Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Psychology

Selected Abstracts

Political Partisanship, Voting Abstention and Higher Education: Changing Preferences in a British Youth Cohort in the 1990s

Muriel EgertonArticle first published online: 16 DEC 200
This paper focuses on the relationship between education and political partisanship, using the British Household Panel Study (1991,1999). It is known that partisanship has been falling in Britain since the mid,1950s. However, voting abstention rose only gradually until the June 2001 election where the turnout (at 59 per cent) was the lowest since 1918. Partisanship also fell sharply during the 1990s. Although social class and education are associated with turnout in the USA, no relationship has been reported in the UK, and voting seems to have been perceived as a citizen duty. However, in the light of recent changes in voting patterns and educational participation, this paper investigates the role of education, contextualising education effects in social class and gender effects. The preferences of young people are observed in their late teens, before entering the labour market or higher education, and are compared with those of the same young people in their early 20s, after completing higher education courses or gaining labour market experience. The BHPS yielded a sample of about 500 young people with the required data over the time period. It was hypothesised that dissatisfaction with government performance would take different forms for the more and the less educated, with the more educated shifting preferences to minority parties while the less educated shift preferences to voting abstention. The hypothesis was confirmed for young men. Endorsement of abstention was very high for adolescent women who also seemed to be more influenced by their family's social class. However, by early adulthood a lower proportion of young women endorsed abstention than young men. Strong effects of education were still found with more highly educated young women (as with more highly educated young men) being more likely to have party preferences. [source]

Financial Integration in the EU: the First Phase of EU Endorsement of International Accounting Standards,

In 2002 the EU adopted the Regulation which required European listed companies to prepare their consolidated accounts in accordance with international accounting standards from 2005 onwards. A novel set of structures for the endorsement of international accounting standards for use in the EU was put in place. This article examines the first phase of endorsement of international accounting standards in the context of the novel endorsement structures. The article concludes that problems over the endorsement of IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement reveals a number of significant policy implications for the EU including the difficulty of forming a European view, the role of private actors in EU regulation, and the issue that international standards largely reflect Anglo-Saxon accounting practices rather than continental European practices. [source]

The West Wing as Endorsement of the U.S. Presidency: Expanding the Bounds of Priming in Political Communication

R. Lance Holbert
This study uses priming as a theoretical basis from which to investigate potential effects of NBC's The West Wing on individual-level perceptions of the U.S. presidency. As a result, this work extends political communication-based priming research to entertainment television content. Josiah Bartlet, the fictional president portrayed on the show, is generally perceived more positively by viewers than either the Republican President George W. Bush or Democrat William Jefferson Clinton. Perceptions of the importance of being engaging to presidential success rose as a result of watching the program, and The West Wing viewers retained more positive images of Bush and Clinton after the viewing experience. Viewing The West Wing seems to prime more positive images of the U.S. presidency that subsequently influence individual-level perceptions of those individuals most directly associated with this office. The authors make theoretical connections to previous work on role display and trust in democratic institutions. [source]

Educating the Least Informed: Group Endorsements in a Grassroots Campaign

Kevin Arceneaux
Theories of low-information rationality claim that uninformed voters can compensate for their lack of political knowledge by employing heuristics, such as interest group endorsements, to make voting decisions as if they were fully informed. Critics of low-information rationality contend that politically unaware voters are unlikely to use group endorsements effectively as a heuristic since they are unlikely to know the political relevance of interest groups. We address this debate by entertaining the possibility that contextual information coupled with a source cue may enhance the effectiveness of group endorsements as a heuristic. We test competing expectations with a field experiment conducted during the 2006 election in two highly competitive Pennsylvania statehouse races where a well-known liberal interest group endorsed Democratic candidates and canvassed both core supporters and Republicans believed to be likeminded. Our results reveal that Republicans used the endorsement as a negative voting cue and that the group's endorsement helped some Republicans compensate for their lack of awareness about politics. [source]

The Marine Stewardship Council: A multi-stakeholder approach to sustainable fishing

