Environmental Context (environmental + context)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Bauxite Mining Restoration by Alcoa World Alumina Australia in Western Australia: Social, Political, Historical, and Environmental Contexts

John H. Gardner
Abstract Alcoa World Alumina Australia mines bauxite under lease agreements with the Government of Western Australia. The leases lie in the Darling Range to the east of Perth, the capital and major population center. In addition to bauxite and other mineral ores, the Darling Range is a major potable water source and harbors a species-rich forest dominated by Jarrah (Eucalyptus marginata), a significant commercial timber. Conservation and recreation are important land uses in the region. Social and political pressures have led to stringent governmental requirements for restoration. In addition, a summer drought period, a soil deficient in most nutrients, water management challenges, an introduced disease, caused by Phytophthora cinnamomi Rands, and a post-mining ecosystem that must be conducive to the prescribed burning management of the region pose significant challenges to successful restoration. Alcoa presently mines and restores approximately 550 ha per annum. Although the "footprint" at the end of the life of the mining operations represents only about 4% of the total forest estate, Alcoa is committed to restoring the forest values of the region of all lands impacted by mining. The major objective of restoration is to enhance or maintain forest values by restoring habitat and structural characteristics of the native forest environment. Completion criteria for Alcoa's mine restoration have been developed. The original Alcoa mine at Jarrahdale has been rehabilitated, and in 2005, a 975-ha area received a "certificate of completion" and was returned to the management control of the State of Western Australia. [source]

Biological collections and ecological/environmental research: a review, some observations and a look to the future

Graham H. Pyke
Housed worldwide, mostly in museums and herbaria, is a vast collection of biological specimens developed over centuries. These biological collections, and associated taxonomic and systematic research, have received considerable long-term public support. The work remaining in systematics has been expanding as the estimated total number of species of organisms on Earth has risen over recent decades, as have estimated numbers of undescribed species. Despite this increasing task, support for taxonomic and systematic research, and biological collections upon which such research is based, has declined over the last 30-40 years, while other areas of biological research have grown considerably, especially those that focus on environmental issues. Reflecting increases in research that deals with ecological questions (e.g. what determines species distribution and abundance) or environmental issues (e.g. toxic pollution), the level of research attempting to use biological collections in museums or herbaria in an ecological/environmental context has risen dramatically during about the last 20 years. The perceived relevance of biological collections, and hence the support they receive, should be enhanced if this trend continues and they are used prominently regarding such environmental issues as anthropogenic loss of biodiversity and associated ecosystem function, global climate change, and decay of the epidemiological environment. It is unclear, however, how best to use biological collections in the context of such ecological/environmental issues or how best to manage collections to facilitate such use. We demonstrate considerable and increasingly realized potential for research based on biological collections to contribute to ecological/environmental understanding. However, because biological collections were not originally intended for use regarding such issues and have inherent biases and limitations, they are proving more useful in some contexts than in others. Biological collections have, for example, been particularly useful as sources of information regarding variation in attributes of individuals (e.g. morphology, chemical composition) in relation to environmental variables, and provided important information in relation to species' distributions, but less useful in the contexts of habitat associations and population sizes. Changes to policies, strategies and procedures associated with biological collections could mitigate these biases and limitations, and hence make such collections more useful in the context of ecological/environmental issues. Haphazard and opportunistic collecting could be replaced with strategies for adding to existing collections that prioritize projects that use biological collections and include, besides taxonomy and systematics, a focus on significant environmental/ecological issues. Other potential changes include increased recording of the nature and extent of collecting effort and information associated with each specimen such as nearby habitat and other individuals observed but not collected. Such changes have begun to occur within some institutions. Institutions that house biological collections should, we think, pursue a mission of ,understanding the life of the planet to inform its stewardship' (Krishtalka & Humphrey, 2000), as such a mission would facilitate increased use of biological collections in an ecological/environmental context and hence lead to increased appreciation, encouragement and support from the public for these collections, their associated research, and the institutions that house them. [source]

