Environmental Applications (environmental + application)

Distribution by Scientific Domains


Selected Abstracts


Magnetic Multi-Functional Nano Composites for Environmental Applications

ADVANCED FUNCTIONAL MATERIALS, Issue 8 2009
Jie Dong
Abstract A novel concept is proposed to synthesize a new class of composites featuring magnetic, molecular sieve and metallic nanoparticle properties. These multi-functional materials have potential applications as recyclable catalysts, disinfectants and sorbents. The magnetic property enables effective separation of the spent composites from complex multiphase systems for regeneration and recycle, safe disposal of the waste and/or recovery of loaded valuable species. The zeolite molecular sieve provides a matrix which supports a remarkably new, simple, efficient and economical method to make stable, supported silver nanoparticles by silver ion exchange and controlled thermal reduction. The silver nanoparticles generated in this way have excellent properties such as high reactivity and good thermal stability without aggregation, which act as nano reactors for desired functionality in a wide range of applications. Magnetic component (Fe3O4), molecular sieve matrix (zeolite) and silver nanoparticles generated by ion exchange followed by controlled reduction, together form this unique novel composite with designed functions. It represents a practically operational, economical, sustainable and environmentally friendly new advanced functional material. This paper focuses on the novel synthesis and characterization of the composite, with an example of applications as sorbents for the removal of vapor-phase mercury from the flue gas of coal-fired power plants. [source]


Photocatalytic Coatings for Environmental Applications,

PHOTOCHEMISTRY & PHOTOBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
Norman S. Allen
ABSTRACT A series of nano- and micronparticle-grade anatase and rutile titanium dioxide pigments have been prepared with various densities of surface treatments, particle size and surface area. Their photocatalytic activities have been determined in a series of paint films by FTIR, chalking, color, gloss change and weight loss after artificial weathering. The pigments have also been examined by rapid assessment methodologies using photodielectric microwave spectroscopy, 2-propanol oxidation and hydroxyl analysis. The microwave response under light and dark cycles provides an extended timescale probe of chargecarrier dynamics in the pigments. Pigment particle size, surface area and properties clearly play an important role in dispersion and any polymer-pigment interactions. Photooxidation studies on several types of paint films show a clear demarcation between nanoparticle- and pigmentary-grade titanium dioxide, with the former being more active because of their greater degree of catalytic surface activity. The photosensitivity of titanium dioxide is considered to arise from localized sites on the crystal surface (i.e. acidic OH), and occupation of these sites by surface treatments inhibits photoreduction of the pigment by ultraviolet radiation; hence, the destructive oxidation of the binder is inhibited. Coatings containing 2,5% by weight alumina or alumina and silica are satisfactory for generalpurpose paints. If greater resistance to weathering is desired, the pigments are coated more heavily to about 7,10% weight. The coating can consist of a combination of several materials, e.g. alumina, silica, zirconia, aluminum phosphates of other metals. For example, the presence of hydrous alumina particles lowers van der Waals forces between pigments particles by several orders of magnitude, decreasing particle-particle attractions. Hydrous aluminum oxide phases appear to improve dispersibility more effectively than most of the other hydroxides and oxides. Coated nanoparticles are shown to exhibit effective light stabilization in various water- and oilbased paint media in comparison with conventional organic stabilizers. Hindered piperidine stabilizers are shown to provide no additional benefits in this regard, often exhibiting strong antagonism. The use of photocatalytic titania nanoparticles in the development of self-cleaning paints and microbiological surfaces is also demonstrated in this study. In the former case, surface erosion is shown to be controlled by varying the ratio of admixture of durable pigmentary-grade rutile (heavily coated) and a catalytic-grade anatase nanoparticle. For environmental applications in the development of coatings for destroying atmospheric pollutants such as nitrogen oxide gases (NOX), stable substrates are developed with photocatalytic nanoparticle-grade anatase. In this study, porosity of the coatings through calcium carbonate doping is shown to be crucial in the control of the effective destruction of atmospheric NOx gases. For the development of microbiological substrates for the destruction of harmful bacteria, effective nanoparticle anatase titania is shown to be important, with hydrated high surface area particles giving the greatest activity. [source]


Detection of denitrification genes by in situ rolling circle amplification-fluorescence in situ hybridization to link metabolic potential with identity inside bacterial cells

ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 9 2010
Tatsuhiko Hoshino
Summary A target-primed in situ rolling circle amplification (in situ RCA) protocol was developed for detection of single-copy genes inside bacterial cells and optimized with Pseudomonas stutzeri, targeting nitrite and nitrous oxide reductase genes (nirS and nosZ). Two padlock probes were designed per gene to target both DNA strands; the target DNA was cut by a restriction endonuclease close to the probe binding sites, which subsequently were made accessible by 5,-3, exonucleolysis. After hybridization, the padlock probe was circularized by ligation and served as template for in situ RCA, primed by the probe target site. Finally, the RCA product inside the cells was detected by standard fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The optimized protocol showed high specificity and signal-to-noise ratio but low detection frequency (up to 15% for single-copy genes and up to 43% for the multi-copy 16S rRNA gene). Nevertheless, multiple genes (nirS and nosZ; nirS and the 16S rRNA gene) could be detected simultaneously in P. stutzeri. Environmental application of in situ RCA-FISH was demonstrated on activated sludge by the differential detection of two types of nirS -defined denitrifiers; one of them was identified as Candidatus Accumulibacter phosphatis by combining in situ RCA-FISH with 16S rRNA-targeted FISH. While not suitable for quantification because of its low detection frequency, in situ RCA-FISH will allow to link metabolic potential with 16S rRNA (gene)-based identification of single microbial cells. [source]


Environmental applications of membrane introduction mass spectrometry

JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY (INCORP BIOLOGICAL MASS SPECTROMETRY), Issue 5 2002
Raimo A. Ketola
Abstract The purpose of this review is to highlight the versatility of membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) in environmental applications, summarize the measurements of environmental volatile organic compounds (VOCs) accomplished using MIMS, present developments in the detection of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and forecast possible future directions of MIMS in environmental applications. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Design and testing of ,genome-proxy' microarrays to profile marine microbial communities

ENVIRONMENTAL MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2008
Virginia I. Rich
Summary Microarrays are useful tools for detecting and quantifying specific functional and phylogenetic genes in natural microbial communities. In order to track uncultivated microbial genotypes and their close relatives in an environmental context, we designed and implemented a ,genome-proxy' microarray that targets microbial genome fragments recovered directly from the environment. Fragments consisted of sequenced clones from large-insert genomic libraries from microbial communities in Monterey Bay, the Hawaii Ocean Time-series station ALOHA, and Antarctic coastal waters. In a prototype array, we designed probe sets to 13 of the sequenced genome fragments and to genomic regions of the cultivated cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus MED4. Each probe set consisted of multiple 70-mers, each targeting an individual open reading frame, and distributed along each ,40,160 kbp contiguous genomic region. The targeted organisms or clones, and close relatives, were hybridized to the array both as pure DNA mixtures and as additions of cells to a background of coastal seawater. This prototype array correctly identified the presence or absence of the target organisms and their relatives in laboratory mixes, with negligible cross-hybridization to organisms having , ,75% genomic identity. In addition, the array correctly identified target cells added to a background of environmental DNA, with a limit of detection of ,0.1% of the community, corresponding to ,103 cells ml,1 in these samples. Signal correlated to cell concentration with an R2 of 1.0 across six orders of magnitude. In addition, the array could track a related strain (at 86% genomic identity to that targeted) with a linearity of R2 = 0.9999 and a limit of detection of ,1% of the community. Closely related genotypes were distinguishable by differing hybridization patterns across each probe set. This array's multiple-probe, ,genome-proxy' approach and consequent ability to track both target genotypes and their close relatives is important for the array's environmental application given the recent discoveries of considerable intrapopulation diversity within marine microbial communities. [source]


INAR(1) modeling of overdispersed count series with an environmental application

ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 4 2008
Harry Pavlopoulos
Abstract This paper is concerned with a novel version of the INAR(1) model, a non-linear auto-regressive Markov chain on ,, with innovations following a finite mixture distribution of Poisson laws. For , the stationary marginal probability distribution of the chain is overdispersed relative to a Poisson, thus making INAR(1) suitable for modeling time series of counts with arbitrary overdispersion. The one-step transition probability function of the chain is also a finite mixture, of m Poisson-Binomial laws, facilitating likelihood-based inference for model parameters. An explicit EM-algorithm is devised for inference by maximization of a conditional likelihood. Alternative options for inference are discussed along with criteria for selecting m. Integer-valued prediction (IP) is developed by a parametric bootstrap approach to ,coherent' forecasting, and a certain test statistic based on predictions is introduced for assessing performance of the fitted model. The proposed model is fitted to time series of counts of pixels where spatially averaged rain rate exceeds a given threshold level, illustrating its capabilities in challenging cases of highly overdispersed count data. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


