Environment Studies (environment + studies)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

Geography and Environmental Studies in Australia: Symbiosis for Survival in the 21st Century?

N. Harvey
This paper presents the results of a detailed survey into the reasons for the spate of mergers between Geography and Environment Studies that took place in Australian universities from 1989 to 1999. The results, from a 1998 survey, suggest that the development of a symbiotic relationship between the two areas of study is merely a veneer masking a complexity of underlying factors. These include financial reasons, internal university politics, staff changes and mobility, and only in some cases, a genuine academic rationale for a merger. The paper concludes that the superficial appearance of a symbiosis between Geography and Environment Studies generally masks an opportunistic pragmatism which is very site specific in its complexity. The result has been a series of departmental mergers which, although providing a firmer financial footing, raise questions about the academic implications for the development of both study areas as we move into the third millennium. [source]

Gene,environment interactions and alcohol use and dependence: current status and future challenges

ADDICTION, Issue 6 2009
Carmen S. Van Der Zwaluw
ABSTRACT Aim To discuss the current status of gene,environment interaction research with regard to alcohol use and dependence. Further, we highlight the difficulties concerning gene,environment studies. Methods Overview of the current evidence for gene,environment interactions in alcohol outcomes, and of the associated challenges in gene,environment studies. Results Attention to the causative roles of gene,environment interactions in alcohol use and dependence is increasing. Studies with twin designs are beginning to examine gene-shared environment effects, and animal studies have investigated gene,environment interaction effects on alcohol intake in primates. Thirteen studies incorporated gene,environment interactions in examining alcohol use or dependence in humans. These studies held a variety of candidate genes and environmental risk factors and their heterogeneity made it impossible to draw firm general conclusions. Conclusions Challenges for future gene,environment studies are abundant, and consist of, for example, the development of clear theoretical assumptions about neurobiological mechanisms and the recruitment of large longitudinal samples that already start in childhood. Replication is essential to prevent an overload of false-positive results. Despite the difficulties, it is crucial to include gene,environment interactions in future studies in order to unravel the aetiological factors of human alcohol outcomes. [source]

Synthesis and stability of iron nanoparticles for lunar environment studies

Ching-Cheh HUNG
However, unlike the true lunar dust, today's simulants do not contain nanophase iron. Two different processes have been developed to fabricate nanophase iron to be used as part of a lunar dust simulant. (1) The first is to sequentially treat a mixture of ferric chloride, fluorinated carbon, and soda lime glass beads at about 300 C in nitrogen, at room temperature in air, and then at 1050 C in nitrogen. The product includes glass beads that are gray in color, can be attracted by a magnet, and contains ,-iron nanoparticles (which seem to slowly lose their lattice structure in ambient air during a period of 12 months). This product may have some similarity to the lunar glassy agglutinate, which contains FeO. (2) The second is to heat a mixture of carbon black and a lunar simulant (a mixed metal oxide that includes iron oxide) at 1050 C in nitrogen. This process simulates lunar dust reactions with the carbon in a micrometeorite at the time of impact. The product contains a chemically modified simulant that can be attracted by a magnet and has a surface layer whose iron concentration increased during the reaction. The iron was found to be ,-iron and Fe3O4 nanoparticles, which appear to grow after the fabrication process. This growth became undetectable after 6 months of ambient air storage, but may last for several years or longer. [source]

Asthma: advancing gene,environment studies

I. A. Yang
No abstract is available for this article. [source]