Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Agreeableness

  • low agreeableness

  • Selected Abstracts

    Criminal cognitions and personality: what does the PICTS really measure?

    Dr Vincent Egan
    Introduction The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) is a measure of the criminal cognitions and thinking styles that maintain offending. The scale comprises 8 a priori thinking styles and two validation scales, the validation scales having been found to be unreliable. Owing to the large amount of apparently shared variance in the original validation study, this data matrix needs re-analysis. Results from the PICTS were examined in relation to general measures of individual differences, in order to link the PICTS to the broader literature on the characteristics of offenders. Method The original PICTS data-matrix was re-analysed using a more parsimonious method of analysis. The PICYS was also given to 54 detained, mentally disordered offenders along with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS), the Attention Deficit Scales for Adults (ADSA) and, as a measure of general intelligence, the Standard Progressive Matrices. Results Principal components analysis suggested that the PICTS really comprised two factors: a lack of thoughtfulness (i.e. lack of attention to one's experience), and wilful hostility, with the first factor being most well defined. Intelligence was not associated with any factor of criminal thinking style. High scores on the ADSA and Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility subscales of the SSS were associated with much greater endorsement of criminal sentiments; high Neuroticism, low Extroversion, and low Agreeableness were slightly lower correlates. Discussion The issues involved in criminogenic cognitions need clarification and to be linked to the broader literature on cognitive distortions and personality. Interventions targeted at dismantling impulsive destructive behaviour, whether it be thoughtlessness or wilful hostility, may be effected by increasing thinking skills, so breaking down the cognitions that maintain criminal behaviour. Copyright © 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Regional cerebral brain metabolism correlates of neuroticism and extraversion

    Thilo Deckersbach Ph.D.
    Abstract Factor-analytic approaches to human personality have consistently identified several core personality traits, such as Extraversion/Introversion, Neuroticism, Agreeableness, Consciousness, and Openness. There is an increasing recognition that certain personality traits may render individuals vulnerable to psychiatric disorders, including anxiety disorders and depression. Our purpose in this study was to explore correlates between the personality dimensions neuroticism and extraversion as assessed by the NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI) and resting regional cerebral glucose metabolism (rCMRglu) in healthy control subjects. Based on the anxiety and depression literatures, we predicted correlations with a network of brain structures, including ventral and medial prefrontal cortex (encompassing anterior cingulate cortex and orbitofrontal cortex), insular cortex, anterior temporal pole, ventral striatum, and the amygdala. Twenty healthy women completed an 18FFDG (18F-fluorodeoxyglucose) positron emission tomography (PET) scan at rest and the NEO-FFI inventory. We investigated correlations between scores on NEO-FFI Neuroticism and Extraversion and rCMRglu using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). Within a priori search territories, we found significant negative correlations between Neuroticism and rCMRglu in the insular cortex and positive correlations between Extraversion and rCMRglu in the orbitofrontal cortex. No significant correlations were found involving anterior cingulate, amygdala, or ventral striatum. Neuroticism and Extraversion are associated with activity in insular cortex and orbitofrontal cortex, respectively. Depression and Anxiety 23:133,138, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    The relationship between ,workaholism', basic needs satisfaction at work and personality

    Cecilie Schou Andreassen
    Abstract The aim of this study was to examine correlates of ,workaholism' components (Work Involvement, Drive, Enjoyment of Work). A cross-occupational sample of 661 Norwegian employees in six different organizations completed a web-based survey measuring ,workaholism', basic needs satisfaction at work and personality. Needs satisfaction at work was positively related to Enjoyment of Work, and negatively to Drive. Conscientiousness was positively related to all ,workaholism' components; Extraversion and Openness to Work Involvement and Enjoyment of Work; and Neuroticism to Drive. Negative relations were found between Neuroticism and Enjoyment of Work, and Agreeableness and Drive. Although the associations were rather weak, the findings give reason to differentiate between enthusiastic and non-enthusiastic ,workaholic' characteristics, which were consistent with predictions taken from central theories on ,workaholism'. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality traits and health-risk behaviours in university students