The role of host organism, transcriptional switches and reporter mechanisms in the performance of Hg-induced biosensors

JOURNAL OF APPLIED MICROBIOLOGY, Issue 6 2004
M. Harkins
Abstract Aims:, The purpose of this study was to comprehensively compare the response of nine biosensors capable of being induced by Hg. Induction by Hg was based upon the insertion of merR, merB, zntA and zntR promoter genes. LuxCDABE or lucFF reporter genes expressed luminescence, and host organisms were Escherichia coli, Vibrio anguillarum and Pseudomonas fluorescens. The role of transcriptional switches, reporter mechanism and host organism was to be investigated. Methods and Results:, All biosensors were subjected to the same assay conditions. Sensors had their own individual growth characteristics and response to the doses of Hg tested. Maximum bioluminescence response was induced by concentrations of Hg between 2·5 nm and 5 ,m. E. coli pRB28 was found to detect levels of Hg as low as 1·6 nm and yet was capable of operating in a concentration range of up to 12·5 ,m. Conclusions:, The response of the sensors demonstrated their suitability for analysis under environmentally relevant concentrations. The sensitivity of the sensors, the optimum range and the expediency of the assay could not be related to a single sensor trait. It may be concluded that biosensor performance is dependent on more than one of the single factors studied. Significance and Impact of the Study:, The results show that comparative testing of sensors is an important step in evaluating the relevance and performance of biosensors prior to routine environmental application. [source]


Molecularly imprinted polymers as affinity-based separation media for sample preparation

JOURNAL OF SEPARATION SCIENCE, JSS, Issue 10 2009
Jun HaginakaArticle first published online: 26 MAY 200
Abstract This review article deals with molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) as affinity-based separation media for sample preparation. An over view of two types of MIPs (molecularly imprinted particle and monolith) used for the sample preparation and modes of molecularly imprinted SPE (online mode, offline mode, on-column extraction, SPME, and microextraction in packed syringe) is given, focusing on the advantages and disadvantages of these types and modes. Next, problems (template leakage and incompatibility with aqueous conditions) associated with molecularly imprinted SPE and how to overcome those problems are described. Finally, pharmaceutical, food, bioanalytical, and environmental application of molecularly imprinted SPE will be discussed. [source]


Label-Free and Ultra-Low Level Detection of Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Using Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy

ELECTROANALYSIS, Issue 20 2009
Jeffrey
Abstract An immunosensor for rapid and low level detection of the bacterial pathogen Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium was designed and developed based upon label-free electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and correlated to viable cell counts. The immunosensor was fabricated by electroplating gold onto a disposable printed circuit board (PCB) electrode by immobilizing monoclonal antibody (MAb) specific against Salmonella typhimurium cell surface lipopolysaccharide (LPS) onto the surface of the electrode. Use of mass-fabricated and electroplated PCB electrodes allowed for disposable, highly sensitive, and rapid detection of Salmonella in an aqueous environment. Results demonstrate that in purified solution, Salmonella can be detected as low as 10 CFU in a 100,,L volume and label-free and rapid manner in fewer than 90,s. The cost effective approach described here can be used for detection of pathogens with relevance for healthcare, food, and environmental applications. [source]


Cover Picture: Electrophoresis 7'09

ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 10 2009
Article first published online: 13 MAY 200
Issue no. 10 is a special issue on CE-MS edited by Phillipe Schmitt-Kopplin. It has three review articles describing recent advances in fundamental concepts, instrumentation, food safety, food quality, trace analysis of environmental pollutants and food contaminants, as well as many other applications. In addition, the special issue consists of 22 research articles on various topics of CE-MS, including technical and method developments, residue analysis in food and environmental applications and applications in diagnostic and life sciences. [source]


On-line sample preconcentration with chemical derivatization of bacterial biomarkers by capillary electrophoresis: A dual strategy for integrating sample pretreatment with chemical analysis

ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 21 2005
Adam S. Ptolemy
Abstract Simple, selective yet sensitive methods to quantify low-abundance bacterial biomarkers derived from complex samples are required in clinical, biological, and environmental applications. In this report, a new strategy to integrate sample pretreatment with chemical analysis is investigated using on-line preconcentration with chemical derivatization by CE and UV detection. Single-step enantioselective analysis of muramic acid (MA) and diaminopimelic acid (DAP) was achieved by CE via sample enrichment by dynamic pH junction with ortho -phthalaldehyde/N -acetyl- L -cysteine labeling directly in-capillary. The optimized method resulted in up to a 100-fold enhancement in concentration sensitivity compared to conventional off-line derivatization procedures. The method was also applied toward the detection of micromolar levels of MA and DAP excreted in the extracellular medium of Escherichia coli bacterial cell cultures. On-line preconcentration with chemical derivatization by CE represents a unique approach for conducting rapid, sensitive, and high-throughput analyses of other classes of amino acid and amino sugar metabolites with reduced sample handling, where the capillary functions simultaneously as a concentrator, microreactor, and chiral selector. [source]


Role of geometrical dimensions in electrophoresis applications with orthogonal fields

ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 15 2005
Mario A. Oyanader
Abstract The role of geometrical dimensions in electrophoresis applications with axial and orthogonal (secondary) electric fields is investigated using a rectangular capillary channel. In particular, the role of the applied orthogonal electrical field in controlling key parameters involved in the effective diffusivity and effective (axial) velocity of the solute is identified. Such mathematically friendly relationships are obtained by applying the method of spatial averaging to the solute species continuity equation; this is accomplished after the role of the capillary geometrical dimensions on the applied electrical field equations has been studied. Moreover, explicit analytical expressions are derived for the effective parameters, i.e., diffusivity and convective velocity as functions of the applied (orthogonal) electric field. Previous attempts (see Sauer et al., 1995) have only led to equations for these parameters that require numerical solution and, therefore, limited the use of such results to practical applications. These may include, for example, the design of separation processes as well as environmental applications such as soil reclamation and wastewater treatment. An illustration of how a secondary electrical field can aid in reducing the optimal separation time is included. [source]


Hydrophobic pervaporation for environmental applications: Process optimization and integration

ENVIRONMENTAL PROGRESS & SUSTAINABLE ENERGY, Issue 4 2002
Frank Lipnizki
The focus of this paper is on the design of pervaporation units for wastewater treatment taking into account technical, economic, and environmental aspects. Two different sized industrial wastewater streams of water-chloroform, and of water-methyl-isobutylketone (MIBK) are considered. Based on a wastewater stream of 1,500 kg/d, a semi-batch process combining pervaporation with a decanter recycle loop is developed. Using this process, it is possible to recover over 99% of the organic components at concentrations of more than 98 wt. %. The treatment costs are between 0.11 to 0.16 $/kg wastewater. For the treatment of a wastewater stream of 1,000 kg/h, pervaporation combined with a decanter and recycling loop, as well as integrated in a hybrid process with adsorption, is considered. For MIBK, pervaporation with a decanter is the most attractive option taking economic and environmental aspects into account, while, for chloroform, the hybrid process is the better option. Treatment costs in all cases are about 0.03 $/kg wastewater. The recovery rate of the organic compounds is over 99% at concentrations over 98 wt. %. The authors concluded that pervaporation as a stand-alone unit, or integrated into hybrid processes, offers significant advantages over conventional alternatives. [source]


Nonparametric prediction intervals for the future rainfall records,

ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 5 2006
Mohammad Z. Raqab
Abstract Prediction of records plays an important role in the environmental applications, especially, prediction of rainfall extremes, highest water levels, sea surface, and air record temperatures. In this paper, based on the observed records drawn from a sequence sample of independent and identically random variables, we develop prediction intervals as well as prediction upper and lower bounds for records from another independent sequence. We extend the prediction problem to include prediction regions for joint upper records from a future sequence sample. The Bonferouni's inequality is used to choose appropriate prediction coefficients for the joint prediction. A real data set representing the records of the annual (January 1,December 31) rainfall at Los Angeles Civic Center is addressed to illustrate the proposed prediction procedures in the environmental applications. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Confidence intervals for the calibration estimator with environmental applications

