Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Kinds of Aggression

  • adult aggression
  • alcohol-related aggression
  • child aggression
  • displaced aggression
  • inpatient aggression
  • intermale aggression
  • interspecific aggression
  • intraspecific aggression
  • male aggression
  • maternal aggression
  • overt aggression
  • patient aggression
  • physical aggression
  • proactive aggression
  • psychological aggression
  • reactive aggression
  • reduced aggression
  • relational aggression
  • sexual aggression
  • social aggression
  • verbal aggression

  • Terms modified by Aggression

  • aggression level
  • aggression paradigm
  • aggression questionnaire
  • aggression scale

  • Selected Abstracts


    ADDICTION, Issue 1 2010
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]


    Article first published online: 6 DEC 200
    First page of article [source]

    The manualization of a treatment programme for personality disorder

    Mary McMurran
    Background The advantages of manualized psychological treatments include: the promotion of evidence-based practice, the enhancement of treatment integrity, the facilitation of staff training, and the potential replicability of treatment. Argument The manualization of a multi-component, multidisciplinary treatment programme for male personality-disordered offenders is described. The background to this development is explained and the treatment setting is described briefly, followed by a description of the eight treatment manuals: (1) the treatment overview, (2) Psychoeducation focusing on personality disorder diagnosis and core beliefs, (3) Trust and Self-awareness group exercises, (4) Stop & Think! - a social problem-solving intervention, (5) Controlling Angry Aggression, (6) Controlling Substance Use, (7) Criminal Thinking/Belief Therapy, and (8) Skills for Living - a social skills manual. Conclusions In addition to the original aims of manualization, this exercise has clarified the treatment programme, included less highly trained staff in the delivery of therapy and permitted the evaluation of treatment modules, thus contributing to the incremental evaluation of the overall programme. These manuals may usefully be shared with other practitioners in the field. Copyright © 2005 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

    Violence in a general hospital: comparison of assailant and other assault-related factors on accident and emergency and inpatient wards

    S. Winstanley
    Objective:, This study sought to compare the characteristics of aggressive incidents occurring on inpatient (medical and surgical) wards with those occurring in the accident and emergency department in terms of assailant, employee and other factors. Method:, A prospective interview-based survey design was adopted. Forty-eight assaulted staff were interviewed about 69 incidents within 7 days on average of the incident occurring. The presence or absence of various assailant, employee, situation, interaction and outcome factors derived from the UK Health Services Advisory Committee's model was compared between the two settings. Results:, Inpatient ward incidents were significantly more likely to have the following characteristics: female perpetrator, perpetrator aged over 70 years, daytime occurrence in a restricted area, resolved by support from other health care staff. Conclusion:, Aggression frequently occurs on inpatient (medical and surgical) wards of a general hospital. Aggression management training for staff working in both accident and emergency and inpatient settings should be cognisant of the similarities and differences within general health care specialisms. [source]

    Networks and dominance hierarchies: does interspecific aggression explain flower partitioning among stingless bees?

    1. The distribution of consumers among resources (trophic interaction network) may be shaped by asymmetric competition. Dominance hierarchy models predict that asymmetric interference competition leads to a domination of high quality resources by hierarchically superior species. 2. In order to determine the competitive dominance hierarchy and its effect on flower partitioning in a local stingless bee community in Borneo, interspecific aggressions were tested among eight species in arena experiments. 3. All species tested were strongly mutually aggressive in the arena, and the observed interactions were often lethal for one or both opponents. Aggression significantly increased with body size differences between fighting pairs and was asymmetric: larger aggressors were superior over smaller species. Additional aggression tests involved dummies with surface extracts, and results suggest that species- and colony-specific surface profiles are important in triggering the aggressive behaviour. 4. Sixteen stingless bee species were observed foraging on 41 species of flowering plants. The resulting bee,flower interaction network showed a high degree of generalisation (network-level specialisation H2' = 0.11), corresponding to a random, opportunistic distribution of bee species among available flower species. 5. Aggressions on flowers were rare and only occurred at a low level. The dominance hierarchy obtained in the arena experiments did not correlate significantly with plant quality, estimated as the number of flowers per plant or as total bee visitation rate. 6. Our findings suggest that asymmetries in interference competition do not necessarily translate into actual resource partitioning in the context of complex interacting communities. [source]

    Aggression in imported fire ants: an explanation for shifts in their spatial distributions in Southern United States?