    Ryan Y. Hong
    Abstract Relations between personality and health-risk behaviours in university undergraduates were examined using multiple measures of personality across multiple samples (N,=,1151). Big Five personality variables, at both factor and facet levels, were used to predict three specific health-risk behaviours: (a) tobacco consumption, (b) alcohol consumption and (c) speeding in an automobile. Our findings showed that low Conscientiousness and low Agreeableness were uniformly associated with this cluster of potentially health damaging behaviours. Extraversion was additionally associated with alcohol use. Interaction effects were found between Conscientiousness and Agreeableness on smoking and (for men only) on drinking. Other personality variables not centrally related to the Big Five, such as Risk-Taking (high) and Integrity (low), were also implicated in the present health-risk behaviours. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Agreeableness is related to social-cognitive, but not social-perceptual, theory of mind

    Daniel Nettle
    Abstract We hypothesise on a number of grounds that the personality dimension of Agreeableness may be associated with inter-individual differences in theory of mind (ToM) functioning. However, it is important to distinguish social-perceptual from social-cognitive ToM. Previous findings on ToM in psychopathic individuals, sex differences in ToM and the associations between ToM and social relationships, all suggest that social-cognitive ToM is more likely than social-perceptual ToM to relate to Agreeableness. In separate empirical studies, we find that Agreeableness is substantially correlated with social-cognitive ToM performance, but uncorrelated with social-perceptual ToM performance. We suggest that the propensity or motivation to attend to the mental states of others may be central to the personality dimension of Agreeableness. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Sex differences in school achievement: what are the roles of personality and achievement motivation?

    Ricarda Steinmayr
    Abstract It is consistently reported that despite equal cognitive ability, girls outperform boys in school. In several methodological steps, the present study examined sex differences in school achievement and some of the most important personality and motivational constructs in a sample of 204 females and 138 adolescent males (mean age M,=,16.94 years; SD,=,0.71). Grades in Math and German as well as grade point average (GPA) served as achievement criteria. Intelligence, the Big Five of personality and motivational variables (achievement motives, goal orientation, task values and ability self-concepts) served as predictors. After controlling for intelligence, girls' grades were significantly better than boys'. Mean sex differences were found for most variables. There were no gender-specific associations between predictors and grades. Agreeableness, work avoidance, ability self-concepts and values ascribed to German mediated the association between sex and grades in German. Controlling for ability self-concepts and values ascribed to Math enhanced the association between sex and math grades. We concluded that personality and motivation play important roles in explaining sex differences in school attainment. Results are discussed against the background of practical and methodological implications. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Taxonomy and structure of the Polish personality lexicon

    Piotr Szarota
    Abstract We identified 1839 person-descriptive adjectives from a Polish dictionary, and 10 judges classified those adjectives into five descriptive categories. Two hundred ninety adjectives (16 per cent) were classified by most judges as ,Dispositions' (i.e. relatively stable personality traits and abilities). We examined the structure of those 290 adjectives in self-ratings from 350 respondents. In the five-factor solution, two dimensions closely resembled Big Five Conscientiousness and Agreeableness, and two others represented rotated variants of Extraversion and Emotional Stability. The fifth factor was dominated by Intellect, containing little Imagination and no Unconventionality content. A six-factor solution closely resembled the cross-language HEXACO structure (but with ,Intellect' rather than ,Openness to Experience'). Analyses of 369 peer ratings revealed five- and six-factor solutions nearly identical to those of self-ratings. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The intervening role of social worldviews in the relationship between the five-factor model of personality and social attitudes

    A. Van Hiel
    Abstract The present research investigates in a student (N,=,183) and a voter sample (N,=,276) whether the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) personality dimensions and social attitudes (i.e. Right-Wing Authoritarianism [RWA] and Social Dominance Orientation [SDO]) are mediated by social worldviews (i.e. dangerous and jungle worldviews). Two important results were obtained. First, the perception of the world as inherently dangerous and chaotic partially mediated the relationships of the personality dimensions Openness and Neuroticism and the social attitude RWA. Second, the jungle worldview completely mediated the relationships between Agreeableness and SDO, but considerable item overlap between the jungle worldview and SDO was also noted. It was further revealed that acquiescence response set and item overlap had an impact on social worldviews and attitudes, but that their relationships were hardly affected by these biases. The discussion focuses on the status of social worldviews to explain social attitudes. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Big Five personality development in adolescence and adulthood