Disaster Mitigation and Preparedness: The Case of NGOs in the Philippines

DISASTERS, Issue 3 2001
Emmanuel M. Luna
The Philippines is very vulnerable to natural disasters because of its natural setting, as well as its socio-economic, political and environmental context - especially its widespread poverty. The Philippines has a well-established institutional and legal framework for disaster management, including built-in mechanisms for participation of the people and NGOs in decision-making and programme implementation. The nature and extent of collaboration with government in disaster preparedness and mitigation issues varies greatly according to their roots, either in past confrontation and political struggles or traditional charity activities. The growing NGO involvement in disaster management has been influenced by this history. Some agencies work well with local government and there is an increasing trend for collaborative work in disaster mitigation and preparedness. Some NGOs, however, retain critical positions. These organisations tend to engage more in advocacy and legal support for communities facing increased risk because of development projects and environmental destruction. Entry points into disaster mitigation and preparedness vary as well. Development-oriented agencies are drawn into these issues when the community members with whom they work face disaster. Relief organisations, too, realise the need for community mobilisation, and are thus drawn towards development roles. [source]

Functional redundancy in heterogeneous environments: implications for conservation

Todd Wellnitz
It has been argued that one of the best ways to conserve biological diversity is to maintain the integrity of functional processes within communities, and this can be accomplished by assessing how much ecological redundancy exists in communities. Evidence suggests, however, that the functional roles species play are subject to the influences of local environmental conditions. Species may appear to perform the same function (i.e. be redundant) under a restricted set of conditions, yet their functional roles may vary in naturally heterogeneous environments. Incorporating the environmental context into ecological experiments would provide a critical perspective for examining functional redundancy among species. [source]

Design and testing of ,genome-proxy' microarrays to profile marine microbial communities

Virginia I. Rich
Summary Microarrays are useful tools for detecting and quantifying specific functional and phylogenetic genes in natural microbial communities. In order to track uncultivated microbial genotypes and their close relatives in an environmental context, we designed and implemented a ,genome-proxy' microarray that targets microbial genome fragments recovered directly from the environment. Fragments consisted of sequenced clones from large-insert genomic libraries from microbial communities in Monterey Bay, the Hawaii Ocean Time-series station ALOHA, and Antarctic coastal waters. In a prototype array, we designed probe sets to 13 of the sequenced genome fragments and to genomic regions of the cultivated cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4. Each probe set consisted of multiple 70-mers, each targeting an individual open reading frame, and distributed along each ,40,160 kbp contiguous genomic region. The targeted organisms or clones, and close relatives, were hybridized to the array both as pure DNA mixtures and as additions of cells to a background of coastal seawater. This prototype array correctly identified the presence or absence of the target organisms and their relatives in laboratory mixes, with negligible cross-hybridization to organisms having , ,75% genomic identity. In addition, the array correctly identified target cells added to a background of environmental DNA, with a limit of detection of ,0.1% of the community, corresponding to ,103 cells ml,1 in these samples. Signal correlated to cell concentration with an R2 of 1.0 across six orders of magnitude. In addition, the array could track a related strain (at 86% genomic identity to that targeted) with a linearity of R2 = 0.9999 and a limit of detection of ,1% of the community. Closely related genotypes were distinguishable by differing hybridization patterns across each probe set. This array's multiple-probe, ,genome-proxy' approach and consequent ability to track both target genotypes and their close relatives is important for the array's environmental application given the recent discoveries of considerable intrapopulation diversity within marine microbial communities. [source]

Integrated regulation in response to aromatic compounds: from signal sensing to attractive behaviour

Victoria Shingler
Summary Deciphering the complex interconnecting bacterial responses to the presence of aromatic compounds is required to gain an integrated understanding of how aromatic catabolic processes function in relation to their genome and environmental context. In addition to the properties of the catabolic enzymes themselves, regulatory responses on at least three different levels are important. At a primary level, aromatic compounds control the activity of specific members of many families of transcriptional regulators to direct the expression of the specialized enzymes for their own catabolism. At a second level, dominant global regulation in response to environmental and physiological cues is incorporated to subvert and couple transcription levels to the energy status of the bacteria. Mediators of these global regulatory responses include the alarmone (p)ppGpp, the DNA-bending protein IHF and less well-defined systems that probably sense the energy status through the activity of the electron transport chain. At a third level, aromatic compounds can also impact on catabolic performance by provoking behavioural responses that allow the bacteria to seek out aromatic growth substrates in their environment. [source]

Gender, light and water effects in carbon isotope discrimination, and growth rates in the dioecious tree Ilex aquifolium

