4), the MPn method provides ,EV with the greatest value. In the case of the NBO basis set, on the contrary, ,EV is stabilizing due to ,ECou being less destabilizing, and it is most stabilizing at a planar geometry. The LFMO basis set has the highest localization degree, and it is most appropriate for the energy partition. In the NBA molecule, ,-electron delocalization is destabilization, and it has a tendency to distort the NBA molecular away from its planar geometry as far as possible. © 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Comput Chem 27: 809,824, 2006 [source]

,HPV vulvitis' revisited: frequent and persistent detection of novel epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated HPV genotypes

Ming-Tseh Lin
Background:, ,Human papillomavirus (HPV) vulvitis' is a disputed entity where most studies examining for genital-mucosal (GM) HPV have been negative. Methods:, Using degenerate and type specific primers for cutaneous (CU), GM and epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) HPV types, the prevalence of specific HPV types was investigated in biopsy specimens from 19 women with ,HPV vulvitis', seven with asymptomatic vulvar squamous papillomatosis (ASxVSP), and controls of vulvar fibroepithelial polyps (FEP) (15), vulvar condyloma (10) and normal vulva (NV) (10). Results:, HPV DNA/EV HPV/GM HPV/CU HPV were detected in 84/74/47/5% of vulvitis patients, 78/71/0/28% of ASxVSP, 47/20/20/7% of FEP, 10/10%/0/0 of NV and 100/0/100/10% of condyloma. Fourteen putatively novel HPV genotypes were detected in vulvitis and ASxVSP patients, but not in controls. The two most frequent novel EV HPV, Alb-4 and DL285, were detected in 9/19 (47%) and 5/19 (26%) of vulvitis cases and were persistently identified in serial biopsies. HPV co-infection and Alb-4 infection occurred significantly more frequently in vulvitis patients, particularly those complaining of ,burning' (62/62% vs. 17/7%, p , 0.004). Koilocytosis was identified significantly more frequently in vulvitis compared with non-condyloma controls (81% vs. 40%, p = 0.0001), and its presence correlated with detection of HPV DNA (r = 0.3, p = 0.002). Conclusion:, The high frequency of novel EV HPV in HPV vulvitis and correlation of clinicopathologic findings with HPV DNA suggests that HPV vulvitis may indeed exist. [source]

Comparison between the clinical and laboratory features of enterovirus and West Nile virus infections

Joanna Middleton
Abstract The seasonality and clinical features of enterovirus (EV) infections overlap with those of West Nile virus (WNV). The purpose of this study was to determine the frequency of EV detection in patients being tested for WNV and to look for features that could be used to distinguish between infections with these two viruses. Nucleic acid amplification testing (NAT) for EV was performed on all plasma samples submitted for WNV testing in 2003 and 2004. Demographics, clinical features, and laboratory results for patients with documented EV viremia were compared with those for patients with confirmed WNV infection (as diagnosed by NAT and/or serology). NAT for EV was positive on 50 of 1,784 serum or plasma samples submitted for WNV testing (2.8%). Clinical information was compared for 45 patients with EV viremia and 214 patients with WNV infection. Patients with EV viremia were younger and less likely to have heart disease or a travel history (P,<,0.05). The EV viremia cases were distributed throughout the whole province while the WNV cases were predominantly in the southern part of the province. Symptoms were remarkably similar, although patients with WNV infection were more likely to have anorexia, dizziness, rash, and cranial nerve palsy (P,<,0.05). There are no consistent differences in the features of WNV infection and enteroviral viremia so diagnostic tests for both viruses should be performed when WNV is present in local mosquitoes. J. Med. Virol. 80: 1252,1259, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Distinguished vertices in probabilistic rooted graphs

Gary Gordon
Abstract The expected number of vertices that remain joined to the root vertex s of a rooted graph Gs when edges are prone to fail is a polynomial EV(Gs; p) in the edge probability p that depends on the location of s. We show that optimal locations for the root can vary arbitrarily as p varies from 0 to 1 by constructing a graph in which every permutation of k -specified vertices is the "optimal" ordering for some p, 0 < p < 1. We also investigate zeroes of EV(Gs; p), proving that the number of vertices of G is bounded by the size of the largest rational zero. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. NETWORKS, 2010 [source]

Differential response of Amaranthus tuberculatus (Moq ex DC) JD Sauer to glyphosate