    Susan J. T. Branje
    Abstract The present article examines Big Five personality development across adolescence and middle adulthood. Two adolescents and their fathers and mothers from 285 Dutch families rated their own and their family members' personality. Using accelerated longitudinal growth curve analyses, mean level change in Big Five factors was estimated. For boys, Extraversion and Openness decreased and for girls, Extraversion, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, and Openness increased. Whereas mothers' Emotional Stability and Conscientiousness increased, fathers' Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Emotional Stability decreased. Differences in self- and other-reported personality change were found, as well as interindividual differences in personality change. Results confirm that personality change is possible across the life course but these changes are not similar for all individuals and depend on the type of observer. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality, identity styles and authoritarianism: an integrative study among late adolescents

    Bart Duriez
    Abstract The relations between five personality factors, three identity styles, the prejudice dispositions of right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), social dominance orientation (SDO) and racial prejudice were investigated in a Flemish-Belgian late adolescent sample (N,=,328). Results show that Openness to Experience and Agreeableness relate to racial prejudice but that these relations were fully mediated by RWA and SDO. In addition, results show that whereas RWA relates to Conscientiousness and lack of Openness to Experience, SDO relates to lack of Agreeableness and lack of Openness to Experience. The relation between Conscientiousness and RWA and between Openness to Experience and SDO was fully mediated by the identity styles. However, Openness to Experience had a direct influence on RWA and Agreeableness had a direct influence on SDO. The implications of these findings are discussed. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Adolescent personality, problem behaviour and the quality of the parent,adolescent relationship,

    Willeke A. Manders
    Abstract The relationship between adolescent personality and problem behaviour has been well established. However, relatively little attention has been given to the role of the social environment in the association between adolescent personality and problem behaviour. We tested the mediating and moderating role of the quality of the parent,adolescent relationship in the associations between adolescents' personality traits and problem behaviour. The sample consisted of 140 adolescents (11 to 18 years of age) and both their parents. Results supported a mediating role of the father/mother,adolescent relationship in the associations between Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Conscientiousness and externalizing problem behaviour. The father/mother,adolescent relationships did not mediate the associations between personality traits and internalizing problem behaviour. We also found support for a moderating role of the father/mother,adolescent relationships in the association between Emotional Stability and both externalizing and internalizing problem behaviours. Other moderated effects were specific for parent, personality trait and type of problem behaviour. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Taxonomy and structure of Croatian personality-descriptive adjectives

    Boris Mla
    This paper describes the development of a comprehensive taxonomy of Croatian personality-descriptive terms, organized in three studies. In the first study three judges searched through a standard dictionary of the Croatian language for person-descriptive terms. In the second study, personality-descriptive adjectives were classified by seven judges into 13 different categories of descriptors. In the third study, the 483 adjectives that the majority of judges in the second study classified as dispositions were rated for self-descriptions by 515 University of Zagreb students and for peer-descriptions by 513 students' best acquaintances. Self- and peer ratings were factor analysed separately and the Croatian emic lexical factors from both data sets were interpreted to be similar to the Big-Five factors: Agreeableness, Extraversion, Conscientiousness, Intellect, and Emotional Stability. The inspection of factor content of the Croatian emic factors and their relation to imported Big-Five measures revealed high correspondences for all five Croatian factors although the relation between the Croatian and the imported factors of Emotional Stability and Agreeableness was somewhat more complex. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    What matters most to prejudice: Big Five personality, Social Dominance Orientation, or Right-Wing Authoritarianism?