R. Retuerto
Abstract 1.,Detailed understanding of the specific physiology of sexes in dioecious species is required to explain patterns in gender dimorphism. Under controlled-environment conditions we tested the hypothesis that sexes of the dioecious tree holly Ilex aquifolium L. (Aquifoliaceae) differed in growth and long-term potential water-use efficiency, as measured by carbon isotope discrimination (,13C), and that these differences were dependent on the environmental context. 2.,Patterns of response in ,13C to the various combinations of light and water were gender-specific. Under more xeric conditions, females maintained significantly higher ,13C than males. 3.,Female plants exhibited significantly greater relative diameter growth rates than male plants. 4.,As expected, ,13C significantly increased with decreasing irradiance, and decreased with increasing limitation in water supply. Light and water effects were not independent, with a more pronounced drought effect in decreasing leaf ,13C under unshaded than under shaded conditions. 5.,Our results suggest that between-sex differences in physiology are context-dependent. Future studies attempting to assess gender dimorphism should take more account of gender-specific interactions with the environment. Gender-specific efficiency in water use could play a decisive role in explaining gender differences in growth and ecological interactions. [source]

Perceptions of Effectiveness of Responses to Sexual Harassment in the US Military, 1988 and 1995

Juanita M. Firestone
This analysis compares patterns of response to the harassment experiences that had the greatest effect on the respondents to the ,1988 Department of Defense (DoD) Survey of Sex Roles in the Active-Duty Military' and Form A of the ,1995 Armed Forces Sexual Harassment Survey'. We analyse the respondents' perceptions about effectiveness of their responses, and respondents' opinions about the efforts of senior military leadership, and their own immediate supervisors' efforts to ,make honest and reasonable efforts to stop sexual harassment in the active-duty military' (DoD, 1988; Bastian et al., 1996). Results indicate that while the military has been somewhat successful in attempts to lower actual incidence of sexual harassment, the percentage of those experiencing such uninvited and unwanted behaviours remains high. Similar patterns of responses in both years, with most employing personal solutions and few filing complaints with officials, may reflect the fact that official DoD policy focuses on individual behaviour and does not address the masculine environmental context that promotes such behaviours (see also Harrell and Miller, 1997). Findings also suggest that the ,no tolerance' policies adopted by the military may concentrate on the military image but ignore the wishes of the complainants who fear reprisals. If the rights and wishes of all parties involved are not taken into account, policies are unlikely to be successful (see, for example, Rowe, 1996). [source]

Late Bronze Age paleogeography along the ancient Ways of Horus in Northwest Sinai, Egypt

Stephen O. Moshier
The northwest Sinai contained the eastern frontier of New Kingdom Egypt during the Late Bronze Age. The ancient Pelusaic branch of the Nile Delta influenced the environmental setting of this region at that time. Fortresses were built along the coastal byway through the study area known as the Ways of Horus to protect Egyptian-held territory from immigrants and intruders from Canaan and the Mediterranean Sea. Building on previous geomorphic studies in the region, this paper presents the results of field investigations of Holocene sedimentary deposits, aided by satellite photography, used to create a paleogeographic map that places archaeological sites in their proper environmental context. CORONA satellite photographs from the late 1960s reveal surface features that have been obscured by more recent agricultural development in the region. Canals dug for an agricultural project provided easy access to the shallow subsurface for mapping the extent of Holocene sediments representing barrier coast, lagoon, estuarine, fluvial, and marsh depositional environments. 2008 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. [source]

The sedimentary records in Mediterranean rockshelters and caves: Archives of environmental change

Jamie C. Woodward
It is important to develop rigorous methods and robust conceptual models for the interpretation of rockshelter and cave sediment records so that the cultural sequences they contain can be considered in their proper environmental context. Much of what we know about the prehistory of the Mediterranean region and adjacent areas has largely been pieced together from materials excavated from sedimentary sequences in these environments. The rockshelters and caves of the region form important environmental and sedimentary archives. Recent work has begun to consider if the remarkable climatic variability evident in the high resolution lacustrine and ice core records is manifest in the rockshelter and cave sediment records of the area. In this context, the two main characteristics of a rockshelter or cave site which control its usefulness as an archive of environmental change are the temporal resolution of the sedimentary record and the environmental sensitivity of the site. Many rockshelters and caves can be described as either Active Karst Settings (AKS) or Passive Karst Settings (PKS) and site type is an important influence on climatic sensitivity with a direct influence upon the usefulness of the sedimentary sequence as a proxy record of climate change. It is now clear that some sites may preserve detailed paleoclimatic records and the climatic signal may be represented by distinctive suites of micromorphological features, by variations in the input of allogenic sediment, or by fluctuations in the mineral magnetic properties of the fine sediment fraction. It can be argued that data derived from the analysis of bulk coarse-grained samples often lacks the stratigraphic resolution and environmental sensitivity that can be obtained from other approaches. The most favorable sites for detailed paleoclimatic reconstruction appear to be in active karst settings such as Theopetra Cave (Greece) and Pigeon Cave (Morocco) where micromorphological analyses offer insights into the stratigraphic record that are not otherwise obtainable. The temporal resolution of a site can only be established through a rigorous stratigraphic analysis and a comprehensive dating program. These are fundamental considerations in the study of rockshelter sediment records, especially when attempting to correlate between sites and draw comparisons with other proxy records of environmental change derived from sedimentary environments with rather different characteristics. Rockshelters and caves are part of a wider sediment system, and their investigation must be accompanied by detailed geomorphological, sedimentological, paleoecological, and geochronological studies of the off-site Quaternary record. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

