Environmental Conservation (environmental + conservation)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


IS FISHING COMPATIBLE WITH ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION: A STOCHASTIC MODEL WITH AN ELEMENT OF SELF-PROTECTION

NATURAL RESOURCE MODELING, Issue 3 2008
D. AMI
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to introduce the impact of fishing activity on a marine ecosystem. The fishing activity is considered not only through annual harvest but also through a second component, called the degree of protection of the fishery environment. This characterizes the environmental impact of fishing. A stochastic dynamic programming problem is presented in infinite horizon, where a sole owner seeks to maximize a discounted expected profit. The main hypothesis states that the stock,recruitment relationship is stochastic and that both components of the fishing activity have an impact on the probability law of the state of the fishery environment. The optimal fishing policy is obtained and compared with standard models. This optimal policy has the following properties: is not a constant escapement policy and indicates an element of self-protection by the fishery manager. The paper ends with a discussion on the existence of degrees of protection of the fishery environment that take into account the environmental conservation and preservation of economic activity. [source]


WEAK AND STRONG SUSTAINABILITY, ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

NATURAL RESOURCE MODELING, Issue 3 2006
WERNER HEDIGER
ABSTRACT. To investigate the role of explicit and implicit assumptions in different models of weak and strong sustain-ability, the Solow/Hartwick model of intergenerational equity with nonrenewable resources is gradually extended to include renewable resources, endogenous technical progress, and stock pollution. This reveals the fundamental role of endogenous technical progress for sustainable development, the inconsistency of implicit sustainability assumptions in various models, as well as the existence of a Hartwick rule for Daly's steady-state economy. Moreover, it shows that the concepts of Solow sustainability and strong sustainability coincide as a special case of weak sustainability. The latter integrates economic and environmental concerns and aims at maintaining the welfare potential of an economy over time. It does not rule out economic growth by assumption. Rather, the analysis shows that environmental conservation and economic growth can be compatible with each other, without jeopardizing social welfare. Finally, the analysis shows that the discussion of sustain-ability models cannot be restricted to the explicit differences that are usually pointed out by their authors and commentators. Rather, implicit assumptions must be made explicit. [source]


Smallholder Preferences for Agri-environmental Change at the Bhoj Wetland, India

DEVELOPMENT POLICY REVIEW, Issue 5 2008
Rob Hope
Incentive-based approaches have gained policy interest in linking change in agricultural land management with environmental conservation. This article investigates how scheme design influences smallholder farmers' decisions to switch to organic farming to reduce water pollution, drawing on a study at a Ramsar wetland site providing water for the city of Bhopal. Results from a choice experiment suggest that transitional payments are necessary to overcome farmer constraints to adopt organic farming, and that effective land certification has the potential to act as a self-enforcing mechanism linking farmer incomes with wetland conservation benefits. [source]


Rendering the World Unsafe: ,Vulnerability' as Western Discourse

DISASTERS, Issue 1 2001
Gregory Bankoff
Disasters seem destined to be major issues of academic enquiry in the new century if for no other reason than that they are inseparably linked to questions of environmental conservation, resource depletion and migration patterns in an increasingly globalised world. Unfortunately, inadequate attention has been directed at considering the historical roots of the discursive framework within which hazard is generally presented, and how that might reflect particular cultural values to do with the way in which certain regions or zones of the world are usually imagined. This paper argues that tropicality, development and vulnerability form part of one and the same essentialising and generalising cultural discourse that denigrates large regions of world as disease-ridden, poverty-stricken and disaster-prone. [source]


Gender and Biodiversity: A New Approach to Linking Environment and Development

GEOGRAPHY COMPASS (ELECTRONIC), Issue 2 2007
Janet Henshall Momsen
The 1992 Convention on Biological Conservation and the International Treaty on Plant Genetic Resources for Food and Agriculture (1996) reflect the growing importance of biodiversity for environmental conservation and as a way of maintaining the genetic variety needed for plant breeding and providing new sources of medicines. More recently, agrobiodiversity has been seen as vital for food security in developing countries. This article considers the need to understand decision-making for biodiversity at the grassroots. To achieve this, gender roles, as influenced by gender divisions of labour in food production and the gendered use of different environmental spaces, have to be considered. Women's roles in seed selection and seed saving and use of wild plants for food and medicines play a major role in biodiversity conservation, but these roles are not unchanging and are increasingly influenced by global trade networks and geographical context. [source]


IS FISHING COMPATIBLE WITH ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION: A STOCHASTIC MODEL WITH AN ELEMENT OF SELF-PROTECTION

