Environmental Deterioration (environmental + deterioration)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts


Bettina Koschade
ABSTRACT. Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal notions of geography, nature and space sometimes compete, and these differences can create barriers to joint environmental problem-solving. This paper examines the Ardoch Algonquin First Nation and Allies (AAFNA) and the strategies they used in juridical and legislative settings to make their voices heard. In the Tay River Ontario Environmental Review Tribunal (2000,2002), AAFNA attempted to introduced their knowledge of the environmental deterioration which would be caused by a Permit To Take Water issued to a multinational corporation by the Ontario Ministry of Environment. The paper is divided into two parts: first, it describes the concepts of Algonquin knowledge, jurisdiction and responsibility; second, it explores the strategies used to integrate their perspective into legal proceedings constructed by the Canadian government. This case reveals how some Algonquin people conceive of space and responsibility in deeply ecological, rather than narrowly juridical, terms. It establishes that their broad concepts of knowledge, land and jurisdiction are incompatible with existing Euro-Canadian divisions of legal responsibility and ecological knowledge, but at the same time can serve as the means by which they challenge the current structure of Aboriginal and Canadian relations. [source]

Watershed characteristics, land use and fabric: The application of remote sensing and geographical information systems

Mohamad Khawlie
Abstract Integrated watershed assessment, especially relying on remote sensing (RS), is a newly established procedure in developing countries. It is proving to be a major component in river-basin environmental management. The recurrence of environmental problems in the Akkar El Kabir River watershed, as well as the lack of proper data on sources and sinks of pollutants, and the extent of human interference, led to the current study. Advanced geoinformation tools, such as RS and geographical information systems (GIS), prove to be a valuable asset in securing data on the fabric of the Akkar watershed in relation to its natural setting and anthropic interference. This is particularly true in the current study as the river constitutes the boundary between Lebanon and Syria. Remote sensing captures the watershed characteristics and land use on both sides without constraints. The natural fabric includes geology, drainage, hydrogeology, forest and soil. The anthropic fabric includes settlements, utilities, roads, agriculture and land use. If it were not for geoinformation techniques, the task of securing such data would be difficult. Also, these techniques show the impact of malpractices from excessive human interference that result in degradation of land and water quality. Changes in the watershed, such as environmental deterioration, are observed as water pollution, soil erosion, forest decline and socioeconomic imbalance. Obviously, this is the outcome of malpractices in a multisectorial system. A major challenge for RS and GIS is to quantify, model and predict, if possible, the extent of these changes. Remote sensing inherently captures the impact of interaction between nature and human beings. Detection of change is a major indicator that RS can contribute to the evaluation of the state of the environment. The application of it on this watershed reveals that significant changes have occurred over the last 10,15 years, most of which are anthropic. [source]

How has a shortage of census and geological information impeded the regularization of artisanal and small-scale mining?

Gavin Hilson
Abstract There is growing consensus that a combination of laissez-faire policies, ad hoc regulation and debilitating support services has perpetuated socio-economic and environmental deterioration in the artisanal and small-scale mining (ASM) industry. However, a lack of anthropological and geological information on ASM prevents many governments both from improving the policy environment of the industry, and from providing more robust extension services to its operators. This article aims to examine more precisely how a deficiency of baseline census and geological data has inhibited industry formalization and undermined many of the measures implemented to address pressing problems at ASM sites. Specifically, it is argued that insufficient knowledge of artisanal mining populations , including their demographic structure , and of areas suitable for ASM activities affects the ability of a government to regularize, as well as to improve, the organization of this largely informal sector of industry. Case studies of Ghana and Zimbabwe are used to illustrate how the undertaking of low-budget projects in areas of geological prospecting and population analysis could improve the efficiency of ASM assistance. [source]

Effects of tidal flat reclamation on sediment quality and hypoxia in Isahaya Bay

Yoshikuni Hodoki
Abstract 1.Ariake Bay, which is located in western Japan, has a large tidal range (>6 m) and a vast tidal flat (200 km2). In the early 1990s, the government-managed Isahaya Reclamation Project began in the western part of Ariake Bay. A 16-km2 area of tidal flat in the inner part of Isahaya Bay was destroyed through reclamation and separated from the sea by a dyke, which created land and a freshwater reservoir. 2.Since the initiation of the project, fishery yields around Isahaya Bay have dramatically decreased. The objective of this study was to clarify the relationship between the work associated with the Isahaya Reclamation Project and the recent environmental deterioration in Ariake Bay, with references to present sediment thickness and organic matter content, and hypoxic water distributions in Isahaya Bay. 3.The organic matter load from the reservoir has increased since the initiation of the reclamation project and has been associated with a thick layer of fine sediment at the bottom of Isahaya Bay. The thickness of fine sediment and the total organic carbon content were higher in Isahaya Bay than in the freshwater reservoir. 4.Based on measurements in August 2001, hypoxic water spread widely in and around Isahaya Bay; the lowest dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration (0.53 mg L,1) was observed just outside the dyke. An analysis based on a two-layered box model using data obtained in August 2001 showed that the DO consumption rate in the bottom layer was high (0.61 mg O2 L,1 day,1), and that 22,41% of the total organic carbon load needed to induce the hypoxic water was derived from the reclamation area. 5.Our findings strongly suggest that enclosed seas may suffer from eutrophic and hypoxic conditions because of their low seawater-exchange rate. A comprehensive conservation programme and environmental assessment including physical and material transport processes in the system is needed to manage the environment of the enclosed sea. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]