Considering context, place and culture: the National Latino and Asian American Study

Margarita Alegria
Abstract This paper provides a rationale for, and overview of, procedures used to develop the National Latino and Asian American Study (NLAAS). The NLAAS is nationally representative community household survey that estimates the prevalence of mental disorders and rates of mental health service utilization by Latinos and Asian Americans in the US. The central aims of the NLAAS are to: 1) describe the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders and the rates of mental health services use for Latino and Asian American populations using nationwide representative samples of Latinos and Asian Americans, 2) assess the associations among social position, environmental context, and psychosocial factors with the prevalence of psychiatric disorders and utilization rates of mental health services, and 3) compare the lifetime and 12-month prevalence of psychiatric disorders, and utilization of mental health services of Latinos and Asian Americans with national representative samples of non-Latino whites (from the National Comorbidity Study-Replication) (NCS-R) and African Americans (from the National Survey of American Life) (NSAL). This paper presents new concepts and methods utilized in the development of the NLAAS to capture and investigate ethnic, cultural and environmental considerations that are often ignored in mental health research. Copyright 2004 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Interacting effects of management and environmental variability at multiple scales on invasive species distributions

Jeffrey M. Diez
Summary 1. The distribution and abundance of invasive species can be driven by both environmental variables and land management decisions. However, understanding these relationships can be complicated by interactions between management actions and environmental variability, and differences in scale among these variables. The resulting ,context-dependence' of management actions may be well-appreciated by ecologists and land managers, but can frustrate attempts to apply general management principles. 2. In this study, we quantify the effects of land management and environmental variability at different scales on the occurrence and abundance of Hieracium pilosella, a major agricultural weed in New Zealand. We used a hierarchical study design and analysis to capture relevant scales of variation in management actions and environmental heterogeneity, and test hypotheses about how these factors interact. 3. We show that fertilizing and grazing interact with environmental gradients at the scale of management application (farm paddocks) to influence the establishment and local abundance of H. pilosella. 4. We further show that H. pilosella's relationships with fine-scale abiotic and biotic factors are consistent with expected mechanisms driven by larger-scale management actions. Using data on occurrence and local abundance, we tease apart which factors are important to establishment and subsequent local spread. 5.Synthesis and applications. A major challenge for environmental scientists is to predict how invasive species may respond to ongoing landscape modifications and environmental change. This effort will require approaches to study design and analysis that can accommodate complexities such as interacting management and environmental variables at different scales. Management actions will be more likely to succeed when they explicitly account for variation in environmental context. [source]

The influence of violent and nonviolent computer games on implicit measures of aggressiveness

Matthias Bluemke
Abstract We examined the causal relationship between playing violent video games and increases in aggressiveness by using implicit measures of aggressiveness, which have become important for accurately predicting impulsive behavioral tendencies. Ninety-six adults were randomly assigned to play one of three versions of a computer game that differed only with regard to game content (violent, peaceful, or abstract game), or to work on a reading task. In the games the environmental context, mouse gestures, and physiological arousal,as indicated by heart rate and skin conductance,were kept constant. In the violent game soldiers had to be shot, in the peaceful game sunflowers had to be watered, and the abstract game simply required clicking colored triangles. Five minutes of play did not alter trait aggressiveness, yet an Implicit Association Test detected a change in implicit aggressive self-concept. Playing a violent game produced a significant increase in implicit aggressive self-concept relative to playing a peaceful game. The well-controlled study closes a gap in the research on the causality of the link between violence exposure in computer games and aggressiveness with specific regard to implicit measures. We discuss the significance of importing recent social,cognitive theory into aggression research and stress the need for further development of aggression-related implicit measures. Aggr. Behav. 36:1,13, 2010. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Soil erosion and the adaptive cycle metaphor