NATURAL RESOURCE MODELING, Issue 3 2008
D. AMI
Abstract The purpose of this paper is to introduce the impact of fishing activity on a marine ecosystem. The fishing activity is considered not only through annual harvest but also through a second component, called the degree of protection of the fishery environment. This characterizes the environmental impact of fishing. A stochastic dynamic programming problem is presented in infinite horizon, where a sole owner seeks to maximize a discounted expected profit. The main hypothesis states that the stock,recruitment relationship is stochastic and that both components of the fishing activity have an impact on the probability law of the state of the fishery environment. The optimal fishing policy is obtained and compared with standard models. This optimal policy has the following properties: is not a constant escapement policy and indicates an element of self-protection by the fishery manager. The paper ends with a discussion on the existence of degrees of protection of the fishery environment that take into account the environmental conservation and preservation of economic activity. [source]


WEAK AND STRONG SUSTAINABILITY, ENVIRONMENTAL CONSERVATION AND ECONOMIC GROWTH

NATURAL RESOURCE MODELING, Issue 3 2006
WERNER HEDIGER
ABSTRACT. To investigate the role of explicit and implicit assumptions in different models of weak and strong sustain-ability, the Solow/Hartwick model of intergenerational equity with nonrenewable resources is gradually extended to include renewable resources, endogenous technical progress, and stock pollution. This reveals the fundamental role of endogenous technical progress for sustainable development, the inconsistency of implicit sustainability assumptions in various models, as well as the existence of a Hartwick rule for Daly's steady-state economy. Moreover, it shows that the concepts of Solow sustainability and strong sustainability coincide as a special case of weak sustainability. The latter integrates economic and environmental concerns and aims at maintaining the welfare potential of an economy over time. It does not rule out economic growth by assumption. Rather, the analysis shows that environmental conservation and economic growth can be compatible with each other, without jeopardizing social welfare. Finally, the analysis shows that the discussion of sustain-ability models cannot be restricted to the explicit differences that are usually pointed out by their authors and commentators. Rather, implicit assumptions must be made explicit. [source]


Placing Indigenous Rights to Self-Determination in an Ecological Context

RATIO JURIS, Issue 2 2002
Barbara Ann Hocking
In this paper the author focuses on Australian land management and in particular on the environmental management issues that could have been prompted by the High Court recognition in 1996 (in Wik Peoples v. The State of Queensland) that native title to land and pastoral leaseholdings can co-exist. Drawing on themes of self-determination and co-existence, the paper looks at more specific topics such as aboriginal title to land,what has been called land rights or native title in Australia,and some implications of that for land, sea and resource management. Central to this analysis are competing theories of Aboriginal land management and links between Aboriginal traditional knowledge and conservation of species. These are illustrated through the marine mammal, the dugong. The Australian debates lead to the Canadian debates and then to Scandinavia and the role of the Sami people in protection and management of the Arctic region. Issues of indigenous self determination inevitably provide an overall theme to these discussions. As a matter of global concern, the paper asks, but does not decide, whether indigenous peoples may manage fragile eco-systems more effectively than outsiders. It maintains that what is important in this context is a broader question. This concerns how culturally inclusive land and resource management can emerge from recognition of indigenous land and human rights and how comparative developments can provide crucial cross-jurisdictional information for future developments and opportunities in the interests of environmental conservation. [source]


Notes on coastal lagoon typology in the light of the EU Water Framework Directive: Italy as a case study

AQUATIC CONSERVATION: MARINE AND FRESHWATER ECOSYSTEMS, Issue 5 2006
Davide Tagliapietra
Abstract 1.The European Water Framework Directive (WFD) requires that Member States differentiate the transitional water bodies into types. 2.WFD assigns coastal lagoons to two different water categories, ,transitional waters' and ,coastal waters' on the basis of freshwater influence. 3.The main physical factors that contribute to the genesis and characterization of coastal lagoons are coastal typology, tidal range and climate. 4.Italian lagoons are presented as an example of how these physical factors can be used in coastal lagoon characterization and typology. On this basis, a clear distinction of Italian lagoons into two main groups is possible: Northern Adriatic and Mediterranean. 5.Large lagoons can be profitably subdivided into a hierarchical system of sub-basins facilitating both the comparison of parts of the same lagoon and the comparison between different lagoons. 6.The basins are consistent water bodies that can be used as managerial units for environmental conservation, species protection and wise use of resources. Copyright 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]