    Abstract 1.,The imported fire ants, Solenopsis invicta Buren (red), S. richteri Forel (black), and their hybrids (S. invicta × S. richteri) are sympatric congeners with overlapping but shifting spatial distributions in northern Alabama and Mississippi, United States. 2.,The abilities of workers of the three ant forms (or species) to recognise non-nestmate conspecifics and heterospecifics were compared in separate aggression bioassays using three group sizes of competitor numbers (battles): 1-1, 5-1, and 5-5 resident,intruder battles. 3.,Workers of all three forms showed significant aggression toward non-nestmate conspecifics and heterospecifics. The results of the intra-specific aggression bioassays showed that S. invicta had the lowest aggression threshold, whereas S. richteri was the least aggressive. Survival rates 1 day after intra-specific encounters were higher for S. richteri than for S. invicta or hybrids, consistent with its lower aggressiveness. 4.,In inter-specific interactions, S. invicta workers showed the greatest aggression and were more aggressive towards S. richteri than to hybrids. Furthermore, survival 1 day after inter-specific encounters was highest for S. invicta workers, whether they were the intruders or residents. The hybrid form was intermediate between both parental forms in aggression and post-aggression survival. 5.,The live 1-1 and 5-5 battles produced similar and consistent results, but differences were amplified in the 5-5 battles, suggesting an effect of group size on aggression. These results may explain the observed shifts in the spatial distributions of the three forms and range restriction of S. richteri in southern United States. [source]

    Marlowe's Doric Music: Lust and Aggression in Hero and Leander

    First page of article [source]

    Biting Behavior, Aggression, and Seizures

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 5 2005
    Carlo Alberto Tassinari
    Summary:,Purpose: To describe the semiologic features of aggressive behaviors observed in human epileptic seizures with particular reference to the act of biting a conspecific. Methods: We analyzed the biting behavior (BB) and other aggressive gestures occurring in a group of 11 patients retrospectively selected from >1,000 patients subjected to video-EEG/SEEG monitoring for presurgical evaluation of drug-resistant seizures. Results: Patients displaying BB showed (a) a male sex predominance, (b) heterogeneous etiologies and lesion locations, and (c) seizures involving the frontotemporal regions of both hemispheres. The act of biting was a rapid motor action, lasting ,600 ms, occurring in the context of strong emotional arousal, fear, and anger, with various bodily gestures with aggressive connotation. BB was mainly a "reflexive" behavior, in that biting acts were evoked (both during and after seizures) by actions of people in close contact with the patient. The sole intrusion of the examiner's hand in the space near the patient's face was effective in triggering BB. Rarely, self-directed or object-directed biting acts were not triggered by external stimuli. Intracranial data (SEEG) obtained in one subject showed that the amygdala/hippocampal region plus the orbitomedial prefrontal cortex had to be involved by ictal activity to observe BB. Conclusions: Anatomic and electrophysiologic data in our patients suggest that a model of dual,temporal and frontal,dysfunction could account for the occurrence of ictal/postictal BB. Behavioral data suggest also that BB and related aggressive gestures can be considered as the emergence of instinctive behaviors with an adaptative significance of defense of the peripersonal space. [source]

    The Association Between Male Offspring Aggression and Paternal and Maternal Behavior of Peromyscus Mice

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 10 2003
    Janet K. Bester-Meredith
    Parents influence offspring aggression through genetic and non-genetic mechanisms, although the latter are less well understood. To examine potential non-genetic effects of parents on offspring, we cross-fostered the highly aggressive and biparental California mouse (Peromyscus californicus) and the less aggressive, less parental white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). In-fostered animals within each species were used as controls. We examined associations between the foster parents' behavior and aggression of the fostered male offspring in resident,intruder (R,I) and neutral arena aggression tests. When both species and fostering groups were combined, R,I aggression of offspring was positively associated with paternal time spent retrieving pups. In contrast, aggression in a neutral arena was negatively associated with a composite score of maternal behavior. We discuss how our findings regarding paternal retrievals may explain previously reported effects of cross-fostering on male aggression. [source]