    Bo Ekehammar
    Whereas previous research has studied the relation of either (i) personality with prejudice, (ii) personality with social dominance orientation (SDO) and right-wing authoritarianism (RWA), or (iii) SDO and RWA with prejudice, the present research integrates all approaches within the same model. In our study (N,=,183), various causal models of the relationships among the Big Five, SDO, RWA, and Generalized Prejudice are proposed and tested. Generalized Prejudice scores were obtained from a factor analysis of the scores on various prejudice instruments (racism, sexism, prejudice toward homosexuals, and mentally disabled people), which yielded a one-factor solution. The best-fitting causal model, which was our suggested hypothetical model, showed that Big Five personality had no direct effect on Generalized Prejudice but an indirect effect transmitted through RWA and SDO, where RWA seems to capture personality aspects to a greater extent than SDO. Specifically, Generalized Prejudice was affected indirectly by Extraversion, Openness to Experience, and Conscientiousness through RWA, and by Agreeableness through SDO, whereas Neuroticism had no effect at all. The results are discussed against the background of previous research and the personality and social psychology approaches to the study of prejudice. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Is trait-Emotional Intelligence simply or more than just a trait?

    Karen van der Zee
    The present study examined the usefulness of trait-Emotional Intelligence (EI) among a sample of 1186 top managers who filled out questionnaires for Emotional Intelligence and the Big Five and were evaluated by a consultant on their competencies. Three higher-order factors were found to underlie the Bar-On Emotional Quotient Inventory (Bar-On, 1997): sense of accomplishment, empathy, and planfulness. Trait-EI was found to be substantially related to Extraversion, Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, and Autonomy. Nevertheless, the EI-factors predicted additional variance over and above the Big Five in competency to support. On the whole, top managers scored higher on the EI dimensions compared with a general population sample. High EI scores were particularly found among managers from enterprising occupational environments, that is environments dominated by activities that entail persuading and leading others to attain organizational goals or economic gain. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The relation between personality and prejudice: a variable- and a person-centred approach

    Bo Ekehammar
    The relationship between Big Five personality (measured by the NEO-PI) and prejudice was examined using a variable- and a person-centred approach. Big Five scores were related to a generalized prejudice factor based on seven different prejudice scales (racial prejudice, sexism, etc). A correlation analysis disclosed that Openness to Experience and Agreeableness were significantly related to prejudice, and a multiple regression analysis showed that a variable-centred approach displayed a substantial cross-validated relationship between the five personality factors and prejudice. A cluster analysis of the Big Five profiles yielded, in line with previous research, three personality types, but this person-centred approach showed a low cross-validated relationship between personality and prejudice, where the overcontrolled type showed the highest prejudice and the undercontrolled the lowest, with the resilient falling in between. A head-to-head comparison sustained the conclusion that, based on people's Big Five personalities, their generalized prejudice could be predicted more accurately by the variable- than the person-centred approach. Copyright © 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Personality traits and parenting: neuroticism, extraversion, and openness to experience as discriminative factors

    Riitta-Leena Metsäpelto
    This study used variable- and person-oriented approaches to examine the relationship between personality traits (at age 33) and parenting (at age 36) among 94 mothers and 78 fathers. The SEM revealed that Openness to Experience (O), low Neuroticism (N), and Extraversion (E) were related to parental nurturance; low O to parental restrictiveness; and low N to parental knowledge about the child's activities. Cluster analysis based on the three parenting factors yielded six gender-related parenting types with distinguishable personality profiles. Authoritative parents (mostly mothers) and emotionally involved parents (mostly fathers), who were high in nurturance and high to moderate in parental knowledge, were high in E and high to moderate in O. Authoritarian parents (mostly fathers) and emotionally detached parents (mostly mothers), who were low in nurturance, high to moderate in restrictiveness, and moderate to low in parental knowledge, were low in O and E. Permissive parents, who were low in restrictiveness and parental knowledge and moderate in nurturance, were high in N, E, and O. Engaged parents, who were high in nurturance, restrictiveness, and parental knowledge, were moderate in all personality traits. Agreeableness and Conscientiousness did not differ between the parenting types. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Major depression, chronic minor depression, and the five-factor model of personality