ENVIRONMETRICS, Issue 1 2002
I. Müller
Abstract The article investigates different estimation techniques in the simple linear controlled calibration model and provides different types of confidence limits for the calibration estimator. In particular, M-estimation and bootstrapping techniques are implemented to obtain estimates of regression parameters during the training stage. Moreover, bootstrap is used to construct several types of confidence intervals that are compared to the classical approach based on the assumption of normality. For some of these intervals, the second order asymptotic properties can be established by means of Edgeworth expansions. Two data sets,one on space debris and the other on bacteriological counts in water samples,are used to illustrate the method's environmental applications. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Development of a gene knockout system for Ralstonia eutropha H16 based on the broad-host-range vector expressing a mobile group II intron

FEMS MICROBIOLOGY LETTERS, Issue 2 2010
Jong Myoung Park
Abstract Ralstonia eutropha H16 is a Gram-negative lithoautotrophic bacterium and is one of the best biopolymer-producing bacteria. It can grow to high cell densities either under lithoautotrophic or under heterotrophic conditions, which makes it suitable for a number of biotechnological applications. Also, R. eutropha H16 can degrade various aromatic compounds for environmental applications. The mobile group II intron can be used for the rapid and specific disruption of various bacterial genes by insertion into any desired target genes. Here, we applied the mobile group II intron to R. eutropha H16 and developed a markerless gene knockout system for R. eutropha: RalsTron. As a demonstration of the system, the phaC1 gene encoding polyhydroxyalkanoate synthase was successfully knocked out in R. eutropha H16. Furthermore, this knockout system would be useful for knocking out genes in other bacteria as well because it is based on a broad-host-range vector and the mobile group II intron that minimally depends on the bacterial hosts. [source]


Numerical modelling of complex resistivity effects on a homogenous half-space at low frequencies

GEOPHYSICAL PROSPECTING, Issue 3 2006
T. Ingeman-Nielsen
ABSTRACT The many different existing models describing the spectral behaviour of the resistivity of geological materials at low frequency, combined with the lack of available field data, render the interpretation of complex resistivity (CR) data very difficult. With a recent interest in CR-measurements for environmental applications and thanks to technological progress, the use of wide-band frequency equipment seems promising, and it is expected to shed light on the different results among the published solutions to the electromagnetic (EM) coupling problem. We review the theory of EM-coupling over a homogeneous half-space with CR-effects and study some aspects of the complex coupling function. We advocate the use of the CR-based coupling function in the interpretation process, in order to obtain a better understanding of the physical processes involved in CR-effects. Application of the model to real field data shows systematic good agreement in two simple cases, even over wide ranges of frequencies. Interpretation with a double Cole,Cole model is applied for comparison, and in spite of good fits to the data, large differences are observed in the interpreted low-frequency dispersion. We conclude that the use of a second Cole,Cole model to describe EM-coupling may corrupt the interpretation of the low-frequency dispersion, even when only the normal range of frequencies (<100 Hz) is considered, and that the use of the actual EM-coupling expression is essential when the goal is a better understanding of interaction between CR-effects and EM-coupling. [source]


Recent Developments in Trace Element Analysis by ICP-AES and ICP-MS with Particular Reference to Geological and Environmental Samples

GEOSTANDARDS & GEOANALYTICAL RESEARCH, Issue 1 2005
Kathryn L. Linge
This review describes recent developments in trace element analysis using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) and inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). It aims to focus on the application of ICP techniques to geological and environmental samples. Therefore, fundamental studies in ICP-MS and ICP-AES instrumentation have largely been ignored. Whereas the majority of literature reviewed related to ICP-MS, indicating that ICP-MS is now the preferred technique for all geological analysis, there is still a steady development of ICP-AES to environmental applications. It is clear that true flexibility in elemental analysis can only be achieved by combining the advantages of both ICP-AES and ICP-MS. Two particular groups of elements (long-lived radionuclide and the platinum-group elements) stood out as warranting dedicated sections describing analytical developments these areas. [source]


Organic Thin-Film Transistors Fabricated on Resorbable Biomaterial Substrates

ADVANCED MATERIALS, Issue 5 2010
Christopher J. Bettinger
Organic electronics and biodegradable materials have the potential to be integrated to create a new class of electronic devices for the use in biomedical and environmental applications. Organic thin-film field-effect transistors fabricated using a biodegradable material platform exhibit water stable performance and degrade in vitro. [source]


The influence of elevation error on the morphometrics of channel networks extracted from DEMs and the implications for hydrological modelling