    Sex-Specific Aggression and Antipredator Behaviour in Young Brown Trout

    ETHOLOGY, Issue 7 2001
    Jörgen I. Johnsson
    Sex differences in adult behaviour are often interpreted as consequences of sexual selection and/or different reproductive roles in males and females. Sex-specific juvenile behaviour, however, has received less attention. Adult brown trout males are more aggressive than females during spawning and juvenile aggression may be genetically correlated with adult aggression in fish. We therefore tested the prediction that immature brown trout males are more aggressive and bolder than immature females. Because previous work has suggested that precocious maturation increases dominance in salmonids, we included precocious males in the study to test the prediction that early sexual maturation increase male aggression and boldness. Aggression and dominance relations were estimated in dyadic contests, whereas boldness was measured as a response to simulated predation risk using a model heron. Independent of maturity state, males initiated more than twice as many agonistic interactions as females in intersexual contests. However, males were not significantly more likely to win these contests than females. The response to a first predator attack did not differ between sex categories, but males reacted less to a second predator attack than females. Sexual maturity did not affect the antipredator response in males. Since there is no evidence from field studies that stream-living immature male and female salmonids differ in growth rate, it appears unlikely that the sex differences demonstrated are behavioural consequences of sex-specific investment in growth. It seems more likely that sex-specific behaviour arises as a correlated response to sexually selected gene actions promoting differential behaviour in adult males and females during reproduction. Alternatively, sex differences may develop gradually during juvenile life, because a gradual developmental program should be less costly than a sudden behavioural change at the onset of sexual maturity. [source]

    Facing guilt: Role of negative affectivity, need for reparation, and fear of punishment in leading to prosocial behaviour and aggression

    Gian Vittorio Caprara
    The present study aims to further corroborate and to extend the scope of previous findings regarding the path of influence between negative affectivity, need for reparation and fear of punishment when examining the determinants and the motivational components of guilt. Data were collected from three different European countries (i.e. Italy, Hungary, and the Czech Republic). About 1100 young adolescents were involved in the research. The generalizability of a nomological network linking individual differences in Negative Affectivity to Need for Reparation, Fear of Punishment, Prosocial Behaviour, and Aggression has been investigated across countries and gender, by means of structural equation modelling. Need for Reparation turns out to be positively related to Prosocial Behaviour and negatively related to Aggression. Fear for Punishment turns out to be positively related to Aggression and negatively related to Prosocial Behaviour, with the exception of Hungary. Alternative paths of influence among considered variables have been examined. Practical implications for prevention and education are underlined. Copyright © 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Mothers' Trait Verbal Aggressiveness as a Predictor of Maternal and Child Behavior During Playtime Interactions

    Steven R. Wilson
    This article explores associations between mothers' trait verbal aggressiveness (VA) and maternal and child behavior during playtime interactions. Forty mothers completed a 10-minute play period with one of their children (range = 3,8 years) and then responded to D. A. Infante and C. J. Wigley's (1986) trait VA scale. Mothers' trait VA was associated positively (r = .48) with their rate of directing and inversely (r =,.44) with their child's rated cooperation. Qualitative analyses of a subset (n = 8) of interactions suggest that mothers high in trait VA used directives to control the choice, rate, and duration of activities, and used physical negative touch along with directives, more than low-VA mothers. Behaviors associated with trait VA occur even during brief mother,child interactions in which triggers for aggressive behavior largely are absent. Résumé Le trait d,agressivité verbale des mères comme variable explicative des comportements maternels et infantiles lors d'interactions de jeu Cet article explore les associations entre le trait d,agressivité verbale (AV) des mères et le comportement maternel et infantile lors d'interactions de jeu. 40 mères ont participéà une période de jeu de 10 minutes avec l,un de leurs enfants (tranche d'âge = 3-8 ans) puis ont répondu à l'échelle de trait d'AV d,Infante et Wigley (1986). Le trait d'AV des mères fut associé positivement (r= 0,48) à leur taux de contrôle et inversement (r= -0,44) au taux de coopération de leur enfant. Des analyses qualitatives d,un sous-ensemble (n= 8) d'interactions donnent à penser que les mères au trait d,AV élevé ont fait usage de directives pour contrôle le choix, le rythme et la durée des activités et qu'elles ont utilisé le toucher physique négatif en même temps que les directives, plus que ne l,ont fait les mères au trait d'AV faible. Les comportements associés au trait d'AV surviennent même lors de brèves interactions mère-enfant au cours desquelles les déclencheurs de comportements agressifs étaient largement absents. Abstract Das Müttermerkmal verbale Aggression als Prädiktor für Mutter-Kind-Verhalten in spielerischen Interaktionen Dieser Artikel untersucht den Zusammenhang zwischen dem Müttermerkmal verbale Aggression (VA) und dem Mutter-Kind-Verhalten in spielerischen Interaktionen. 40 Mütter spielten 10 Minuten lang mit einem ihrer Kinder (zwischen 3-8 Jahren) und beantworteten dann die VA-Eigenschaftsskala nach Infante & Wigley (1986). Das Müttermerkmal VA war positiv assoziiert (r= .48) mit der Häufigkeit des führenden Eingreifens und umgekehrt assoziiert (r= -.44) mit der vom Kind beurteilten Kooperation. Qualitative Analysen eines Teils (n= 8) der Interaktionen deuten darauf hin, dass Mütter mit hoher VA führendes Eingreifen nutzen, um die Wahl, Häufigkeit und Dauer von Aktivitäten zu kontrollieren. Sie nutzten außerdem häufiger physisch negative Berührungen zusammen mit dem führenden Eingreifen als Mütter mit niedriger VA. Mit dem Merkmal VA verbundene Verhaltensweisen finden sogar in kurzen Mutter-Kind-Interaktionen statt bei denen Auslöser für aggressives Verhalten weitestgehend fehlen. Resumen El Rasgo de la Agresividad Verbal de las Madres como Vaticinador del Comportamiento Materno y del Niño Durante las Interacciones en el Recreo Este artículo explora la asociación entre el rasgo de agresividad verbal de las madres (VA) y el comportamiento maternal y del niño durante las interacciones en el recreo. Cuarenta madres completaron un período de 10-minutos de juego con uno de sus hijos (oscilando = 3-8 años) y luego respondieron a la escala sobre el rasgo VA de Infante y Wigley (1986). El rasgo VA de las madres fue asociado positivamente (r= .48) con el grado de direccionamiento e inversamente (r= -.44) con el grado de cooperación de su niño. Los análisis cualitativos de un subset (n= 8) de interacciones sugieren que las madres con rasgos altos de VA usaron directivas para controlar la selección, el tipo, y la duración de las actividades, y usaron el contacto físico negativo junto con directivas, más que las madres con rasgos bajos de VA. Los comportamientos asociados con el rasgo VA durante las interacciones breves entre la madre y su niño que provocan el comportamiento agresivo se encuentran mayormente ausentes. ZhaiYao Yo yak [source]