    Kate L. Harkness
    Fifty-eight outpatients with major depression completed the NEO Personality Inventory at intake (time 1) and after up to three months of anti-depressant treatment (time 2). Within this group, 26 patients met additional Research Diagnostic Criteria for chronic minor depression. Repeated-measures analyses revealed significant decreases in Neuroticism scores, and significant increases in Extraversion and Conscientiousness scores, from time 1 to time 2 for both patient groups. In addition, despite similar symptom severity at time 2, the patients with major depression+chronic minor depression scored significantly higher on the Angry Hostility facet of Neuroticism and significantly lower on Agreeableness than those with major depression alone. We suggest from these findings that Angry Hostility and low Agreeableness may represent a trait vulnerability in individuals with chronic minor depression that persists even following remission of the major depressive state, and that this may help to explain their high rates of relapse and recurrence. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Humor Styles Questionnaire: personality and educational correlates in Belgian high school and college students,

    Vassilis Saroglou
    Studies often treat sense of humour as a unidimensional construct. Recently, however, four different humour styles have been hypothesized and validated by the Humor Styles Questionnaire (HSQ). In the present two studies, first, the HSQ received cross-cultural validation among French-speaking Belgian students (94 high school and 87 college students). Second, apart from some similarities (Extraversion, low need for closure), the four humour styles were found to be differently related to personality. Social and self-enhancing humour styles were positively related to Agreeableness, Openness, and self-esteem, whereas hostile humour was negatively related to Agreeableness and Conscientiousness. Self-defeating humour was negatively related to Emotional Stability, Conscientiousness, security in attachment, and self-esteem. Finally, students' humour styles were neither direct nor indirect predictors of school performance, but self-defeating and hostile humour styles were typical of students with low school motivation. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Analysis of genetic influences on the consistency and variability of the Big Five across different stressful situations

    Gerty Lensvelt-Mulders
    Several studies have demonstrated that individual differences in personality traits, known as the Big Five, have a genetic component. These personality traits are considered important predictors of everyday behaviour. In addition to personality traits there are also factors in the environment that govern behaviour. This dual influence on behaviour is statistically reflected in a P,×,S interaction. This study examines the genetic and environmental influences on the interactions between a person and his daily life environment for the Big Five. Fifty-seven identical twin pairs and 43 fraternal twin pairs participated in this study. Trait related behaviour was measured in 30 different situations with the aid of an SR inventory. The heritability coefficients for the main effect of P were in the normal range, varying between 0.35 for Agreeableness and 0.53 for Conscientiousness. The heritability coefficients for the P,×,S interactions were moderately high, explaining between 26% and 69% of the total P,×,S variance. The consequences of these results for general and behavioural genetic research on the Big Five will be discussed. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    The structure of the French personality lexicon

    Kathleen Boies
    The structure of the French personality lexicon was investigated. Self-ratings on the 388 most frequently used French personality-descriptive adjectives were obtained from 415 French-speaking people. The scree plot of eigenvalues indicated six large factors. In the varimax-rotated six-factor solution, the four largest factors, in order of size, corresponded fairly closely to the Big Five dimensions of Agreeableness, Emotional Stability, Extraversion, and Conscientiousness. The fifth factor was similar to the Honesty dimension found in several other languages. The sixth factor was defined by Imagination-related terms, but not by Intellect-related terms. Solutions involving one to five factors were also investigated and correlations between the factors that emerged from these different solutions are presented. The results are discussed in relation to other lexical studies of personality structure. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Can Basic Individual Differences Shed Light on the Construct Meaning of Assessment Center Evaluations?

    J. M. Collins
    The construct meaning of assessment center evaluations is an important unresolved issue in I/O psychology. This study hypothesized that Cognitive Ability and personality traits are primary correlates of evaluators' overall assessment ratings (OARs). Meta,analysis results based on 65 correlations indicate the following mean construct,level correlations with OARs: .67 for Cognitive Ability, .50 for Extraversion, .35 for Emotional Stability, .25 for Openness, and .17 for Agreeableness; yielding a multiple R of .84. These findings support our hypothesis and cast light on the construct meaning of assessment center evaluations. [source]