L. K. A. Dorren
Abstract The landscapes that we live in and the changes that they undergo play an important part in the qualities of our lives. They provide natural goods and services of value to us because of the existence of soil, which is a medium between the solid earth and the sphere in which we live our daily life. The medium soil is constantly subject to change and one of the causes is soil erosion. If one tries to understand or to deal with soil erosion it is helpful to consider soil as an integral part of continuously changing landscapes and to be aware of the different functions of a soil in its environmental context at different scales. To clarify this, we present three important concepts. These are: (1) scale/connectivity; (2) change; and (3) resilience. These concepts will be put in an innovative framework called the panarchy theory, which represents a hierarchical structure in which both human and natural systems are linked together in adaptive cycles. Presenting soil erosion in such a framework allows us to link causes and their impacts at different scales. The application of such a framework and the insight obtained could facilitate the assessment of risks and possibilities for sustainable use. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Biodiversity in microbial communities: system scale patterns and mechanisms

Abstract The relationship between anthropogenic impact and the maintenance of biodiversity is a fundamental question in ecology. The emphasis on the organizational level of biodiversity responsible for ecosystem processes is shifting from a species-centred focus to include genotypic diversity. The relationship between biodiversity measures at these two scales remains largely unknown. By stratifying anthropogenic effects between scales of biodiversity of bacterial communities, we show a statistically significant difference in diversity based on taxonomic scale. Communities with intermediate species richness show high genotypic diversity while speciose and species-poor communities do not. We propose that in species-poor communities, generally comprising stable yet harsh conditions, physiological tolerance and competitive trade-offs limit both the number of species that occur and the loss of genotypes due to decreases in already constrained fitness. In species-rich communities, natural environmental conditions result in well-defined community structure and resource partitioning. Disturbance of these communities disrupts niche space, resulting in lower genotypic diversity despite the maintenance of species diversity. Our work provides a model to inform future research about relationships between species and genotypic biodiversity based on determining the biodiversity consequences of changing environmental context. [source]

The Arctic Cooking Pot: Why Was It Adopted?

Karen Harry
ABSTRACT Cross-culturally, clay cooking pots are correlated with societies situated in warm and dry climates and reliant on foods that benefit from prolonged moist cooking. Neither of these conditions, however, characterized the aboriginal coastal Arctic, where clay cooking containers were produced and used for more than 2,500 years. We explore the factors that encouraged pottery use in the Arctic and conclude that the adoption of cooking pots resulted from the interplay of social and functional factors. We propose that it was adopted (1) to meet the needs of socially constructed preferences for cooked foods and (2) to overcome specific problems associated with other cooking methods within the local social and environmental context. We demonstrate the importance of adopting an integrated perspective in the study of technology,one that considers how cultural values and social practices interact with environmental and economic factors to shape technological decisions. [source]

Model of the home food environment pertaining to childhood obesity

Richard R Rosenkranz
The home food environment can be conceptualized as overlapping interactive domains composed of built and natural, sociocultural, political and economic, micro-level and macro-level environments. Each type and level of environment uniquely contributes influence through a mosaic of determinants depicting the home food environment as a major setting for shaping child dietary behavior and the development of obesity. Obesity is a multifactorial problem, and the home food environmental aspects described here represent a substantial part of the full environmental context in which a child grows, develops, eats, and behaves. The present review includes selected literature relevant to the home food environment's influence on obesity with the aim of presenting an ecologically informed model for future research and intervention in the home food environment. [source]

Language preference and its relationship with reading skills in English and Spanish

Michele H. Brenneman
A dearth of research has investigated the language preference of bilingual childhood populations and its subsequent relationship to reading skills. The current study evaluated how a sequential bilingual student's choice of language, in a particular environmental context, predicted reading ability in English and Spanish. The participants were Latino children ranging in age from 7 years, 5 months, to 11 years, 6 months, with 43% born in the United States. Results showed a relationship between a child's higher English language preference for media and for communication with others outside the family and better reading skills in English. Language preference differences predicted reading abilities better for English than for Spanish. Results suggested that sequential bilingual children's language preference may be a useful marker of English language (second language [L2]) facility and use that is related to their reading proficiency or influences the development of English reading skills in such bilingual children in the United States. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 44: 171,181, 2007. [source]