    The generalizability of the Buss,Perry Aggression Questionnaire

    József Gerevich
    Abstract Aggressive and hostile behaviours and anger constitute an important problem across cultures. The Buss,Perry Aggression Questionnaire (AQ), a self-rating scale was published in 1992, and has quickly become the gold-standard for the measurement of aggression. The AQ scale has been validated extensively, but the validation focused on various narrowly selected populations, typically, on samples of college students. Individuals, however, who are at risk of displaying aggressive and hostile behaviours may come from a more general population. Therefore, it is important to investigate the scale's properties in such a population. The objective of this study was to examine the factorial structure and the psychometric properties of the AQ scale in a nationally representative sample of the Hungarian adult population. A representative sample of 1200 subjects was selected by a two-step procedure. The dimensionality and factorial composition of the AQ scale was investigated by exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses. Since spurious associations and increased factorial complexity can occur when the analysis fails to consider the inherently categorical nature of the item level data, this study, in contrast to most previous studies, estimated the correlation matrices subjected to factor analysis using the polychoric correlations. The resulting factors were validated via sociodemographic characteristics and psychopathological scales obtained from the respondents. The results showed that based on the distribution of factor loadings and factor correlations, in the entire nationally representative sample of 1200 adult subjects, from the original factor structure three of the four factors (Physical and Verbal Aggression and Hostility) showed a good replication whereas the fourth factor (Anger) replicated moderately well. Replication further improved when the sample was restricted in age, i.e. the analysis focused on a sample representing the younger age group, comparable to that used in the original Buss,Perry study. Similar to the Buss,Perry study, and other investigations of the AQ scale, younger age and male gender were robustly related to physical aggression. In addition, level of verbal aggression was different between the two genders (with higher severity in males) whereas hostility and anger were essentially the same in both genders. In conclusion, the current study based on a representantive sample of adult population lends support to the use of the AQ scale in the general population. The authors suggest to exclude from the AQ the two inverse items because of the low reliability of these items with regard to their hypothesized constructs. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effect of Person-Centered Showering and the Towel Bath on Bathing-Associated Aggression, Agitation, and Discomfort in Nursing Home Residents with Dementia: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    Philip D. Sloane MD
    Objectives: To evaluate the efficacy of two nonpharmacological techniques in reducing agitation, aggression, and discomfort in nursing home residents with dementia. The techniques evaluated were person-centered showering and the towel bath (a person-centered, in-bed bag-bath with no-rinse soap). Design: A randomized, controlled trial, with a usual-care control group and two experimental groups, with crossover. Setting: Nine skilled nursing facilities in Oregon and six in North Carolina. Participants: Seventy-three residents with agitation during bathing (69 completed the trial) and 37 nursing assistants who bathed them. Measurements: Agitation and aggression were measured using the Care Recipient Behavior Assessment; discomfort was measured using a modification of the Discomfort Scale for Dementia of the Alzheimer Type. Raters who were blinded to subject status coded both from videotaped baths. Secondary measures of effect included bath duration, bath completeness, skin condition, and skin microbial flora. Results: All measures of agitation and aggression declined significantly in both treatment groups but not in the control group, with aggressive incidents declining 53% in the person-centered shower group (P<.001) and 60% in the towel-bath group (P<.001). Discomfort scores also declined significantly in both intervention groups (P<.001) but not in the control group. The two interventions did not differ in agitation/aggression reduction, but discomfort was less with the towel bath (P=.003). Average bath duration increased significantly (by a mean of 3.3 minutes) with person-centered showering but not with the towel bath. Neither intervention resulted in fewer body parts being bathed; both improved skin condition; and neither increased colonization with potentially pathogenic bacteria, corynebacteria, or Candida albicans. Conclusion: Person-centered showering and the towel bath constitute safe, effective methods of reducing agitation, aggression, and discomfort during bathing of persons with dementia. [source]