HYDROLOGICAL PROCESSES, Issue 11 2008
John B. Lindsay
Abstract Stream network morphometrics have been used frequently in environmental applications and are embedded in several hydrological models. This is because channel network geometry partly controls the runoff response of a basin. Network indices are often measured from channels that are mapped from digital elevation models (DEMs) using automated procedures. Simulations were used in this paper to study the influence of elevation error on the reliability of estimates of several common morphometrics, including stream order, the bifurcation, length, area and slope ratios, stream magnitude, network diameter, the flood magnitude and timing parameters of the geomorphological instantaneous unit hydrograph (GIUH) and the network width function. DEMs of three UK basins, ranging from high to low relief, were used for the analyses. The findings showed that moderate elevation error (RMSE of 1·8 m) can result in significant uncertainty in DEM-mapped network morphometrics and that this uncertainty can be expressed in complex ways. For example, estimates of the bifurcation, length and area ratios and the flood magnitude and timing parameters of the GIUH each displayed multimodal frequency distributions, i.e. two or more estimated values were highly likely. Furthermore, these preferential estimates were wide ranging relative to the ranges typically observed for these indices. The wide-ranging estimates of the two GIUH parameters represented significant uncertainty in the shape of the unit hydrograph. Stream magnitude, network diameter and the network width function were found to be highly sensitive to elevation error because of the difficulty in mapping low-magnitude links. Uncertainties in the width function were found to increase with distance from outlet, implying that hydrological models that use network width contain greater uncertainty in the shape of the falling limb of the hydrograph. In light of these findings, care should be exercised when interpreting the results of analyses based on DEM-mapped stream networks. Copyright © 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Pressure and gas composition effects on the operation of the pulsed flame photometric detector

ISRAEL JOURNAL OF CHEMISTRY, Issue 2 2001
Gad Frishman
The effect of pressure and hydrogen/oxygen ratio of a burning gas mixture on pulsed flame emission time-dependence was investigated in the range of 0.1,5 atm using a specially designed pulsed flame photometric detector (PFPD). We studied the pressure and gas composition effect on the pulsed flame delayed light emission of sulfur, phosphorus, and nitrogen-containing organic compounds. The optimal pressure conditions for nitrogen detection, intensity, and emission time delay was found to be 0.4 bar, at which the detection sensitivity could be improved by a factor of 2. For phosphorus, the optimal pressure obtained was 1.3 bar with 40% sensitivity improvement (compared with 1 bar). In the case of sulfur detection, two emission maxima were obtained, at 1.1 and 0.6 bar, at H/O ratio of 5. Increasing the H/O ratio resulted in the appearance of only one peak at 1 bar, and enhancement of the sensitivity by a factor of 2.4 at H/O ratio of 10.3. From the analytical point of view, we found that emission intensity is practically unchanged by the pressure and the H/O ratio for all three elements investigated in the range of 0.8,1.1 bar and H/O of 5,6. Thus, in addition to excellent sensitivity and improved selectivity, the PFPD can be applied under a variety of atmospheric pressure conditions in field environmental applications. [source]


Production of activated carbon from agricultural by-products

JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 5 2008
Panagiota Paraskeva
Abstract The production of activated carbon from agricultural by-products is a research field of increasing interest as it deals with the problem of the disposal of agro-residues, at the same time producing an added-value product that can be used in a number of environmental applications. The paper presents an overview of the latest developments in processes for the production of activated carbon from agricultural by-products, with emphasis on the methodology applied, the effect of critical process parameters such as retention time, temperature, chemical to material ratio, as well as the adsorbing capacity of the activated carbons produced in removing select compounds from synthetic and real wastewaters. Agricultural by-products can be a source for activated carbon production with high surface areas and high adsorption capacity. Copyright © 2008 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Microbial production, immobilization and applications of ,- D -galactosidase

JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 4 2006
Parmjit S Panesar
Abstract ,- D -Galactosidase (,- D -galactoside galactohydrolase, E.C. 3.2.1.23), most commonly known as lactase, is one of the most important enzymes used in food processing, which catalyses the hydrolysis of lactose to its constituent monosaccharides, glucose and galactose. The enzyme has been isolated and purified from a wide range of microorganisms but most commonly used ,- D -galactosidases are derived from yeasts and fungal sources. The major difference between yeast and fungal enzyme is the optimum pH for lactose hydrolysis. The application of ,- D -galactosidase for lactose hydrolysis in milk and whey offers nutritional, technological and environmental applications to human life. In this review, the main emphasis has been given to elaborate the various techniques used in recent times for the production, purification, immobilization and applications of ,- D -galactosidase. Copyright © 2006 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Photocatalytic degradation for environmental applications , a review