Alexia Cummins
Established by WWF and Unilever in 1997, the Marine Stewardship Council is an example of a successful NGO,business partnership, independent since 1999. At a time when awareness of the general public on environmental issues and particularly overfishing is increasing, it offers an eco-labelling programme designed to reward sustainable and well managed fisheries with a visible environmental endorsement. The MSC is the only international fisheries organization working to provide a market-based incentive, encouraging consumers to make the best environmental choice in seafood, by setting a standard against which independent accredited certification bodies assess fisheries. It devotes time and attention to bringing a broad spectrum of stakeholders to the table, maintaining dialogue with all sectors. As more fisheries engage in the certification process, valuable lessons have been learnt on the importance of stakeholder input. Market leading supermarkets recognize that consumers expect retailers to make responsible purchasing decisions as part of their corporate social responsibility. As a key part of this they have become supporters of the MSC, enabling it to achieve the market exposure it requires to highlight the issue of overfishing and the need to ensure the sustainability of fish stocks around the world. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and ERP Environment. [source]

Criminal cognitions and personality: what does the PICTS really measure?

Dr Vincent Egan
Introduction The Psychological Inventory of Criminal Thinking Styles (PICTS) is a measure of the criminal cognitions and thinking styles that maintain offending. The scale comprises 8 a priori thinking styles and two validation scales, the validation scales having been found to be unreliable. Owing to the large amount of apparently shared variance in the original validation study, this data matrix needs re-analysis. Results from the PICTS were examined in relation to general measures of individual differences, in order to link the PICTS to the broader literature on the characteristics of offenders. Method The original PICTS data-matrix was re-analysed using a more parsimonious method of analysis. The PICYS was also given to 54 detained, mentally disordered offenders along with the NEO-Five Factor Inventory, the Sensation-Seeking Scale (SSS), the Attention Deficit Scales for Adults (ADSA) and, as a measure of general intelligence, the Standard Progressive Matrices. Results Principal components analysis suggested that the PICTS really comprised two factors: a lack of thoughtfulness (i.e. lack of attention to one's experience), and wilful hostility, with the first factor being most well defined. Intelligence was not associated with any factor of criminal thinking style. High scores on the ADSA and Disinhibition and Boredom Susceptibility subscales of the SSS were associated with much greater endorsement of criminal sentiments; high Neuroticism, low Extroversion, and low Agreeableness were slightly lower correlates. Discussion The issues involved in criminogenic cognitions need clarification and to be linked to the broader literature on cognitive distortions and personality. Interventions targeted at dismantling impulsive destructive behaviour, whether it be thoughtlessness or wilful hostility, may be effected by increasing thinking skills, so breaking down the cognitions that maintain criminal behaviour. Copyright 2000 Whurr Publishers Ltd. [source]


Incorporating an intermediate input into a simple small-union general-equilibrium model, this paper first develops the welfare economics of preferential trading under the rules of origin (ROO) and then demonstrates that ROOs can improve the political viability of Free Trade Agreements (FTAs). Two interesting outcomes are derived. First, a welfare-reducing FTA that was rejected in the absence of ROOs can become feasible in the presence of these rules. Second, a welfare- improving FTA that was rejected in the absence of ROOs can be endorsed in their presence, but upon endorsement it can become welfare inferior relative to the status quo. [source]

Three Options Are Optimal for Multiple-Choice Items: A Meta-Analysis of 80 Years of Research

Michael C. Rodriguez
Multiple-choice items are a mainstay of achievement testing. The need to adequately cover the content domain to certify achievement proficiency by producing meaningful precise scores requires many high-quality items. More 3-option items can be administered than 4- or 5-option items per testing time while improving content coverage, without detrimental effects on psychometric quality of test scores. Researchers have endorsed 3-option items for over 80 years with empirical evidence,the results of which have been synthesized in an effort to unify this endorsement and encourage its adoption. [source]

,I have no interest in drinking': a cross-national comparison of reasons why men and women abstain from alcohol use