    The Influence of Anger-arousal Level on Attribution of Hostile Intent and Problem Solving Capability in an Individual with a Mild Intellectual Disability and a History of Difficulties with Aggression

    Kenneth M. A. MacMahon
    Background, Recent studies have suggested that cognitive biases may play an important mediating role in aggressive outbursts from people with mild intellectual disabilities (IDs). Essentially, some individuals may frequently perceive other people as acting towards them in a hostile fashion. This biased perception may develop through repeated adverse experiences, and may make them more likely to respond, likewise, in an aggressive manner. These studies have led to the development of a cognitive behavioural model of aggression, incorporating factors both intrinsic and extrinsic to the individual. This study aimed to explore one facet of this model: a putative relationship between anger-arousal level, problem-solving ability and perception of hostile intent in others. Method, Single-case methodology was utilized, and a 44-year-old man with a mild ID and a history of difficulties with aggression participated. A series of vignettes, containing potentially provocative social interactions, were read to the participant. His perception of hostile intent, and suggestions of possible behavioural responses were recorded as dependent variables. Anger-arousal was manipulated, through autobiographical recall, as a dependent variable. Results, Although not conclusive, results indicate that anger-arousal may act in an interactive fashion to increase perception of hostile intent. No effect of anger-arousal was observed on problem-solving ability; however, floor-effects in the task used may provide an explanation for this. Conclusions, A high level of anger-arousal may exacerbate the probability of a frequently aggressive individual perceiving others as acting in a hostile manner. However, future research should take the limitations of this study into account, and continue development of a cognitive model of frequent aggression in those with a mild ID. [source]

    Risk Factors of Sexual Aggression and Victimization Among Homosexual Men,

    Barbara Krahé
    This study examined risk factors of sexual aggression and victimization among homosexual men (N= 310). They completed the Homosexual Experiences Survey to record sexual aggression and victimization and provided information about 2 groups of potential risk factors: childhood abuse and sexual lifestyle (number of partners, age at first intercourse, age at coming out, accepting or paying of money for sex, and rape proclivity). One in 4 respondents reported severe forms of sexual victimization; 17% reported moderate victimization. Prevalence of perpetration of sexual aggression was almost 20% for severe aggression and 9% for moderate aggression. The risk of victimization increased as a function of childhood abuse as well as high number of partners and acceptance of money for sex. The risk of committing sexual aggression was positively related to childhood abuse, acceptance and payment of money for sex, high number of sexual partners, and rape proclivity. The findings are discussed in relation to evidence on heterosexual aggression. [source]

    Alcohol and Male Acceptance of Sexual Aggression: The Role of Perceptual Ambiguity,

    James D. Johnson
    The present study assessed the effects of drinking and behavioral ambiguity on perceptions of sexual aggression. Male participants, randomly assigned to 1 of 4 alcohol conditions (low, moderate, placebo, or control) viewed a videotaped interaction involving a couple meeting before a blind date. In the receptive condition, the female was friendly and excited. In the nonreceptive condition, she showed rigid posture and lacked enthusiasm. Participants then judged the acceptability of sexual aggression against the female and the attribution of the female's responsibility. Findings indicated a significant interaction such that in the receptive condition, higher alcohol doses elicited both greater acceptance of sexual aggression and greater attribution of female responsibility. There was no impact of alcohol dosage in the nonreceptive condition. [source]

