Environmental Burdens (environmental + burden)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Environmental burden of disease: HRQoL and statistical perspectives

ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 5 2004
Pranab Kumar Sen
Abstract Environmental toxicity and pollution mingled with substandard sanitation and public health practice can lead to serious health problems. Some of these toxics can be identified and subjected to preventive measures but together with some other major factors they form the environmental burden of disease, more seriously in developing countries. As a result, in health related quality of life risk assessments, especially relating to cancer of various types, as well as chronic and intestinal diseases, we need to incorporate toxicology as well as environmental epidemiology. Statistical perspectives in this challenging task are appraised with special attention to the arsenite contamination of the groundwater problem. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Waste Minimisation Clubs: a cost-efficient policy instrument?

ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY AND GOVERNANCE, Issue 6 2001
Stefan Henningsson
The total amount of solid waste generated in Europe is estimated to grow by 10% every year and there is increased concern over the associated environmental impacts. As a result, the minimization of waste at source in business and industry is a top priority in the European Community's waste strategy. In the UK, regional Waste Minimisation Clubs (WMCs) have been established to promote sustainable waste management in business and industry. The company clusters taking part in these clubs have reported financial savings combined with reductions in environmental impact. These results are disseminated to encourage further savings by the UK industry. This paper examines the savings as well as the costs involved in ten WMCs. It finds that there is a lack of standardization in the reporting of WMC results. This makes it difficult to evaluate the influence of WMCs, whilst also having an adverse effect on the credibility of waste minimization in business. Despite these problems, the paper finds that there is still strong evidence to suggest that these ten WMCs have been efficient in stimulating cost savings by industry, with an average rate of return on investment of 170%. It also finds that the financial benefits for companies are key outcomes of WMCs and that these benefits significantly exceed the estimated social benefits of the reduced environmental burden. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]


Environmental burden of disease: HRQoL and statistical perspectives

ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 5 2004
Pranab Kumar Sen
Abstract Environmental toxicity and pollution mingled with substandard sanitation and public health practice can lead to serious health problems. Some of these toxics can be identified and subjected to preventive measures but together with some other major factors they form the environmental burden of disease, more seriously in developing countries. As a result, in health related quality of life risk assessments, especially relating to cancer of various types, as well as chronic and intestinal diseases, we need to incorporate toxicology as well as environmental epidemiology. Statistical perspectives in this challenging task are appraised with special attention to the arsenite contamination of the groundwater problem. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Rice bran protein-based edible films

INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF FOOD SCIENCE & TECHNOLOGY, Issue 3 2008
Abayomi P. Adebiyi
Summary The development of degradable and edible films from protein sources has drawn significant attention for the utilisation of natural resources as well as for the alleviation of the environmental burden. Rice bran protein (RBP) was applied to protein film preparation in this study. The protein solutions were casted on plastic tissue culture dishes with glycerol as a plasticiser after heat treatment. Functional properties of the films were then measured. The puncture strength (PS) of RBP films increased up to pH 8.0 and then decreased. PS of protein films depends on the degree of protein purity, quality and composition. Higher concentration of glycerol weakened the films. The pH affected the water solubility of RBP films and the films showed least solubility at pH 3.0. RBP could be utilised in the preparation of degradable protein-based films. The RBP-based film had functional properties comparable to those of the soy protein-based ones. [source]


The Environmental Impact of Getting the News

JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY, Issue 3-4 2002
A Comparison of On-Line, Newspaper Information Delivery, Television
Summary The environmental impact associated with reading an on-line and a printed newspaper is analyzed and compared with respective parts of a television (TV) broadcast. Two reference units were chosen for comparison to account for differences between media in presentation and consumption (reading or watching a news item) and consumption of the daily news as a whole. The environmental impact is assessed using life-cycle assessment (LCA). Key drivers of the environmental impact for both electronic delivery systems are energy consumption and power generation. Not only do the manufacturing of the products and their use have an environmental impact, but so does the use of the necessary infrastructure, that is, energy consumption of the telephone network or data transfer via Internet. Printing of on-line information also turned out to be important. In the case of the printed newspapers, energy consumption is again important, here for the manufacturing of pulp and paper. Complete printed newspapers (the form in which they are typically purchased) have a very high environmental burden relative to watching the TV news or reading on-line news, even if the propensity to extend TV viewing is taken into consideration. [source]


LCC,The economic pillar of sustainability: Methodology and application to wastewater treatment

ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 4 2003
Gerald Rebitzer
Industrial applications of supply chain cost management, along with life cycle costing of goods and services, are increasing. Several industrial sectors, in particular the automotive, electronics, and primary materials, have engaged in programs to coordinate upstream and downstream activities to reduce environmental burdens. At the same time, there is an increasing need to pass on information on product, material, and energy flows along the supply chain, as well as to provide data on the use and end-of-life phases of goods and services. Therefore, methods to analyze, assess, and manage these flows, from an economic as well as an environmental perspective, are of essential importance, particularly in established large-scale industries where suppliers are increasingly challenged to provide comprehensive cost and environmental information. In this context, a life cycle costing analysis (LCC), conducted as part of life cycle management activities, can provide important opportunities. Therefore, this paper focuses on a life cycle assessment (LCA)-based LCC method, which utilizes an LCA model as a basis for cost estimations in product development and planning. A case study on life cycle costing of wastewater treatment illustrates the practical use and benefits of the method. [source]