ADDICTION, Issue 10 2009
Sharon Bernards
ABSTRACT Aims To examine country differences in reasons for abstaining including the association of reasons with country abstaining rate and drinking pattern. Participants Samples of men and women from eight countries participating in the GENACIS (Gender Alcohol and Culture: an International Study) project. Methods Surveys were conducted with 3338 life-time abstainers and 3105 former drinkers. Respondents selected all applicable reasons for not drinking from a provided list. Analyses included two-level hierarchical linear modelling (HLM) regression. Findings Reasons for abstaining differed significantly for life-time abstainers compared to former drinkers, by gender and age, and by country-level abstaining rate and frequency of drinking. Life-time abstainers were more likely than former drinkers to endorse ,no interest', ,religion' and ,upbringing' and more reasons overall. Gender differences, especially among former drinkers, suggested that norms restricting drinking may influence reasons that women abstain (,no interest', ,not liking taste') while drinking experiences may be more important considerations for men (,afraid of alcohol problems', ,bad effect on activities'). Younger age was associated with normative reasons (,no interest', ,taste', ,waste of money') and possibly bad experiences (,afraid of problems'). Reasons such as ,religion', ,waste of money' and ,afraid of alcohol problems' were associated with higher country-level rates of abstaining. Higher endorsement of ,drinking is bad for health' and ,taste' were associated with a country pattern of less frequent drinking while ,not liking effects' was associated with higher drinking frequency. Conclusions Reasons for abstaining depend on type of abstainer, gender, age and country drinking norms and patterns. [source]

Factor and item-response analysis DSM-IV criteria for abuse of and dependence on cannabis, cocaine, hallucinogens, sedatives, stimulants and opioids

ADDICTION, Issue 6 2007
Nathan A. Gillespie
ABSTRACT Aims This paper explored, in a population-based sample of males, the factorial structure of criteria for substance abuse and dependence, and compared qualitatively the performance of these criteria across drug categories using item,response theory (IRT). Design Marginal maximum likelihood was used to explore the factor structure of criteria within drug classes, and a two-parameter IRT model was used to determine how the difficulty and discrimination of individual criteria differ across drug classes. Participants A total of 4234 males born from 1940 to 1974 from the population-based Virginia Twin Registry were approached to participate. Measurements DSM-IV drug use, abuse and dependence criteria for cannabis, sedatives, stimulants, cocaine and opiates. Findings For each drug class, the pattern of endorsement of individual criteria for abuse and dependence, conditioned on initiation and use, could be best explained by a single factor. There were large differences in individual item performance across substances in terms of item difficulty and discrimination. Cocaine users were more likely to have encountered legal, social, physical and psychological consequences. Conclusions The DSM-IV abuse and dependence criteria, within each drug class, are not distinct but best described in terms of a single underlying continuum of risk. Because individual criteria performed very differently across substances in IRT analyses, the assumption that these items are measuring equivalent levels of severity or liability with the same discrimination across different substances is unsustainable. Compared to other drugs, cocaine usage is associated with more detrimental effects and negative consequences, whereas the effects of cannabis and hallucinogens appear to be less harmful. Implications for other drug classes are discussed. [source]

Drop-out from inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa: can risk factors be identified at point of admission?

Lois J. Surgenor
Abstract Despite renewed interest in drop-out from eating disorders treatment, few studies have investigated the issue in respect to the most expensive and intensive form of treatment, that is, inpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa (AN). This study investigates whether risk of treatment drop-out can be determined from information routinely collected at point of admission. Using information from a multi-site database collected in Australia and New Zealand, demographic and clinical data at point of admission were collated for 213 inpatient treatment episodes. One in five admissions ended with the patient unilaterally deciding to leave treatment without clinician endorsement. A lower body mass index, AN purging subtype and active fluid restriction made significant independent contributions to this risk. Drop-out remains a highly disruptive method of discharge and while there is utility in predicting those most at risk, few variables commonly collated by clinicians contribute to their identification. The implications for clinical practice and future research are discussed. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

Redefining Emergency Medicine Procedures: Canadian Competence and Frequency Survey

FRCPC, Ken Farion MD
Objective: To redefine the Royal College of Physicians and Surgeons (RCPS) procedural skills list for Canadian emergency medicine (EM) residents through a national survey of EM specialists to determine procedural performance frequency and self-assessment of competence. Methods: The survey instrument was developed in three phases: 1) an EM program directors survey identified inappropriate or dated procedures, endorsing 127 skills; 2) a search of EM literature added 98 skills; and 3) an expert panel designed the survey instrument and finalized a list of 150 skills. The survey instrument measured the frequency of procedure performance or supervision, self-reported competence (yes/no), and endorsement of one of four training levels for each skill: undergraduate (UG), postgraduate (PG), knowledge only, or un-necessary (i.e., too infrequently performed to maintain competence). Results: All 289 Canadian EM specialists were surveyed by mail; 231 (80%) responded, 221 completed surveys, and 10 were inactive. More than 60% reported competence in 125 (83%) procedures, and 55 procedures were performed at least three times a year. The mean competence score was 121 (SD 17.7, median = 122) procedures. Competence score correlation with patient volume was r= 0.16 (p = 0.02) and with hours worked was r= 0.19 (p = 0.01). Competence score was not associated with year or route (residency vs grandfather) of certification. Each procedure was assigned to a training level using response consensus and decision rules (UG: 1%; PG: 82%; unnecessary: 17%). Conclusions: A survey of EM clinicians reporting competence and frequency of skill performance defined 127 procedural skills appropriate for Canadian RCPS postgraduate training and EM certification. [source]