Comparison of ecological validity of learning disabilities diagnostic models

Vincent J. Dean
The purpose of this article is to examine models designed for the determination of a learning disability and compare them to specific criteria to determine whether the given diagnostic process is ecological in nature. The traditional child-centered deficit model (CCD), Relative Achievement Discrepancy model (RAD), and Responsiveness to Intervention model (RTI) were evaluated against the following three questions: (a) Does the environmental context of the assessment adequately represent the real-life situation? (b) Are the assessment stimuli relevant to the daily classroom activity? (c) Are the student behavior and/or required response natural and representative of the construct being assessed? The results of this examination suggested that the RTI has the most potential for ecological validity, but currently falls short. Suggestions for future research are included. 2006 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Psychol Schs 43: 157,168, 2006. [source]

Geoarchaeology of the Milfield Basin, northern England; towards an integrated archaeological prospection, research and management framework

David G. Passmore
Abstract This paper presents the results of geoarchaeological investigations undertaken on the valley floor of the Milfield Basin in Northumberland, northern England. The area has a regionally and nationally important archaeological record, including a series of major neolithic and Anglian settlements, but has hitherto lacked archaeological assessment and management guidelines appropriate to the wide range of late-glacial and post-glacial environmental settings in the basin. This project has used geomorphological techniques to delimit and classify a total of nine valley floor landform elements in terms of their geomorphology and their known and potential archaeological and palaeoenvironmental associations. Terraced glaciodeltaic and glaciofluvial sand and gravel landforms comprise the oldest landform elements described here and have formed the primary regional focus for prehistoric and early historic settlement and associated subsistence and ritual activity. These landforms have experienced little post-glacial geomorphological activity, but their multiperiod archaeological landscapes lie beneath a shallow soil cover and are vulnerable to land-use activities that disturb terrace soils and underlying sediments. A second group of landform elements are of Holocene age and include localized surface peats, alluvial fans, colluvial deposits and extensive deposits of terraced alluvium. Archaeological landscapes in these environments may lie buried intact and unrecorded beneath protective covers of sediment although locally they may have been subject to erosion and reworking by fluvial and slope processes. Holocene alluviation may account, at least in part, for the paucity of recorded archaeology in these parts of the basin. However, peat and organic-rich sedimentary sequences identified here (including four 14C dated peat sequences) offer an opportunity to elucidate the environmental context and land-use histories of local prehistoric and early historic communities in the basin, and hence also should be regarded as an archaeological resource. Discussion of landform elements and their archaeological associations is followed by a brief outline of evaluation criteria developed with the aim of ensuring effective long-term management of archaeological and palaeoenvironmental resources. It is concluded that geoarchaeological analysis of landform elements may be considered central to development of frameworks intended to underpin future programmes of archaeological research and the development of cultural resource management and evaluation strategies. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Does explicit contracting effectively link CEO compensation to environmental performance?,

James J. Cordeiro
Abstract Empirical research in the area of corporate sustainability highlights potential conflicts between corporate financial performance and environmental performance. In such a situation, agency theory arguments applied to the corporate environmental context predict that top management compensation should be explicitly linked to environmental performance in order to bring about proper alignment of organizational environmental goals and management incentives. We test this proposition for a sample of 207 Standard & Poor 500 firms in the US in 1996 who explicitly report in Investor Responsibility Research Council (IRRC) surveys the presence or absence of a contractual link between environmental performance and executive compensation. We find that only in firms with an explicit linkage between environmental performance and executive contracts is there is any evidence of a significant impact of firm-level environmental performance on CEO compensation levels. However, even this impact is not very impressive since (a) it holds only for IRRC compliance and spill indices and does not hold for IRRC toxic emission indices, and (b) even the effects for compliance and spill indices do not hold relative to industry levels of these indices. Copyright 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

Maximum likelihood estimators of population parameters from doubly left-censored samples

Abou El-Makarim A. Aboueissa
Abstract Left-censored data often arise in environmental contexts with one or more detection limits, DLs. Estimators of the parameters are derived for left-censored data having two detection limits: DL1 and DL2 assuming an underlying normal distribution. Two different approaches for calculating the maximum likelihood estimates (MLE) are given and examined. These methods also apply to lognormally distributed environmental data with two distinct detection limits. The performance of the new estimators is compared utilizing many simulated data sets. Examples are given illustrating the use of these methods utilizing a computer program given in the Appendix. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Dyadic attachments and community connectedness: Links with youths' loneliness experiences

