Environment Variables (environment + variable)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Alternative Knowledge Strategies, Competitive Environment, and Organizational Performance in Small Manufacturing Firms

Paul E. Bierly III
This study examines the relationship between knowledge strategy (exploration or exploitation) and performance, and the possible moderating role of external environment variables. Results from a sample of small manufacturing firms indicate that exploration and exploitation are distinct and complementary constructs. The relationship between exploration and performance is linear and positive, while the relationship between exploitation and performance is concave, indicating that there is a point at which focusing on exploitation leads to reduced returns. Additionally, we find that the competitive environment moderates the relationship between exploitation and performance, such that exploitation has a stronger impact on performance in stable and high-tech environments than in dynamic and low-tech environments. Exploration also has a stronger impact on performance in high-tech environments than in low-tech environments. [source]

The influence of family environment and child temperament on work/family role strain for mothers and fathers

Marceline Lee
Abstract This study examined the additive effect of structural variables, child characteristics, and the family environment on mothers' and fathers' work/family role strain. Differences between mothers and fathers on these variables were also examined. The sample consisted of 36 dualearner families whose children had been in daycare from infancy through 4 years of age. Structural variables included work schedules and time spent with child for mothers only, fathers only, and both parents together with child. Child characteristics included temperament and health. Family environment variables included different components of the family environment (conflict, cohesion, expressiveness, organization, and control) and parenting daily hassles. Results showed that mothers' time with child and caregiving for child were greater than fathers'. Mothers reported more expressiveness in the family and more daily hassles with children than fathers. Mothers' level of role strain was also significantly higher than fathers'. For mothers, role strain was associated with hours away from home, child sociability, family conflict, and daily hassles resulting in an R2 of 0.57. Fathers' role strain was associated with family expressiveness, organization, and their wives' daily hassles resulting in an R2 of 0.37. Data suggest that mothers' and fathers' role strain may be driven by somewhat different factors. For women, aspects of the family and the child and work hours accounted for a considerable portion of the variance while for men, only aspects of the family environment were associated with their level of role strain. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Consequences of an Adolescent Onset and Persistent Course of Alcohol Dependence in Men: Adolescent Risk Factors and Adult Outcomes

ALCOHOLISM, Issue 5 2010
Brian M. Hicks
Background:, While there is an extensive literature on the correlates of alcohol use disorders (AUD; alcohol abuse and dependence), there are relatively few prospective studies of representative birth cohorts that have examined the unique effects of an adolescent onset and persistent course of AUD on a wide range of psychosocial variables. Methods:, A longitudinal, community-based sample of 530 men was used to examine the impact of an adolescent onset (AUD+ at age 17) and persistent course (AUD+ at age 29) of AUD on adolescent and adult functioning including substance use, antisocial behavior, mental health problems, overall psychosocial functioning, environmental risk and protective factors, and social outcomes such as peer and romantic relationships, marriage, educational and occupational attainment, and parenthood. Results:, An adolescent onset of AUD (n = 57) was associated with severe deficits across multiple domains of psychosocial functioning in adolescence. Measures of behavioral disinhibition in adolescence were strong predictors of a persistent course of AUD (n = 93). Nearly 40% of men with an adolescent onset were able to desist by age 29, and were similar, but not identical to men who never experienced an AUD in terms of adult functioning. Men with an adolescent onset and persistent course of AUD exhibited the most severe deficits in functioning. Conclusion:, Results emphasize the importance of examining developmental course to understand the etiology of AUD. Our findings are optimistic in that individuals who desist from AUD are able to achieve high levels of psychosocial functioning. Our findings suggest that future research on the persistence of AUD into adulthood should focus on the contributions of behavioral disinhibition and social environment variables including peer and romantic relationships. [source]

Improving the School Environment to Reduce School Violence: A Review of the Literature,