    Job Requirements Biodata as a Predictor of Performance in Customer Service Roles

    Elizabeth Allworth
    A job requirements approach to biodata item specification, similar to the content-valid job analysis approach developed by Pannone (1984), is used to predict customer service. Applicants rate the extent to which their current and previous jobs involve tasks and behaviours that have been identified through an analysis of the target job. On a sample of 245 employees in an international hotel, the criterion-related validity of job requirements biodata compares favourably with traditional construct-oriented biodata measures of customer service, cognitive ability and personality (Conscientiousness, Agreeableness and Extroversion). The job requirements approach provides a simple, direct and content-valid method of biodata item specification. As the approach can also be tailored for particular jobs or organizations, validity is also potentially optimized. [source]

    The Impact of Contextual Self-Ratings and Observer Ratings of Personality on the Personality,Performance Relationship,

    Erika Engel Small
    This study examined 2 possible ways of increasing the predictive validity of personality measures: using observer (i.e., supervisor and coworker) ratings and work-specific self-ratings of Big Five personality factors. Results indicated that among general self-ratings of Big Five personality dimensions, Conscientiousness was the best predictor of in-role performance, and Agreeableness and Emotional Stability were the best predictors of organizational citizenship behavior (OCB). Observer ratings of personality accounted for incremental variance in job performance (in-role performance and OCB) beyond that accounted for by general self-ratings. However, contrary to our expectations, work-specific (i.e., contextual) self-ratings of personality generally did not account for incremental variance in job performance beyond that accounted for by general self-ratings. [source]

    Agreeableness as a predictor of aggression in adolescence

    Katie A. Gleason
    Abstract This multi-method research linked the Big Five personality dimensions to aggression in early adolescence. Agreeableness was the personality dimension of focus because this dimension is associated with motives to maintain positive interpersonal relations. In two studies, middle school children were assessed on the Big Five domains of personality. Study 1 showed that agreeableness was associated with both indirect and direct aggression. In addition, the link between agreeableness and aggression was strongest for direct strategies. Study 2 examined the hypotheses that agreeableness predicts social cognitions associated with aggression, peer reports of direct aggression, and teacher reports of adjustment. Agreeableness predicted peer reports of aggression and social cognitions associated with aggression. In addition, aggression mediated the link between agreeableness and adjustment. Results suggest that of the Big Five dimensions, Agreeableness is most closely associated with processes and outcomes related to aggression in adolescents. Aggr. Behav. 30:43,61, 2004. © 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Examining antisocial behavior through the lens of the five factor model of personality

    Joshua D. Miller
    The current study attempts to provide greater precision in understanding how personality is related to antisocial behavior. Specifically, we examined the relations between the facets (subordinate traits) from three domains (superordinate dimensions): Neuroticism, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness, of the Five Factor Model and five outcome variables: stability of conduct problems, variety of conduct problems, onset of conduct problems, aggression, and antisocial personality disorder symptoms. These relations were examined in a community sample of 481 individuals. These three personality dimensions were chosen for exploration due to their consistent relations, at the domain level, with antisocial behaviors. The results from this study suggest that the facets from the dimension of Agreeableness are the most consistently related to all five outcomes. However, the facets from all three domains made significant contributions. Overall, three personality traits stood out as being the strongest and most consistent predictors: low straightforwardness, low compliance, and low deliberation. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 29:497,514, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Interactive Effects of Traits on Adjustment to a Life Transition

    Anat Bardi
    ABSTRACT A longitudinal design was used to test theoretically derived interactive effects of traits on adjustment to relocation 1, 8, and 15 months after relocation of elderly women. Openness interacted with Neuroticism and with Extraversion in affecting changes in distress after relocation by amplifying the basic emotional tendencies of Neuroticism and Extraversion. These were delayed effects, occurring only 15 months after relocation. Openness also interacted with Neuroticism in predicting changes in psychological well-being with the effects occurring primarily early in postmove adjustment. In addition, Extraversion interacted with Conscientiousness and with Agreeableness in predicting changes in distress, such that the beneficial effects of Conscientiousness and Agreeableness were evident only for individuals low on Extraversion. These effects were consistent across time, showing long-term effects. Overall, the findings demonstrate the multiplicity of ways in which trait interactions predict dynamic adjustment to a life transition. [source]

    Loving, Hating, Vacillating: Agreeableness, Implicit Self-Esteem, and Neurotic Conflict