JOURNAL OF CHEMICAL TECHNOLOGY & BIOTECHNOLOGY, Issue 1 2002
Dhananjay S Bhatkhande
Abstract Photocatalysis is a rapidly expanding technology for wastewater treatment. In this review the chemical effects of various variables on the rate of degradation of different pollutants are discussed in detail. The effects of adsorption, temperature, intensity of light, pH, and the presence of anions, cations, etc have been specifically covered. A critical analysis of the available literature data has been made and some general conclusions have been drawn concerning the above mentioned effects. The need for more work on specific points has been brought out. © 2001 Society of Chemical Industry [source]


Environmental applications of membrane introduction mass spectrometry

JOURNAL OF MASS SPECTROMETRY (INCORP BIOLOGICAL MASS SPECTROMETRY), Issue 5 2002
Raimo A. Ketola
Abstract The purpose of this review is to highlight the versatility of membrane introduction mass spectrometry (MIMS) in environmental applications, summarize the measurements of environmental volatile organic compounds (VOCs) accomplished using MIMS, present developments in the detection of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) and forecast possible future directions of MIMS in environmental applications. Copyright © 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]


Natural gas hydrates: Recent advances and challenges in energy and environmental applications

AICHE JOURNAL, Issue 7 2007
Carolyn A. Koh
First page of article [source]


Inverse Opal Structure of Nitrogen-Doped Titanium Oxide with Enhanced Visible-Light Photocatalytic Activity

JOURNAL OF THE AMERICAN CERAMIC SOCIETY, Issue 2 2008
Qi Li
Nitrogen-doped titanium oxide inverse opal structure was synthesized to combine both chemical and physical modifications on n -TiO2 by the polystyrene sphere self-assembly followed by a sol,gel process. Enhanced visible-light absorption and subsequently enhanced photodegradation efficiency were observed in this unique structure, which can be attributed to both nitrogen-doping effect and inverse opal structure effect. Our work suggests that the coupling of photonic band gap structure with photocatalytic materials is a promising approach to achieve maximum enhancement for various photocatalytic materials, especially for environmental applications and solar cell devices. [source]


Photocatalytic Coatings for Environmental Applications,

PHOTOCHEMISTRY & PHOTOBIOLOGY, Issue 2 2005
Norman S. Allen
ABSTRACT A series of nano- and micronparticle-grade anatase and rutile titanium dioxide pigments have been prepared with various densities of surface treatments, particle size and surface area. Their photocatalytic activities have been determined in a series of paint films by FTIR, chalking, color, gloss change and weight loss after artificial weathering. The pigments have also been examined by rapid assessment methodologies using photodielectric microwave spectroscopy, 2-propanol oxidation and hydroxyl analysis. The microwave response under light and dark cycles provides an extended timescale probe of chargecarrier dynamics in the pigments. Pigment particle size, surface area and properties clearly play an important role in dispersion and any polymer-pigment interactions. Photooxidation studies on several types of paint films show a clear demarcation between nanoparticle- and pigmentary-grade titanium dioxide, with the former being more active because of their greater degree of catalytic surface activity. The photosensitivity of titanium dioxide is considered to arise from localized sites on the crystal surface (i.e. acidic OH), and occupation of these sites by surface treatments inhibits photoreduction of the pigment by ultraviolet radiation; hence, the destructive oxidation of the binder is inhibited. Coatings containing 2,5% by weight alumina or alumina and silica are satisfactory for generalpurpose paints. If greater resistance to weathering is desired, the pigments are coated more heavily to about 7,10% weight. The coating can consist of a combination of several materials, e.g. alumina, silica, zirconia, aluminum phosphates of other metals. For example, the presence of hydrous alumina particles lowers van der Waals forces between pigments particles by several orders of magnitude, decreasing particle-particle attractions. Hydrous aluminum oxide phases appear to improve dispersibility more effectively than most of the other hydroxides and oxides. Coated nanoparticles are shown to exhibit effective light stabilization in various water- and oilbased paint media in comparison with conventional organic stabilizers. Hindered piperidine stabilizers are shown to provide no additional benefits in this regard, often exhibiting strong antagonism. The use of photocatalytic titania nanoparticles in the development of self-cleaning paints and microbiological surfaces is also demonstrated in this study. In the former case, surface erosion is shown to be controlled by varying the ratio of admixture of durable pigmentary-grade rutile (heavily coated) and a catalytic-grade anatase nanoparticle. For environmental applications in the development of coatings for destroying atmospheric pollutants such as nitrogen oxide gases (NOX), stable substrates are developed with photocatalytic nanoparticle-grade anatase. In this study, porosity of the coatings through calcium carbonate doping is shown to be crucial in the control of the effective destruction of atmospheric NOx gases. For the development of microbiological substrates for the destruction of harmful bacteria, effective nanoparticle anatase titania is shown to be important, with hydrated high surface area particles giving the greatest activity. [source]