Ian A Zelaya
Abstract Midwest USA farmers have reported inconsistent control of Amaranthus tuberculatus (= rudis) (Moq ex DC) JD Sauer by glyphosate in glyphosate-resistant crops. The potential of selection for decreased A tuberculatus sensitivity to glyphosate was therefore investigated in a reportedly resistant Everly, IA population (P0,EV). Evaluation of six A tuberculatus populations from the Midwest USA estimated a seedling baseline sensitivity of 2.15 mM glyphosate. Based on these results, three generations of divergent recurrent selection were implemented on P0,EV to isolate resistant and susceptible populations. A seedling assay was developed to screen large amounts of seeds and thus expedite the selection process. Whole-plant and seedling rate responses of P0,EV and a known pristine A tuberculatus population from Paint Creek, OH (P0,WT) identified no significant difference in response to glyphosate; however, greater phenotypic variance was ostensibly evident in P0,EV. The first recurrent generation selected for resistance at 3.2 mM glyphosate (RS1,R) had a 5.9- and 1.7-fold resistance increase at the seedling and whole-plant levels, respectively, compared with the susceptible generation selected at 32 µM glyphosate. After three cycles of recurrent selection, 14.6-fold difference in resistance at the seedling level and 3.1-fold difference at the whole-plant level were observed when comparing the populations selected for resistance (RS3,R) and susceptibility (RS3,S). Overall, recurrent selection increased the frequency of resistant individuals and decreased the variability to glyphosate at the population level. Nevertheless, variability for glyphosate resistance was still evident in RS3,R. Results herein suggested that A tuberculatus is inherently variable to glyphosate and that selection decreased the sensitivity to glyphosate. We purport that evolved glyphosate resistance in A tuberculatus may require multiple cycles of selection under field conditions. Historic estimated use of glyphosate alludes to the evolution of tolerant weed populations. Copyright © 2005 Society of Chemical Industry [source]

The analysis on the origin of high resistivity in Cl-doped polycrystalline CdZnTe thick films

K. H. Kim
Abstract Polycrystalline CdZnTe thick films were grown by thermal evaporation method using CdZnTe and CdZnTe:Cl source. Non-doped CdZnTe thick films have Te-rich stoichiometry having resistivity 3.3 × 109 ,cm. The Cl-doped CdZnTe thick films have 1.2 × 1010 ,cm in resistivity. To evaluate the role of Cl in the increasement of the resistivity, the density of localized states were calculated from the analysis of transient TOF (time of flight)current. From the comparison of Cl-doped CZT thick films with non-doped and O2 annealed CdZnTe thick films, we have found that Cl doping is related to the formation of states at EV + 0.75 eV region and oxygen reduces grain boundary related defects through formation TeO2 or CdTeO3. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Thermal acclimation of photosynthesis: a comparison of boreal and temperate tree species along a latitudinal transect

ABSTRACT Common gardens were established along a ,900 km latitudinal transect to examine factors limiting geographical distributions of boreal and temperate tree species in eastern North America. Boreal representatives were trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides Michx.) and paper birch (Betula papyrifera Marsh.), while temperate species were eastern cottonwood (Populus deltoides Bartr ex. Marsh var. deltoides) and sweetgum (Liquidambar styraciflua L.). The species were compared with respect to adjustments of leaf photosynthetic metabolism along the transect, with emphasis on temperature sensitivities of the maximum rate of ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) carboxylation (EV) and regeneration (EJ). During leaf development, the average air temperature (Tgrowth) differed between the coolest and warmest gardens by 12 °C. Evidence of photosynthetic thermal acclimation (metabolic shifts compensating for differences in Tgrowth) was generally lacking in all species. Namely, neither EV nor EJ was positively related to Tgrowth. Correspondingly, the optimum temperature (Topt) of ambient photosynthesis (Asat) did not vary significantly with Tgrowth. Modest variation in Topt was explained by the combination of EV plus the slope and curvature of the parabolic temperature response of mesophyll conductance (gm). All in all, species differed little in photosynthetic responses to climate. Furthermore, the adaptive importance of photosynthetic thermal acclimation was overshadowed by gm's influence on Asat's temperature response. [source]

Visualizing and quantifying the differential cleavages of the eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF4GI and eIF4GII in the enterovirus-infected cell