    Michael D. Robinson
    ABSTRACT An implicit preference for the self over others may be beneficial when pursuing one's own desires but costly when adjusting the self to the desires of others. On the basis of this reasoning, the authors hypothesized that Agreeableness and implicit self-esteem would interact in predicting measures of neurotic distress. Three studies and one meta-analysis, involving 235 undergraduate participants, confirmed that high levels of implicit self-esteem were beneficial (i.e., less neurotic distress) within the context of low levels of Agreeableness but costly (i.e., more neurotic distress) within the context of high levels of Agreeableness. Because findings were robust across various measures of Agreeableness, implicit self-esteem, and neurotic distress, the interpersonal principles examined here appear to have broad relevance for understanding this particular form of intrapsychic conflict and its manifestation in neurotic distress. Results therefore support Horney's (1945) theory concerning the consequences of intrapsychic conflicts related to interpersonal motivation and cognition. [source]

    Relationship Quality, Trait Similarity, and Self-Other Agreement on Personality Ratings in College Roommates

    John E. Kurtz
    Previous research has shown that the level of self-other agreement for personality trait ratings increases with the length of acquaintanceship between the target and the informant. These findings emerge exclusively from studies of well-acquainted pairs in natural relationships and relative strangers interacting in laboratory and classroom settings. The present study examines self-other correlations for trait ratings using the NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI; Costa & McCrae, 1992) with 103 pairs of previously unacquainted female college roommates. Assessments were obtained at approximately 2 weeks and again at approximately 15 weeks subsequent to the roommates' initial introduction. Self-other correlations increased for all five NEO-FFI scores and agreement correlations for Conscientiousness were significantly higher than for Extraversion at both occasions. Differences in relationship quality did not moderate self-other agreement for any of the traits. However, better relationship quality was associated with higher other-ratings of Extraversion, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness and lower other-ratings of Neuroticism after controlling for self-ratings on the same trait. Higher similarity in self-ratings of Neuroticism and Openness was associated with higher self-other agreement for these ratings, and similarity in Conscientiousness was associated with higher relationship quality. These results are considered in light of existing theories of differential trait observability and the effects of unique contexts on trait perception. [source]

    Personality Judgments in Adolescents' Families: The Perceiver, the Target, Their Relationship, and the Family

    Susan J. T. Branje
    The present study investigated whether personality judgments involve different processes in a family setting than in a nonfamily setting. We used the Social Relations Model to distinguish the effects of perceiver, target, perceiver-target relationship, and family on personality judgments. Family members of families with adolescents judged their own and the other members' Big Five factors. Judgments were found to depend on the relevance of personality factors within the family setting: Agreeableness and Conscientiousness were judged most consistently. Large relationship variance indicated that parents adjust their judgments to the target family member; large perceiver variance indicated that adolescents judge family members' personalities rather similarly. However, a comparison of self- and other-judgments showed adolescents' judgments to be no more related to their self-perceptions than parents' judgments. We concluded that the relevance of personality factors may differ on specific tasks within a setting. [source]

    The Role of Personality in Task and Relationship Conflict

    Joyce E. Bono
    ABSTRACT Two studies explored the extent to which dispositions influence the attributions individuals make about the type of conflict they experience. Traits from the Five-Factor Model of personality (FFM) were linked to the tendency to experience task-and relationship-oriented conflict. Results provide some support for the idea that individuals have stable tendencies in the attributions they make about their conflict experiences across time, partners, and situations. Agreeableness and openness were related to reports of relationship conflict at the individual level. However, the strongest effects of personality on conflict attributions were found in the analysis of dyads. This analysis revealed that partner levels of extraversion and conscientiousness were associated with individuals' tendencies to report relationship conflict. Moreover, mean levels of extraversion and conscientiousness in a pair were associated with reports of relationship conflict. Differences between partners in extraversion were associated with more frequent conflict and a greater likelihood of reporting task-related conflict. Implications of these findings with respect to the role of personality in interpersonal relationships are discussed. Finally, these studies provide confirmatory evidence that conflict attributions have a meaningful impact on relationship satisfaction. [source]