    Preliminary investigations into a potential ant invader in Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Hendrik Sithole
    Abstract The super-abundance of Lepisiota incisa (Forel) in settlement areas of Kruger National Park, South Africa has raised concerns that it might be exotic and could negatively impact on natural ecosystems. We documented the current distribution of this ant species around the main settlement in Kruger, assessed how ant diversity varies across habitats, and investigated potential mechanisms facilitating dominance by L. incisa. Around the main camp of Skukuza, pitfall traps were set in five habitats differing in anthropogenic influence. Baiting trails were conducted to determine whether L. incisa and native ants differed in numerical and behavioural dominance. Aggression assays were performed on L. incisa to provide information on colony structure. Although L. incisa was found in all habitats, it had a significantly higher abundance in gardens and appears confined to human-disturbed areas. It was numerically dominant recruiting more workers to food baits than all other ant species combined. Aggression levels were low between most nests of L. incisa indicating a potential supercolony structure. More information is urgently needed on the genetics, physiology and origins of L. incisa, and monitoring of its current distribution is recommended. This species warrants attention because there may be significant potential for overseas invasion. Résumé La surabondance de Lepisiota incisa (Forel) dans des zones d'installations du Parc National Kruger, en Afrique du Sud, a suscité des inquiétudes quant au fait que cette espèce pourrait être exotique et avoir un impact négatif sur des écosystèmes naturels. Nous avons documenté la distribution actuelle de cette espèce de fourmi autour de la principale installation dans le Kruger, évalué comment la diversité des fourmis varie selon les habitats et étudié les mécanismes éventuels qui pourraient faciliter la dominance de L. incisa. On a installé des pièges autour du camp principal de Skukuza, dans cinq habitats où l'influence anthropogénique diffère. On a réalisé des pistes appâts pour déterminer si L. incisa et les fourmis indigènes différaient en matière de dominance numérique et comportementale. Nous avons fait des essais d'agression sur L. incisa pour donner des informations sur la structure de la colonie. Bien que l'on ait trouvéL. incisa dans tous les habitats, elle était beaucoup plus abondante dans les jardins et elle semble se confiner aux endroits perturbés par les hommes. Elle était numériquement dominante, recrutant plus d'ouvrières pour les appâts que toutes les autres espèces mises ensemble. Le niveau d'agression entre la plupart des nids de L. incisaétait bas, ce qui indique peut-être une structure de super-colonie. Il faut obtenir d'urgence d'autres informations sur la génétique, la physiologie et les origines de L. incisa et l'on recommande de faire le suivi de sa distribution actuelle. Cette espèce mérite l'attention parce qu'elle peut certainement être une espèce invasive outre-mer. [source]

    Current Approaches to the Assessment and Management of Anger and Aggression in Youth: A Review

    APRN-BC, Christie S. Blake RN
    BACKGROUND:,Anger and its expression represent a major public health problem for children and adolescents today. Prevalence reports show that anger-related problems such as oppositional behavior, verbal and physical aggression, and violence are some of the more common reasons children are referred for mental health services. METHODS:,An extensive review of the literature was conducted using the following online search engines: Cochrane, MEDLINE, PsychINFO, and PubMed. Published and unpublished articles that met the following criteria were included in the review: (a) experimental or quasi-experimental research designs; (b) nonpharmacologic, therapy-based interventions; and (c) study participants between 5 and 17 years of age. RESULTS:,Cognitive-behavioral and skills-based approaches are the most widely studied and empirically validated treatments for anger and aggression in youth. Commonly used therapeutic techniques include affective education, relaxation training, cognitive restructuring, problem-solving skills, social skills training, and conflict resolution. These techniques, tailored to the individual child's and/or family's needs, can foster the development of more adaptive and prosocial behavior. [source]

    Aggression towards health care staff in a UK general hospital: variation among professions and departments