Person-factors in the California Adult Q-Set: closing the door on personality trait types?,

Robert R. McCrae
To investigate recent hypotheses of replicable personality types, we examined data from 1540 self-sorts on the California Adult Q-Set (CAQ). Conventional factor analysis of the items showed the expected Five-Factor Model (FFM). Inverse factor analysis across random subsamples showed that none of the previously reported person-factors were replicated. Only two factors were replicable, and, most importantly, these factors were contaminated by mean level differences in item endorsement. Results were not due to sample size or age heterogeneity. Subsequent inverse factor analysis of standardized items revealed at least three replicable factors; when five person-factors were extracted, they could be aligned precisely with the dimensions of the FFM. The major factors of person similarity can be accounted for entirely in terms of the FFM, consistent with the hypothesis that there are no replicable personality types in the CAQ. Published in 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Majority versus minority influence: the role of message processing in determining resistance to counter-persuasion

Robin Martin
Two experiments examined the extent to which attitudes changed following majority and minority influence are resistant to counter-persuasion. In both experiments participants' attitudes were measured after being exposed to two messages, delayed in time, which argued opposite positions (initial message and counter-message). In the first experiment, attitudes following minority endorsement of the initial message were more resistant to a second counter-message only when the initial message contained strong versus weak arguments. Attitudes changed following majority influence did not resist the second counter-message and returned to their pre-test level. Experiment 2 varied whether memory was warned (i.e., message recipients expected to recall the message) or not, to manipulate message processing. When memory was warned, which should increase message processing, attitudes changed following both majority and minority influence resisted the second counter-message. The results support the view that minority influence instigates systematic processing of its arguments, leading to attitudes that resist counter-persuasion. Attitudes formed following majority influence yield to counter-persuasion unless there is a secondary task that encourages message processing. Copyright 2007 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Perspective taking and prejudice reduction: the mediational role of empathy arousal and situational attributions

Theresa K. Vescio
This research was designed to examine whether perspective taking promotes improved intergroup attitudes regardless of the extent that stereotypic perceptions of outgroups are endorsed, as well as examining the mechanisms (attributional or empathy related) by which perspective taking motivates improved intergroup attitudes. Participants were presented with an interview segment where an African American interviewee discussed the difficulties experienced as a result of his membership in a negatively stereotyped group. Materials were presented in a 2 (perspective taking: other focused or objective focused),,2 (target stereotypicality: confirming or disconfirming) between participants design. Findings revealed that the manipulation of target stereotypicality influenced subsequent stereotype endorsement; those exposed to a stereotype confirming target later endorsed more stereotypic perceptions of African Americans than did those exposed to a stereotype disconfirming target. However, perspective taking promoted improved intergroup attitudes irrespective of stereotypicality; those encouraged to adopt the perspective of the target later reported more favourable intergroup attitudes than did those who remained detached and objective listeners. Whereas empathy partially mediated the relation between perspective taking and intergroup attitudes, situational attributions were a stronger and more reliable mediator. Copyright 2003 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Social inequality and the reduction of ideological dissonance on behalf of the system: evidence of enhanced system justification among the disadvantaged