Yueh-Ying Hsu
Abstract Enterovirus (EV) infection has been shown to cause a marked shutoff of host protein synthesis, an event mainly achieved through the cleavages of eukaryotic translation initiation factors eIF4GI and eIF4GII that are mediated by viral 2A protease (2Apro). Using fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET), we developed genetically encoded and FRET-based biosensors to visualize and quantify the specific proteolytic process in intact cells. This was accomplished by stable expression of a fusion substrate construct composed of the green fluorescent protein 2 (GFP2) and red fluorescent protein 2 (DsRed2), with a cleavage motif on eIF4GI or eIF4GII connected in between. The FRET biosensor showed a real-time and quantifiable impairment of FRET upon EV infection. Levels of the reduced FRET closely correlated with the cleavage kinetics of the endogenous eIF4Gs isoforms. The FRET impairments were solely attributed to 2Apro catalytic activity, irrespective of other viral-encoded protease, the activated caspases or general inhibition of protein synthesis in the EV-infected cells. The FRET biosensors appeared to be a universal platform for several related EVs. The spatiotemporal and quantitative imaging enabled by FRET can shed light on the protease,substrate behaviors in their normal milieu, permitting investigation into the molecular mechanism underlying virus-induced host translation inhibition. Biotechnol. Bioeng. 2009; 104: 1142,1152. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

Detection of epidermodysplasia verruciformis-associated human papillomavirus DNA in nongenital seborrhoeic keratosis

Y-H. Li
Summary Background, DNA of epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV)-associated human papillomaviruses (HPVs) has been widely detected in lesions of malignant skin tumours, benign tumours and other proliferative diseases of epithelial origin. Objectives, To investigate the presence of EV-associated HPV DNA in nongenital seborrhoeic keratosis (SK) and to elucidate the prevalence of distinct HPV genotypes. Methods, We investigated HPV DNA in 55 nongenital SK biopsies, which were compared with 48 normal skin biopsies (healthy controls) using a nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using consensus primers CP65/CP70 and CP66/CP69. The positive PCR products were retracted and used to prepare recombination clones with T-vector. Distinct clones were analysed with endonucleases, and HPV genotypes were identified by direct sequencing. Results, EV-associated HPV DNA was detected in 42 of 55 (76%) nongenital SK biopsies vs. only 13 of 48 (27%) healthy controls (,2 = 22·087; P < 0·005). The prevalence was higher in patients with more than five lesions than in those with only one lesion (P < 0·05). Ten distinct HPV genotypes were detected in the nongenital SK biopsies: HPV 20, 23, 5, renal transplant recipient (RTR) X7, HPV 17, 37, 17b, RTRX4, RTRX4b and strain SK3. HPV 20 was found in 26 of 42 (62%) positive specimens, followed by HPV 23 (11 of 42, 26%) and HPV 5 (six of 42, 14%). Existence of multiple HPV genotypes was observed in 12 of 42 (29%) positive specimens. In healthy controls, five genotypes of EV-associated HPV (HPV 20, 23, 5, 17 and RTRX4) were detected, with the same predominant genotype of HPV 20 (five of 13, 38%). Several distinct HPV genotypes were found to coexist in four of 13 (31%) positive specimens. Conclusions, This study provides some evidence that EV-associated HPVs might play a part in the pathogenesis of nongenital SK. [source]

Recurrent ,sterile' verrucous cyst abscesses and epidermodysplasia verruciformis-like eruption associated with idiopathic CD4 lymphopenia

E. Tobin
Summary Rupture of follicular (epidermoid) cysts is believed to be the consequence of bacterial infection. We report a 24-year-old man with idiopathic CD4 lymphopenia and chronic Mycobacterium avium intracellulare infection who developed multiple, recurring painful abscesses over the distal extremities that increased in number and severity when systemic steroid and interferon-, treatment was instituted for interstitial lung disease. Cultures were consistently negative for microorganisms, but pathological examination revealed ruptured epidermoid cyst walls with human papillomavirus (HPV) viropathic changes (keratinocytes with perinuclear halos and abundant basophilic keratohyaline granules). Cutaneous examination showed numerous, widespread flat-topped papules and achromic macules over the extremities, head and neck. Nested polymerase chain reaction analysis for HPV DNA revealed that the abscess-related cyst walls harboured epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV)-associated HPV types 20, 24, alb-7 (AY013872) and 80. His cutaneous lesions harboured HPV types 3, 8 and 80. Similar to past reports, our patient developed an EV-like eruption in the setting of immunodeficiency. In this instance, EV-associated HPV infection of the follicular infundibular epithelium or pre-existing cysts in the setting of immunodeficiency may have led to cystic growth, rupture and subsequent painful inflammation. [source]

A broad spectrum of human papillomavirus types is present in the skin of Australian patients with non-melanoma skin cancers and solar keratosis