Life cycle assessment: An international experience

ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 2 2000
Mary Ann Curran
Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) is used to evaluate environmental burdens associated with a product, process or activity by identifying and quantifying relevant inputs and outputs of the defined system and evaluating their potential impacts. This article outlines the four components that comprise LCA (goal definition, inventory, impact assessment and interpretation) and addresses various applications of LCA within industry and government. Included are references to several resources that may be used to better understand and apply LCA, such as books, journals, software programs and internet websites. [source]


The Value of Remanufactured Engines: Life-Cycle Environmental and Economic Perspectives

JOURNAL OF INDUSTRIAL ECOLOGY, Issue 1-2 2004
Vanessa M. Smith
Remanufacturing restores used automotive engines to like-new condition, providing engines that are functionally equivalent to a new engine at much lower environmental and economic costs than the manufacture of a new engine. A life-cycle assessment (LCA) model was developed to investigate the energy savings and pollution prevention that are achieved in the United States through remanufacturing a midsized automotive gasoline engine compared to an original equipment manufacturer manufacturing a new one. A typical full-service machine shop, which is representative of 55% of the engine remanufacturers in the United States, was inventoried, and three scenarios for part replacement were analyzed. The life-cycle model showed that the remanufactured engine could be produced with 68% to 83% less energy and 73% to 87% fewer carbon dioxide emissions. The life-cycle model showed significant savings for other air emissions as well, with 48% to 88% carbon monoxide (CO) reductions, 72% to 85% nitrogen oxide (NOx) reductions, 71% to 84% sulfur oxide (SOx) reductions, and 50% to 61% nonmethane hydrocarbon reductions. Raw material consumption was reduced by 26% to 90%, and solid waste generation was reduced by 65% to 88%. The comparison of environmental burdens is accompanied by an economic survey of suppliers of new and remanufactured automotive engines showing a price difference for the consumer of between 30% and 53% for the remanufactured engine, with the greatest savings realized when the remanufactured engine is purchased directly from the remanufacturer. [source]


Application of life cycle assessment to improve the environmental performance of a ceramic tile packaging system

PACKAGING TECHNOLOGY AND SCIENCE, Issue 2 2006
M. D. Bovea
Abstract The overall goal of this study was to evaluate the environmental performance of the process currently used to package and palletize ceramic floor and wall tiles, and to propose and analyse improvements from an environmental point of view. After developing a life cycle inventory of the primary and tertiary packaging, the life cycle assessment was applied according to mandatory and optional elements of ISO 14042. The results are presented in three parts: the first quantifies the environmental behaviour of the current packaging system, the second examines strategies focused on minimizing the environmental burdens of such critical elements, and the third quantifies the environmental improvements, compared with the initial situation, that are obtained with the application of each improvement. The simultaneous incorporation of all the proposed improvements into the packaging system can reduce impact within the 18,45% range, depending on the impact method that is applied. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Application timing and efficacy of alternatives for the insecticidal control of Tipula paludosa Meigen (Diptera: Tipulidae), a new invasive pest of turf in the northeastern United States

PEST MANAGEMENT SCIENCE (FORMERLY: PESTICIDE SCIENCE), Issue 10 2008
Daniel C Peck
Abstract BACKGROUND: Two invasive crane flies, Tipula paludosa Meigen and Tipula oleracea L. (Diptera: Tipulidae), were detected in New York State for the first time in 2004. Both are damaging pests of turfgrass and other horticultural systems in North America where establishment has already been documented. To develop management recommendations for the Northeast and define opportunities for preventive (autumn) and curative (spring) control, four insecticide trials targeting T. paludosa larvae were conducted over a 2 year period. RESULTS: The most efficacious (,70% control in both trials) products against early instars in autumn were bifenthrin, carbaryl, chlorantraniliprole, clothianidin and trichlorfon. Results varied for azadirachtin, Beauveria bassiana, cyfluthrin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, imidacloprid + bifenthrin and indoxacarb. Clothianidin and dinotefuran were most efficacious against fourth instars in spring; results varied for imidacloprid, indoxacarb and trichlorfon. CONCLUSION: Several insecticides offer alternatives for preventive and curative control of T. paludosa, but, because there is little overlap with application windows for scarab larvae pests, management may entail an entirely new insecticide treatment window, implying new economic and environmental burdens to the turfgrass industry. Moreover, curtailing the impact and spread of these invasives may be severely hampered because the best performing alternatives (clothianidin, dinotefuran) are not registered in New York. Copyright 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]