John T. Jost
According to system justification theory, people are motivated to preserve the belief that existing social arrangements are fair, legitimate, justifiable, and necessary. The strongest form of this hypothesis, which draws on the logic of cognitive dissonance theory, holds that people who are most disadvantaged by the status quo would have the greatest psychological need to reduce ideological dissonance and would therefore be most likely to support, defend, and justify existing social systems, authorities, and outcomes. Variations on this hypothesis were tested in five US national survey studies. We found that (a) low-income respondents and African Americans were more likely than others to support limitations on the rights of citizens and media representatives to criticize the government; (b) low-income Latinos were more likely to trust in US government officials and to believe that ,the government is run for the benefit of all' than were high-income Latinos; (c) low-income respondents were more likely than high-income respondents to believe that large differences in pay are necessary to foster motivation and effort; (d) Southerners in the USA were more likely to endorse meritocratic belief systems than were Northerners and poor and Southern African Americans were more likely to subscribe to meritocratic ideologies than were African Americans who were more affluent and from the North; (e) low-income respondents and African Americans were more likely than others to believe that economic inequality is legitimate and necessary; and (f) stronger endorsement of meritocratic ideology was associated with greater satisfaction with one's own economic situation. Taken together, these findings are consistent with the dissonance-based argument that people who suffer the most from a given state of affairs are paradoxically the least likely to question, challenge, reject, or change it. Implications for theories of system justification, cognitive dissonance, and social change are also discussed. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Human values, utilitarian benefits and identification: the case of meat

Michael W. Allen
The present studies explored the associations among food's utilitarian benefits, the human values symbolised by meat, individuals' endorsement of those values, and individuals' meat identification, attitudes and consumption. A preliminary study revealed that participants perceived that meat, particularly red meat, symbolises the endorsement of inequality and hierarchy values more than other basic foods. Studies 1 and 2 found that the endorsement of inequality and hierarchy formed the basis to the meat attitudes and consumption of high meat identifiers. Study 2 found that the meat attitudes of high meat identifiers were also founded, though to a lesser extent, in the endorsement of Conservation and rejection of Openness values. Study 1 also showed that food's nutritional benefits did not form the basis of meat consumption among high meat identifiers. Moreover, Study 3 found that informing individuals (in the treatment group) of the nutritional deficiencies of meat did not alter the meat attitudes of high meat identifiers, meat identification per se, or the meat attitudes of individuals who have a predisposition to attend to the symbolic meanings of products. In contrast, the negative nutritional information did produce unfavourable meat attitudes among low meat identifiers and those who have a predisposition to attend to the utilitarian features of products. The formation of meat identification is discussed. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

"It's a Balancing Act!": Exploring School/Work/Family Interface Issues Among Bilingual, Rural Nebraska, Paraprofessional Educators

Rochelle L. Dalla
Abstract: Nebraska's rural school districts have a rapidly growing Spanish-speaking student body and few qualified instructors to meet their educational needs. This investigation examined factors that promote and challenge the ability of rural Nebraska paraprofessional educators to complete an online B.S. program in elementary education, with a K-12 English as a second language endorsement. Interviews focused on the interface between school, work, and family, with special attention on family system change and adaptation. Twenty-six bilingual paraprofessional educators enrolled (or formerly enrolled) in the education program were interviewed. Twenty were first- (n= 15) or second-generation (n= 5) immigrant Latino/as. Influences of program involvement on the marital and parent-child relationships are discussed, as are implications for future work with unique populations. [source]

Valuing the Potential Transformation of Banks into Financial Service Conglomerates: Evidence from the Citigroup Merger

Jarrod Johnston
G21/G22 Abstract The merger between Citicorp and Travelers Group on April 6, 1998 could have emitted two relevant signals for firms that provide financial services. The first signal is the endorsement by two prominent financial institutions that benefits from cross-selling of bank services with insurance services, brokerage services, and other financial services can be realized. The second signal is that regulators will allow the combination of commercial banking with insurance underwriting and full-service brokerage, paving a path for similar combinations in the future. We document a favorable share price response for commercial banks, insurance companies, and brokerage firms, which supports the argument that the merger sets a precedent for other combinations between banks and nonbank financial services that will facilitate cross-selling and efficiencies. [source]

An ESOL Methods Course in a Latino Neighborhood

Thomas C. Cooper
ABSTRACT: This article describes a model for situating an ESOL methods course in a Spanish-speaking community. The methods course had two specific goals: (1) to organize ESOL classes for children and adults in a Latino neighborhood that serve as a practicum for university students working for an ESOL teaching endorsement and (2) to include a service-learning project in the methods course so that the university students can become acquainted with the milieu of the children growing up in a Latino community. While it is not a difficult task to place an ESOL methods course in an ethnic neighborhood, the amount of planning and organization required exceeds to some degree the preparation necessary for a traditional university course held on campus. The rewards, however, far outweigh the extra effort, because the university students benefit from gaining actual ESOL teaching experience as they learn about an ethnic neighborhood, and the community residents benefit from the collaboration between the university and their neighborhood. [source]

