Environmental Antigens (environmental + antigen)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Apoptosis resistance in ulcerative colitis: High expression of decoy receptors by lamina propria T cells

Raja Fayad
Abstract Intestinal mucosa is constantly exposed to normal environmental antigens. A significant number of intestinal mucosal T cells are being deleted through apoptosis. In contrast, T cells from inflamed mucosa of ulcerative colitis patients did not undergo apoptosis. In this study, we determined whether the apoptosis of normal mucosal T cells was induced by antigen receptor stimulation and further determined pathways that mediated the apoptosis. Freshly isolated lamina propria T cells were stimulated with CD3 mAb and apoptosis was determined by Annexin,V staining. Normal mucosal T cells underwent apoptosis upon CD3 mAb stimulation whereas the T cells from inflamed mucosa did not. The apoptosis in normal T cells was blocked by TRAIL-R1:Fc and an inhibiting CD95 antibody. Interestingly, decoy receptor (DcR)1, DcR2, and DcR3 that compete with death receptor (DR)4/5 and CD95 were highly expressed by the T cells from inflamed mucosa, but much lower by T cells from normal mucosa. Our data suggest that normal mucosal T cells are constantly deleted in response to environmental antigens mediated through DR4/5 and CD95 pathways and mucosal T cells from ulcerative colitis resist to undergoing apoptosis due to highly expression of DcR1, DcR2, and DcR3. [source]

IL-5-induced airway eosinophilia , the key to asthma?

Eckard Hamelmann
Summary: Bronchial asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease defined by reversible airway obstruction and non-specific airway hyper-responsiveness (AHR). Although profound insights have been made into the pathophysiology of asthma, the exact mechanisms inducing and regulating the disease are still not fully understood. Yet, it is generally accepted that the pathological changes in asthma are induced by a chronic inflammatory process which is characterized by infiltration of the bronchial mucosa with lymphocytes and eosinophils, increased mucus production and submucosal edema. There is increasing evidence that an imbalance in the T-helper (Th) cell response of genetically predisposed individuals to common environmental antigens plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of allergic bronchial asthma and other atopic disorders. Following allergic sensitization, T cells from atopic patients tend to produce elevated levels of Th2-type cytokines, especially interleukin (IL)-4, IL-13, IL-5 and IL-6, which induce and regulate IgE production and eosinophil airway infiltration. In this review, the role of Th2-type cytokines, IgE and airway eosinophils in the induction of airway inflammation and AHR is discussed, and animal studies of asthma and AHR, mainly in rodents will be considered. A better understanding of the underlying mechanisms leading to asthma pathology may yield more specific immunological strategies for the treatment of this disease which is increasing worldwide. I thank the many colleagues in the laboratory of Dr. E. W. Gelfand, National Jewish Research Center, Denver CO, USA, for continuous support and encouragement. E.H. is a fellow of the Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft (DFG Ha 2162/1-1 and 2-1). [source]

Effect of heme oxygenase-1 induction by octreotide on TNBS-induced colitis

im Erbil
Abstract Background and Aim:, Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon and rectum. Although the precise etiology of ulcerative colitis remains unknown, it is believed to involve an abnormal host response to endogenous or environmental antigens, genetic factors, and oxidative damage. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) induction by octreotide could protect against oxidative and inflammatory damage from induced colitis. Methods:, Rats received octreotide 50 g/kg per day intraperitoneally for 5 days before 2,4,6 trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) solution administration and for 15 days following TNBS solution administration. Rats were killed on day 21, and colonic malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, glutathione (GSH) levels and HO-1 expression were measured. Nuclear factor (NF)-,B and HO-1 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemical examination of the colonic tissue. Results:, Rats with TNBS-induced colitis had significantly increased colonic MDA levels and HO-1 expression in comparison to the control group. Octreotide treatment was associated with increased HO-1 expression and GSH levels, but decreased MDA levels. Histopathological examination revealed that the intestinal mucosal structure was preserved in the octreotide-treated group. In addition, treatment with octreotide significantly increased HO-1 expression and decreased NF-,B expression by immunohistochemistry when compared to the TNBS-induced colitis group. Conclusion:, Octreotide appears to have protective effects against colonic damage in TNBS-induced colitis. This protective effect is, in part, mediated by modification of the inflammatory response and the induction of HO-1 expression. [source]

Cutaneous sarcoidosis: updates in the pathogenesis

MM Ali
Abstract Sarcoidosis is a multiorgan granulomatous disease in which the skin is one of the frequently involved target organs. Cutaneous involvement occurs in a third of patients with sarcoidosis and has protean manifestations. More than a century has passed since the initial description of sarcoidosis, but its cause continues to be an enigma. Recent studies have introduced several new insights into the pathogenesis of this disease. The aim of this literature review was to provide a comprehensive overview on the current updates in the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis. This review has revealed that several genetic polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk of developing sarcoidosis, suggesting that genetic susceptibility to sarcoidosis is probably polygenic. Environmental factors may also modify the susceptibility to sarcoidosis. Evidence favouring an infectious aetiology has been accumulating, but the results of studies are conflicting. The current concept is that the pathogenesis of sarcoidosis involves a T-helper-1-mediated immune response to environmental antigens in a genetically susceptible host. The studies carried out on sarcoidosis have largely focused on the pulmonary aspects and have been mainly conducted by respiratory physicians. In contrast, research conducted on the cutaneous aspects of sarcoidosis is comparatively limited. Although tremendous advances have been made, there is a significant gap between the vast knowledge accumulated on sarcoidosis in recent years and the understanding of this disease. [source]

Role of nutrients in the development of neonatal immune response

Susanna Cunningham-Rundles
Nutrients exert unique regulatory effects in the perinatal period that mold the developing immune system. The interactions of micronutrients and microbial and environmental antigens condition the post-birth maturation of the immune system, influencing reactions to allergens, fostering tolerance towards the emerging gastrointestinal flora and ingested antigens, and defining patterns of host defense against potential pathogens. The shared molecular structures that are present on microbes or certain plants, but not expressed by human cells, are recognized by neonatal innate immune receptors. Exposure to these activators in the environment through dietary intake in early life can modify the immune response to allergens and prime the adaptive immune response towards pathogens that express the corresponding molecular structures. [source]


Kaw Yan Chua
SUMMARY 1Allergic diseases are characterized by inappropriate immune responses to common environmental antigens. The prevalence of these diseases has been increasing worldwide for reasons that are not exactly clear. 2Current treatment is largely symptomatic. Because the initial observation that simple plasmid DNA injections resulted in in vivo protein expression and induction of adaptive immune responses to the encoded antigen, the potential of modifying the allergic immune responses by DNA vaccination so as to treat and prevent these diseases has been explored extensively. 3In the present paper we review preclinical studies using animal models of allergic diseases, with an emphasis on DNA vaccine design, for house dust mite allergens-related allergic asthma. [source]