    Sue Winstanley BSc
    Background., Aggression towards health care staff is an increasing problem and although many studies have examined psychiatric settings, few have considered general hospitals and in particular, variation among professions and locations. In addition, studies often fail to include all forms of aggression such as threatening behaviour and verbal aggression. Methods., This study extends existing research by evaluating physical assault, threatening behaviour and verbal aggression from patients/visitors towards general hospital staff in the context of different professions and departments. Results and conclusions., The survey of staff showed that aggression is widespread. Within the preceding year, 27% of the respondents were assaulted, 23% experienced threatening behaviour from patients and 15.5% experienced threatening behaviour from visitors. Over 68% reported verbal aggression, 25.7% experiencing it more regularly than monthly. By departments, over 42% of the medical department staff, 36% of the surgical staff and over 30% of the Accident and Emergency staff were assaulted. By profession, staff nurses and enrolled nurses reported the most assaults (43.4%) and doctors, the fewest (13.8%). Other nursing grades and health care professions all reported levels of physical assault in excess of 20%. Correspondingly high levels of threatening behaviour and verbal aggression were also reported although the patterns of victimization differed according to the various professions and departments. Independently, significant levels of assault, threatening behaviour and verbal aggression were reported. When aggregated they demonstrate the higher levels of victimization that general hospital staff experienced on a regular basis. Relevance to clinical practice., Institutional averages actually obscure the much higher levels of aggression experienced by the particular professions in particular departments. This study helps to localize the problem and identify those at most risk, but more research is needed into the aetiology of the aggression and of vulnerability factors associated with victimization. [source]

    Support for religio-political aggression among teenaged boys in Gaza: Part I: psychological findings,

    Jeff Victoroff
    Abstract Politically aggressive militant groups usually rely on support from a larger community, although evidence suggests that only some members of that larger community support that aggression. A major subtype of political aggression is that associated with religious differences,or Religio-Political Aggression (RPA). Little previous research has explored demographic or psychological factors that might distinguish supporters from non-supporters of RPA. In an exploratory study, we investigated whether factors previously associated with aggression might correlate with support for RPA in the case of the Israeli/Palestinian conflict. During the second intifada, fifty-two 14-year-old Palestinian boys in Gaza completed self-report measures of life events, emotional status, and political attitudes. Teenaged boys who reported family members having been wounded or killed by the Israeli Defense Forces (IDF) expressed greater support for RPA (t(50)=,2.30, P=.026). In addition, boys who felt their group was treated unjustly reported greater support for RPA compared with those who did not (t(50)=,2.273, P=.027). Implications of these preliminary data are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 36:219,231, 2010. © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Relations of proactive and reactive dimensions of aggression to overt and covert narcissism in nonclinical adolescents

    Andrea Fossati
    Abstract In recent years, there has been increasing acknowledgment of the multidimensionality of narcissism and that different types of narcissism may relate differently to other domains of functioning. Similarly, aggression,a frequently discussed correlate of narcissism,is a heterogeneous construct. In this study, the relations of proactive and reactive aggression with overt and covert manifestations of narcissism were examined in a sample of 674 Italian high school students (mean age=15.5 years, SD=2.1 years). Overt narcissism was positively related to both proactive and reactive subtypes of aggression, whereas covert narcissism related only to reactive aggression. Vanity, Authority, Exhibitionism, and Exploitativeness were the components of overt narcissism related to Proactive Aggression (all remained unique correlates when controlling for Reactive Aggression), whereas Reactive Aggression was associated with the Exhibitionism, Superiority, and Entitlement subscales (only the latter was uniquely related when controlling for Proactive Aggression). Aggr. Behav. 36:21,27, 2010. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Experimental study of the differential effects of playing versus watching violent video games on children's aggressive behavior

    Hanneke Polman
    Abstract There is great concern about the effects of playing violent video games on aggressive behavior. The present experimental study was aimed at investigating the differential effects of actively playing vs. passively watching the same violent video game on subsequent aggressive behavior. Fifty-seven children aged 10,13 either played a violent video game (active violent condition), watched the same violent video game (passive violent condition), or played a non-violent video game (active non-violent condition). Aggression was measured through peer nominations of real-life aggressive incidents during a free play session at school. After the active participation of actually playing the violent video game, boys behaved more aggressively than did the boys in the passive game condition. For girls, game condition was not related to aggression. These findings indicate that, specifically for boys, playing a violent video game should lead to more aggression than watching television violence. Aggr. Behav. 34:256,264, 2008. © 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    On the meaning of meaning when being mean: commentary on Berkowitz's "On the Consideration of Automatic as Well as Controlled Psychological Processes in Aggression"

    Kenneth A. Dodge
    Abstract Berkowitz (this issue) makes a cogent case for his cognitive neo-associationist (CNA) model that some aggressive behaviors occur automatically, emotionally, and through conditioned association with other stimuli. He also proposes that they can occur without "processing," that is, without meaning. He contrasts his position with that of social information processing (SIP) models, which he casts as positing only controlled processing mechanisms for aggressive behavior. However, both CNA and SIP models posit automatic as well as controlled processes in aggressive behavior. Most aggressive behaviors occur through automatic processes, which are nonetheless rule governed. SIP models differ from the CNA model in asserting the essential role of meaning (often through nonconscious, automatic, and emotional processes) in mediating the link between a stimulus and an angry aggressive behavioral response. Aggr. Behav. 34:133,135, 2008. © 2008 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Study on the relations between temperament, aggression, and anger in children