O. Forslund
SummaryBackground Human papillomavirus (HPV) may play a role in the pathogenesis of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) in epidermodysplasia verruciformis (EV) patients, but in the general population no specific HPV types have been associated with these lesions. Objectives To examine the spectrum of HPV types present in the skin and tumours of Australian patients with NMSC or solar keratosis (SK). Methods Biopsies from tumours, and cotton swab samples of perilesional skin and buttock skin from each of 59 Australian patients with basal cell carcinoma (BCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) or SK were tested for HPV DNA by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using HPV consensus (FAP) primers and by type-specific primers for HPV 38 and candidate HPV 92. The identification of HPV type from consensus PCR was performed by sequencing and comparison with GenBank. Results In total, 49 of 59 (83%) patients harboured HPV DNA, which was detected in 28 of 64 (44%) biopsies, 48 of 64 (75%; P < 0·001) perilesional swabs and 36 of 59 (61%; P = 0·04) buttock swabs. Forty-five different HPV types/putative types were detected: 15 were previously characterized HPV types, 17 were earlier described putative types and 13 were new putative types. In addition, six subtypes and four variants of HPV sequences were identified. HPV types within the B1 group (EV HPV types) were found in 26 of 64 (40%) lesions, 44 of 64 (69%) perilesional swabs and 35 of 59 (59%) buttock swabs. HPV 38 was detected in 23 of 59 (39%) patients, and was found in seven of 16 (43%) SKs, but was less common in SCCs [three of 23 (13%); P = 0·037] and BCCs [four of 25 (16%); P = 0·056]. Candidate HPV 92 was found in seven of 59 (12%) patients. Conclusions A broad spectrum of HPV types, the majority from the B1 group, was found in skin of Australian patients with skin tumours. HPV 38 was found significantly more often in SK than in SCC. However, the role of cutaneous HPV infection in the pathogenesis of NMSC remains elusive. [source]

Omitting types in fuzzy logic with evaluated syntax

Petra Murinovį
Abstract This paper is a contribution to the development of model theory of fuzzy logic in narrow sense. We consider a formal system Ev, of fuzzy logic that has evaluated syntax, i. e. axioms need not be fully convincing and so, they form a fuzzy set only. Consequently, formulas are provable in some general degree. A generalization of Gödel's completeness theorem does hold in Ev,. The truth values form an MV-algebra that is either finite or ,ukasiewicz algebra on [0, 1]. The classical omitting types theorem states that given a formal theory T and a set ,(x1, , , xn ) of formulas with the same free variables, we can construct a model of T which omits ,, i. e. there is always a formula from , not true in it. In this paper, we generalize this theorem for Ev,, that is, we prove that if T is a fuzzy theory and ,(x1, , , xn ) forms a fuzzy set , then a model omitting , also exists. We will prove this theorem for two essential cases of Ev,: either Ev, has logical (truth) constants for all truth values, or it has these constants for truth values from [0, 1] , , only. (© 2006 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Low- and high-frequency C,V characteristics of the contacts formed by sublimation of the nonpolymeric organic compound on p-type Si substrate

C. Temirci
Abstract The Sn/pyronine- B/p-Si Schottky structures have been obtained by sublimation of the organic compound pyronine- B onto the top of a p-Si surface. Barrier height and ideality factor value of 0.79 eV and 1.13, respectively, for the device have been determined from the forward-bias current,voltage (I,V) characteristics. The interface state density obtained from the forward bias high and low capacitance,voltage characteristics increases exponentially with bias between the midgap and the top of the valance band, from 2.15 × 1010 cm,2 eV,1 at (0.79,Ev) eV to 1.16 × 1012 cm,2 eV,1 at (0.53,Ev) eV. These values have been compared to those of the metal/Si structures in the literature, and it is seen that the presence of the nonreactive organic materials at the inorganic semiconductor and metal interface may obstruct the generation of the interface states at the semiconductor surface that strongly influence the Schottky barrier formation. (© 2004 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Radiation-induced defects and their transformations in oxygen-rich germanium crystals

V. P. Markevich
Abstract Defects induced by irradiation with fast electrons and 60Co gamma-rays in oxygen-rich Ge crystals have been studied by means of infrared absorption, deep level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and Hall effect measurements. It is found that the vacancy,oxygen (V,O) complex in Ge has three charge states (doubly negative, singly negative and neutral ones) and two corresponding energy levels in the gap at about Ec,,,0.21 eV and Ev + 0.27 eV. Three absorption bands at 621.4, 669.1 and 716.2 cm,1 are identified as oxygen-related asymmetrical stretching vibrations for the neutral, singly negatively charged and doubly negatively charged states of the V,O complex, respectively. [source]

Characteristics of VHF H2 Plasma Produced at High Pressure

Y. Yamauchi
Abstract A VHF H2 plasma was produced with the multi rod electrode at high pressure and the plasma parameters were measured as a function of pressure for different VHF powers at 60 MHz. It was found that when the pressure is increased, the ion saturation current peaks at certain pressure and finally decreases at high pressures, while the electron temperature is around 10 eV. The wall potential at high pressure was lower than the values estimated from the electron temperature using the probe theory. Furthermore, the anomalous reduction of the electron saturation current was observed. (© 2008 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Calculated Electron Impact Ionization Cross Sections of Excited Ne Atoms Using the DM Formalism