Sarah Lindstrom Johnson PhD
ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: School violence can impact the social, psychological, and physical well-being of both students and teachers and disrupt the learning process. This review focuses on a new area of research, the mechanisms by which the school environment determines the likelihood of school violence. METHODS: A search for peer-reviewed articles was made in six databases and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's report on school-violence interventions. Twenty-five articles that attempted to understand the influence of either the school social or physical environment in determining teacher and student perceptions of safety and experiences of violence were included. RESULTS: Most of the included articles were cross-sectional surveys of junior high or high school students and staff. As articles used different measures of the school physical and social environment, a classification system was created. Using this system, studies show that schools with less violence tend to have students who are aware of school rules and believe they are fair, have positive relationships with their teachers, feel that they have ownership in their school, feel that they are in a classroom and school environment that is positive and focused on learning, and in an environment that is orderly. CONCLUSION: The school social and physical environment appears to offer intervention opportunities to reduce school violence. However, the lack of consistency in school environment variables as well as the lack of longitudinal and experimental research designs limits the applicability of these findings. [source]

Predicting long-term sickness absence from sleep and fatigue

Summary Disturbed or shortened sleep is prospectively related to disease. One might also expect that sickness absence would be another consequence but very little data seem to exist. The present study used 8300 individuals in a national sample to obtain information on reports of disturbed sleep and fatigue 1 year and merged this with data on long-term sickness absence 2 years later. A logistic regression analysis was applied to the data with adjustments for demographic and work environment variables. The results showed that individuals without registered sickness absence at the start had a higher probability of entering a period of long-term (,90 days, odds ratio [OR] = 1.24 with 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.02,1.51) sickness absence 2 years later if they reported disturbed sleep at the start. The figure for fatigue was OR = 1.35 (CI = 1.14,1.60). When fatigue or disturbed sleep was separately excluded the OR increased to OR = 1.44 and OR = 1.47, respectively. Intermediate sickness absence (14,89 days) showed similar but slightly weaker results. The results indicate that disturbed sleep and fatigue are predictors of long-term absence and it is suggested that impaired sleep may be part of a chain of causation, considering its effects on fatigue. [source]


As scholars have observed, government agencies have ambiguous goals. Very few large sample empirical studies, however, have tested such assertions and analysed variations among organizations in the characteristics of their goals. Researchers have developed concepts of organizational goal ambiguity, including ,evaluative goal ambiguity', and ,priority goal ambiguity', and found that these goal ambiguity variables related meaningfully to financial publicness (the degree of government funding versus prices or user charges), regulatory responsibility, and other variables. This study analyses the influence of the external political environment (external political authorities and processes) on goal ambiguity in government agencies; many researchers have analysed external influences on government bureaucracies, but very few have examined the effects on the characteristics of the organizations, such as their goals. This analysis of 115 US federal agencies indicates that higher ,political salience' to Congress, the president, and the media, relates to higher levels of goal ambiguity. A newly developed analytical framework for the analysis includes components for external environmental influences, organizational characteristics, and managerial influences, with new variables that represent components of the framework. Higher levels of political salience relate to higher levels of both types of goal ambiguity; components of the framework, however, relate differently to evaluative goal ambiguity than to priority goal ambiguity. The results contribute evidence of the viability of the goal ambiguity variables and the political environment variables. The results also show the value of bringing together concepts from organization theory and political science to study the effects of political environments on characteristics of government agencies. [source]

Profiles of the parents of adolescent CSA perpetrators attending a voluntary outpatient treatment programme in Ireland

Yvonne Duane
Abstract A group of 22 parents of adolescent sexual offenders (PASO) was compared with a group of 19 normal controls (NC) and 10 clinical controls (CC) on demographic, developmental, personal adjustment and family environment variables. The assessment protocol included the General Health Questionnaire-12, the Culture-Free Self-Esteem Inventory, the Child Behaviour Checklist, the Family Assessment Device, the Parent Satisfaction Scale and the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support. Compared with clinical and normal controls, more parents in the PASO group reported that they had been arrested or charged for a criminal offence; had personally experienced child abuse; and more of their adolescents had experienced child abuse, with emotional abuse being the most common form of abuse for both parents and adolescents. Compared with clinical and normal controls, more adolescents of parents in the PASO group had witnessed parental drug or alcohol abuse and had been placed in care outside their home. While parents in the PASO group did not differ from clinical or normal controls in terms of personal adjustment, their adolescents had significantly more internalizing behaviour problems than normal controls, whereas adolescents of parents in the clinical control group had significantly more externalizing behaviour problems than normal controls. Compared with normal controls, parents in both the PASO and clinical control groups reported more difficulties with general family functioning, roles, affective responsiveness, affective involvement and behaviour control and lower levels of parental satisfaction. However, the groups did not differ significantly in their levels of perceived social support. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]