Heather M. Chipuer
In this article, we explored the belongingness hypothesis by examining the influence of youths' dyadic attachments and community connectedness on their experiences of loneliness. Fifth and sixth graders (N = 187) reported on their attachments to their mothers, fathers, best friends, and their connectedness to their schools and neighborhoods. Self-reports of global loneliness, loneliness in the school and neighborhood contexts, and emotional and social loneliness were obtained. Youths' dyadic attachment to their best friends was more significant in accounting for their loneliness experiences than their attachments to either parent. Youths' connectedness to their school and neighborhood communities was significantly associated with their experiences of global, social, and neighborhood loneliness. The data suggest that youths' sense of community within their different environmental contexts (i.e., neighborhood, school) differentially influence their psychological well-being, as demonstrated by their associations to loneliness. The importance of creating communities that meet youths' needs is discussed. 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. [source]

Promoting self-care through symptom management: A theory-based approach for nurse practitioners

ACNP (Acute Care Nurse Practitioner), Christopher Fowler RN, PhD(c)
Abstract Purpose: To present a theory of illness representation useful in clinical practice along with two case studies as examples of theory implementation. Data sources: Literature review of relevant theory and associated literature, case studies from clinical practice. Conclusions: An individual asks several questions when experiencing a physical sensation: "Am I sick, stressed, or is this a sign of aging? If I'm sick, is the symptom connected with a disease label?" After asking these questions, the individual develops a cognitive and emotional illness representation that includes the dimensions of identity, cause, consequences, control, and timeline. This representation is guided by personal, cultural, and environmental contexts and determines coping strategies. By assessing the individual's cognitive and emotional representations of the illness, the nurse practitioner (NP) can use the common sense model of illness representation (CSM) to establish interventions and action plans helpful in decreasing distress in the management of symptoms. Implications for practice: NPs frequently care for patients who present with very severe symptoms related to their health problem. This becomes a major challenge in effective disease management. Leventhal's CSM can be used as a framework to identify the cognitive and emotional illness representations individuals develop when acute and chronic symptoms are presented. By assessing the individual's cognitive and emotional representations of the illness, the NP will be able to use the CSM to establish interventions and action plans that will be helpful in decreasing the patient's distress in the management of symptoms. [source]

Knowledge strategy: Its relationship to environmental dynamism and complexity in product development

Elena Revilla
Focusing on product development, this study extends the understanding of the environment-strategy framework and investigates the relative effect of two environmental variables, dynamism and complexity, on the product development knowledge strategy. Adopting a knowledge-based view, and assuming that the strategy's locus is knowledge creation (exploration) and knowledge application (exploitation), the study suggests that the development of a knowledge strategy is a managerial strategic choice that is related to the environment. The results of a survey on product development managers generally indicate that exploration and exploitation must be combined according to environmental factors by generating the alternative knowledge strategies of ambidexterity or punctuated equilibrium. Particularly, the study finds that in environments characterized by high levels of both dynamism and complexity product development efforts pursue and reinforce both explorative and exploitative activities through a knowledge strategy of ambidexterity. Though not perfectly supported, punctuated equilibrium seems to be a more plausible knowledge strategy in environmental contexts where either dynamism or complexity prevails. Copyright 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Multicontextual occupational therapy intervention: a case study of traumatic brain injury

Belkis Landa-Gonzalez
Abstract Cognitive deficits after a traumatic brain injury can result in significant functional limitations in all areas of daily living. An individual's ability to generalize learning may be limited, thus making it harder to live independently in the community. Assessing a client's metacognitive skills and awareness level may help to establish a baseline understanding about the supervision required and the most suitable living arrangements. This study describes a multicontextual, community re-entry occupational therapy programme directed at awareness training and compensation for cognitive problems in a 34-year-old man with traumatic brain injury. Intervention consisted of metacognitive training, exploration and use of effective processing strategies, task gradations and practice of functional activities in multiple environmental contexts. Strategies such as self-prediction, self-monitoring, role reversal and the use of checklists were used. Results after six months of intervention show improvements in the client's awareness level, enhancement of his occupational function, increased satisfaction with performance and a decrease in the level of attendant care. Additional studies are recommended to validate the findings. Copyright 2001 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]

Biocultural interpretations of trauma in two prehistoric Pacific Island populations from Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands

Rachel M. Scott
Abstract Two Pacific Island skeletal samples originating from the inland site of Nebira, Papua New Guinea (1230,1650) and a coastal site on the small island of Taumako, Solomon Islands (1530,1698) were examined for evidence of skeletal trauma using a biocultural approach. The types of trauma identified were cranial trauma, postcranial fractures, and piercing and sharp force trauma. Both samples exhibit trauma (Nebira, n = 9/28, 32.1%; Taumako, n = 17/133, 12.8%). Postcranial fractures are significantly higher in males from Nebira (Fisher Exact P value = 0.025). The prevalence of cranial trauma (n = 6/28, 21.4%) is significantly higher in Nebira individuals (Fisher Exact P value = 0.007). There is no conclusive evidence of piercing trauma at Nebira unlike Taumako, which has four individuals with evidence of piercing or sharp force trauma. Both samples show evidence of interpersonal violence and warfare. The results suggest the environment may have contributed to the pattern of trauma at these sites. These patterns are discussed within their cultural and environmental contexts. Am J Phys Anthropol 142:509,518, 2010. 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Ever since Clements: from succession to vegetation dynamics and understanding to intervention

S.T.A. Pickett
Abstract Introduction: This paper surveys a framework for vegetation dynamics to provide conceptual background for a series of papers addressing the role of vegetation dynamics in restoration. Richness of the foundation: Classical succession theory provides key ingredients for contemporary process studies of vegetation dynamics. The contemporary framework incorporates processes identified by Gleason and other critics of Clements' theory. Multiple causality: The Clementsian causes, when expanded to include interaction and to clarify net effects, accommodate those now recognized in vegetation dynamics. A mature successional framework: A hierarchical framework has emerged to evaluate the causes of vegetation dynamics. The framework identifies the general causes as site availability, species availability, and species performance. Differentials as drivers: Differentials in any of the three general causes can drive change in plant communities. Each general cause consists of specific mechanisms. A model template: To predict vegetation dynamics trajectories, models are required. A model template is presented to operationalize the hierarchical framework. Outcomes are contingent on species pools and environmental contexts and may be progressive or retrogressive. Relationships of frameworks: Other contemporary frameworks in biology relate to vegetation dynamics. Application to restoration: The vegetation dynamics framework is relevant to restoration through linkages with landscape ecology, disturbance ecology, competition, invasion ecology, and community assembly. The differentials of site availability, species availability, and species performance suggest the processes and strategies available for restoration. Conclusions: A synthetic framework of vegetation brings together the mechanisms required for successful restoration. [source]

Betting on the evidence: Reported gambling problems among the Indigenous population of the Northern Territory

Matthew Stevens
Abstract Objectives: To address a shortfall in evidence with which to justify gambling-specific interventions for the Indigenous population, we analysed two surveys (2002 National Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Survey and General Social Survey) that contain information on reported gambling problems for the NT. Methods: Estimates of reported gambling problems are presented for each state and territory by remoteness for the Indigenous and total population for 2002. Factor analysis was used to identify the relationship between gambling problems and other negative life events for the NT Indigenous and total population. Results: High levels of reported gambling problems were apparent for the Indigenous population particularly in the remote parts of the NT and Queensland. Gambling problems were associated with other stressors relating to social transgressions. Among the NT Indigenous population, gambling problems were correlated with levels of crowding, community involvement, personal and community violence and self-assessed health status. Conclusions: The high levels of reported gambling problems suggest that gambling is causing significant problems for Indigenous people. The multivariable adjusted associations indicate that gambling-related problems are intimately connected to a range of community contexts. Implications: Policies of intervention need to address broader social and environmental contexts that are intrinsically associated with gambling (and associated problems), in addition to public education in harm associated with gambling and provision of counselling services to assist problem gamblers. [source]

The Relation of Preschool Child-Care Quality to Children's Cognitive and Social Developmental Trajectories through Second Grade

Ellen S. Peisner-Feinberg
The cognitive ad socioemotional development of 733 children was examined longitudinally from ages 4 to 8 years as a function of the quality of their preschool experiences in community child-care centers, after adjusting for family selection factors related to child-care quality and development. These results provide evidence that child-care quality has a modest long-term effect on children's patterns of cognitive and socioemotional development at least through kindergarten, and in some cases, through second grade. Differential effects on children's development were found for two aspects of child-care quality. Observed classroom practices were related to children's language and academic skills, whereas the closeness of the teacher , child relationship was related to both cognitive and social skills, with the strongest effects for the latter. Moderating influences of family characteristics were observed for some outcomes, indicating stronger positive effects of child-care quality for children from more at-risk backgrounds. These findings contribute further evidence of the long-term influences of the quality of child-care environments on children's cognitive and social skills through the elementary school years and are consistent with a bioecological model of development that considers the multiple environmental contexts that the child experiences. [source]