H. Deutsch
Abstract We used the semi-classical Deutsch-Märk (DM) formalism to calculate absolute electron-impact ionization cross sections of excited Ne atoms from threshold to 1000 eV. Excited states of Ne where the outermost valence electron is excited to states with principal quantum numbers up to n = 7 and orbital angular momentum quantum numbers up to l = 2 have been considered and systematic trends in the calculated cross section data are discussed. (© 2005 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Structural, optical and photoconductive properties of electron beam evaporated CdSxSe1-x films

K. Sivaramamoorthy
Abstract CdSxSe1-x films were deposited by the electron beam evaporation technique on glass substrates at different temperatures in the range 30 , 300 °C using the laboratory synthesized powders of different composition. The films exhibited hexagonal structure and the lattice parameters shifted from CdSe to CdS side as the composition changed from CdSe to CdS side. The bandgap of the films increased from 1.68 to 2.41 eV as the concentration of CdS increased. The root-mean-roughness (RMS) values are 3.4, 2.6, 1.2 and 0.6 nm as the composition of the films shifted towards CdS side. The conductivity varies from 30 ,cm -1 to 480 ,cm -1 as the ,x' value increases from 0 to 1. The films exhibited photosensitivity. The PL spectrum shifts towards lower energies with decreasing x, due to the decrease of the fundamental gap with Se composition. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Influence of substrate temperature on the properties of electron beam evaporated ZnSe films

M. G. Syed Basheer Ahamed
Abstract ZnSe films were deposited on glass substrates keeping the substrate temperatures, at room temperature (RT), 75, 150 and 250 °C. The films have exhibited cubic structure oriented along the (111) direction. Both the crystallinity and the grain size increased with increasing deposition temperature. A very high value of absorption co-efficient (104 cm -1) is observed. The band gap values decrease from a value of 2.94 eV to 2.69 eV with increasing substrate temperature. The average refractive index value is in the range of 2.39 , 2.41 for the films deposited at different substrate temperatures. The conductivity values increases continuously with temperature. Laser Raman spectra showed peaks at 140.8 cm -1, 246.7 cm -1and 204.5 cm -1which are attributable to 2TA LO phonon and TO phonon respectively. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Nanocrystalline transparent SnO2 -ZnO films fabricated at lower substrate temperature using a low-cost and simplified spray technique

K. Ravichandran
Abstract Nanocrystalline and transparent conducting SnO2 - ZnO films were fabricated by employing an inexpensive, simplified spray technique using a perfume atomizer at relatively low substrate temperature (360±5 °C) compared with conventional spray method. The structural studies reveal that the SnO2 -ZnO films are polycrystalline in nature with preferential orientation along the (101) plane. The dislocation density is very low (1.48×1015lines/m2), indicating the good crystallinity of the films. The crystallite size of the films was found to be in the range of 26,34 nm. The optical transmittance in the visible range and the optical band gap are 85% and 3.6 eV respectively. The sheet resistance increases from 8.74 k,/, to 32.4 k,/, as the zinc concentration increases from 0 to 40 at.%. The films were found to have desirable figure of merit (1.63×10,2 (,/,),1), low temperature coefficient of resistance (,1.191/K) and good thermal stability. This simplified spray technique may be considered as a promising alternative to conventional spray for the massive production of economic SnO2 - ZnO films for solar cells, sensors and opto-electronic applications. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

Optical properties of 2-aminopyridinium nitrato silver

K. P. Bhuvana
Abstract Crystals of 2-aminopyridinium nitrato silver have been synthesized by slow evaporation method. Grown crystals have been subjected to FTIR, Single crystal X-Ray diffraction and UV-Visible studies in order to investigate the structural and optical properties of the crystal. The FTIR spectrum reveals the presence of the functional group that corresponds to both 2-aminopyridine and silver nitrate, suggesting the formation of the compound, 2-aminopyridinium nitrato silver. From XRD it is observed that the crystal crystallizes in the structure of monoclinic with the space group of P21/c. The optical transmittance spectrum shows the maximum transparency of about 95% in the visible region is in consistent with the wide band gap, estimated as 4.738 eV. The optical constants n and k has also been determined from the transmittance data. The static dielectric constant is found to be 0.851. The wide band gap and the less dielectric constant suggest the suitability of this compound material for photoconductive applications. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]