Aerobic Cometabolism of Halogenated Aliphatic Hydrocarbons: A Technology Overview

REMEDIATION, Issue 1 2000
Michael T. Saul
Bioremediation of chlorinated solvents has been moving from an innovative to mainstream technology for environmental applications. Cometablism of chlorinated solvents by monooxygenase has been demonstrated for trichloroethylene (TCE). Cl-out microbes combine the dehalogenation of PCE with the monooxygenase destruction of TCE to complete the PCE breakdown pathway. Underthe right conditions, cometabolic bioremediation can be cost effective, fast, and complete. Aerobic bioremediation can augment mass transfer technologies such as pump and treat or sparging/vapor extraction to improve their efficiency. [source]


Recent Progress in Biomolecular Engineering

BIOTECHNOLOGY PROGRESS, Issue 1 2000
Dewey D. Y. Ryu
During the next decade or so, there will be significant and impressive advances in biomolecular engineering, especially in our understanding of the biological roles of various biomolecules inside the cell. The advances in high throughput screening technology for discovery of target molecules and the accumulation of functional genomics and proteomics data at accelerating rates will enable us to design and discover novel biomolecules and proteins on a rational basis in diverse areas of pharmaceutical, agricultural, industrial, and environmental applications. As an applied molecular evolution technology, DNA shuffling will play a key role in biomolecular engineering. In contrast to the point mutation techniques, DNA shuffling exchanges large functional domains of sequences to search for the best candidate molecule, thus mimicking and accelerating the process of sexual recombination in the evolution of life. The phage-display system of combinatorial peptide libraries will be extensively exploited to design and create many novel proteins, as a result of the relative ease of screening and identifying desirable proteins. Even though this system has so far been employed mainly in screening the combinatorial antibody libraries, its application will be extended further into the science of protein-receptor or protein-ligand interactions. The bioinformatics for genome and proteome analyses will contribute substantially toward ever more accelerated advances in the pharmaceutical industry. Biomolecular engineering will no doubt become one of the most important scientific disciplines, because it will enable systematic and comprehensive analyses of gene expression patterns in both normal and diseased cells, as well as the discovery of many new high-value molecules. When the functional genomics database, EST and SAGE techniques, microarray technique, and proteome analysis by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis or capillary electrophoresis in combination with mass spectrometer are all put to good use, biomolecular engineering research will yield new drug discoveries, improved therapies, and significantly improved or new bioprocess technology. With the advances in biomolecular engineering, the rate of finding new high-value peptides or proteins, including antibodies, vaccines, enzymes, and therapeutic peptides, will continue to accelerate. The targets for the rational design of biomolecules will be broad, diverse, and complex, but many application goals can be achieved through the expansion of knowledge based on biomolecules and their roles and functions in cells and tissues. Some engineered biomolecules, including humanized Mab's, have already entered the clinical trials for therapeutic uses. Early results of the trials and their efficacy are positive and encouraging. Among them, Herceptin, a humanized Mab for breast cancer treatment, became the first drug designed by a biomolecular engineering approach and was approved by the FDA. Soon, new therapeutic drugs and high-value biomolecules will be designed and produced by biomolecular engineering for the treatment or prevention of not-so-easily cured diseases such as cancers, genetic diseases, age-related diseases, and other metabolic diseases. Many more industrial enzymes, which will be engineered to confer desirable properties for the process improvement and manufacturing of high-value biomolecular products at a lower production cost, are also anticipated. New metabolites, including novel antibiotics that are active against resistant strains, will also be produced soon by recombinant organisms having de novo engineered biosynthetic pathway enzyme systems. The biomolecular engineering era is here, and many of benefits will be derived from this field of scientific research for years to come if we are willing to put it to good use. [source]