    Miguel Ángel Carrasco Ortiz
    Abstract The present work analyzes the relationships between the dimensions of temperament and the exteriorized emotions of aggression and anger. Temperament was assessed by mothers using the Dimensions of Temperament Survey-Revised, while aggression and anger were self-reported by the children using the Scale of physical and Verbal Aggression and the State,Trait Anger Expression Inventory for Children. The sample studied was made up of 293 children (49.83% boys; 50.17% girls) with a mean age of 11.13 years. The results showed that temperamental difficulties give rise to exteriorized emotions, especially anger. Predictive values of temperament on aggression and anger ranged from 1% to 7% of explained variance. Aggr. Behav. 32:207,215, 2006. © 2006 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Conflict resolution in women is related to trait aggression and menstrual cycle phase

    Alyson J. Bond
    Abstract Twenty-four women with a diagnosis of premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) and 18 controls took part in a study of patterns of female aggression. They completed a version of the Conflict Tactics Scale for a premenstrual and a follicular phase of their menstrual cycle and for the past year. The Life History of Aggression was completed during a clinician interview. The women used more aggressive tactics to solve conflicts in the premenstrual than in the follicular phase, but the difference was only significant for the PMDD group. During the past year, reasoning was the most common strategy used by women to resolve conflicts, but verbal aggression was also prevalent. Although physical violence was less common, the prevalence of any act of violence was 33% in the controls and 62% in the clinical group. Women with PMDD used both verbal and physical aggression more frequently than the controls and had a higher lifetime history of aggression. Aggression by women toward partners was associated with a general tendency to act aggressively. Aggr. Behav. 29:228,238, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Abstracts from the XIV World Meeting,International Society for Research on Aggression

    Article first published online: 23 APR 200
    First page of article [source]

    Physical Aggression in the Family and Preschoolers' Use of the Mother as a Secure Base

    Germán Posada
    The quality of child,mother attachment relationships is context sensitive. Conflict and aggression in the marital relationship as well as aggressive discipline practices may diminish a child's confidence in her or his mother as a secure base. We investigated whether physical aggression against the mother, exposure of the child to it, and use of aggressive physical discipline practices were related to attachment security. Forty-five preschoolers and their mothers from a nonclinical, middle-class population were studied. Security scores were obtained from observers' descriptions of children's behavior at home. Mothers reported on marital conflict, physical aggression from their spouse, exposure of the child to aggression, and use of physical discipline practices. Findings indicate that marital conflict, physical aggression, exposure of the child, and use of physical discipline are significantly and negatively associated with security. Regression analyses show that physical aggression contributed unique information to the prediction of security, and that physical discipline did not mediate the associations between physical aggression and child security. Clinical implications of the findings presented are discussed. [source]

    Parent-to-Child Aggression Among Asian American Parents: Culture, Context, and Vulnerability

    Anna S. Lau
    We examined correlates of lifetime parent-to-child aggression in a representative sample of 1,293 Asian American parents. Correlates examined included nativity, indicators of acculturation, socioeconomic status, family climate, and stressors associated with minority status. Results revealed that Asian Americans of Chinese descent and those who immigrated as youth were more likely to report minor parental aggression; ethnicity and nativity were not associated with severe aggression. Indices of acculturation did not predict risk, but minority status stressors (perceived discrimination, low social standing) predicted risk of both minor and severe aggression. Affective climate differed markedly in families with minor versus severe aggression. Parental aggression in Asian American families may not be cultural per se, but stress associated with immigrant family context may heighten vulnerability. [source]

    Psychological Aggression by American Parents: National Data on Prevalence, Chronicity, and Severity

    Murray A. Straus
    This article describes the prevalence of psychological aggression in a nationally representative sample of 991 parents. By child-age 2, 90% reported using one or more forms of psychological aggression during the previous 12 months and 98% by age 5. From ages 6 to 17, the rates continued in the 90% range. The rate of severe psychological aggression was lower: 10%,20% for toddlers and about 50% for teenagers. Prevalence rates greater than 90% and the absence of differences according to child or family characteristics suggests that psychological aggression is a near universal disciplinary tactic of American parents. Finally, this article discusses the implications of the findings for the conceptualization of psychological "abuse," and for understanding the origins of the high level of psychological aggression between intimate partners. [source]