Cardiovascular Tolerability and Safety of Triptans: A Review of Clinical Data

HEADACHE, Issue 2004
David W. Dodick MD
Triptans are not widely used in clinical practice despite their well-established efficacy, endorsement by the US Headache Consortium, and the demonstrable need to employ effective intervention to reduce migraine-associated disability. Although the relatively restricted use of triptans may be attributed to several factors, research suggests that prescribers' concerns about cardiovascular safety prominently figure in limiting their use. This article reviews clinical data,including results of clinical trials, postmarketing studies and surveillance, and pharmacodynamic studies,relevant to assessing the cardiovascular safety profile of the triptans. These data demonstrate that triptans are generally well tolerated. Chest symptoms occurring during use of triptans are usually nonserious and usually not attributed to ischemia. Incidence of triptan-associated serious cardiovascular adverse events in both clinical trials and clinical practice appears to be extremely low. When they do occur, serious cardiovascular events have most often been reported in patients at significant cardiovascular risk or in those with overt cardiovascular disease. Adverse cardiovascular events also have occurred, however, in patients without evidence of cardiovascular disease. Several lines of evidence suggest that nonischemic mechanisms are responsible for sumatriptan-associated chest symptoms, although the mechanism of chest symptoms has not been determined to date. Importantly, most of the clinical trials and clinical practice data on triptans are derived from patients without known cardiovascular disease. Therefore, the conclusions of this review cannot be extended to patients with cardiovascular disease. The cardiovascular safety profile of triptans favors their use in the absence of contraindications. [source]

New or traditional careers?

A study of UK graduates' preferences
Due to extensive changes to higher education in Britain, it is possible that graduates entering the labour market will have work experiences approximating to the ,new' career. We know little about whether this is a situation graduates are prepared for, or whether they welcome it. This article argues that a view about the changing nature of careers from the employee's perspective is needed. It describes some research investigating the career preferences and career self-management of UK graduates in different organisational contexts, and provides evidence to suggest that graduates' endorsement of the ,new' career is limited. Employability is a key concern, but graduates expect to be able to develop that employability within the context of a traditional career. The article concludes by considering the implications for organisational career management, arguing that the traditional career still has considerable value for both employers and employees. [source]

Six-week postpartum maternal depressive symptoms and 4-month mother,infant self- and interactive contingency,

Beatrice Beebe
Associations of 6-week maternal depressive symptoms [Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D)] with 4-month mother,infant self- and interactive contingency patterns during face-to-face play were investigated in 132 dyads. Self- and interactive contingency (auto- and lagged cross-correlation, respectively) were assessed by multilevel time-series analysis. Infant and mother gaze, facial and vocal affect, touch, and spatial orientation behaviors were coded second-by-second from split-screen videotape, and a multimodal measure of facial,visual "engagement" was constructed, generating nine modality pairings. With higher CES-D, the self-contingency of both partners was lowered in most modalities. With higher CES-D, interactive contingency values were both heightened (in some modalities) and lowered (in others), varying by partner. These results are consistent with an optimal midrange model. With higher CES-D, interactive contingency showed the following patterns: (a) Mothers and their infants had a reciprocal orientational sensitivity; (b) mothers and infants manifested a reciprocal intermodal discordance in attention versus affect coordination, lowering gaze coordination, but heightening affective coordination; (c) infants heightened, but mothers lowered, touch coordination with partner touch,an "infant approach,mother withdraw" touch pattern. Nonlinear analyses indicated that altered self- and interactive contingency were similar at both the low ("denial") as well as the high ("endorsement") poles of depressive symptoms, in half the findings. These complex, multimodal findings define different aspects of communication disturbance, with relevance for therapeutic intervention. [source]

Effect of response format on endorsement of eating disordered attitudes and behaviors

Drew A. Anderson PhD
Abstract Objective: The present study was designed to compare response rates on a standard self-report questionnaire that was nominally anonymous to an unmatched count questionnaire that allowed for true anonymity in responding. Method: Four hundred and fifty-four college students were asked about several topics, including attitudes towards weight and shape, dieting, and eating disordered behavior using one of two response formats; either a standard questionnaire in true-false format or an unmatched count questionnaire that did not require participants to directly answer sensitive questions. Results: Both males and females had significantly different rates of endorsement between the two methods of assessment on the majority of the eating-related questions. Conclusion: Response format and degree of anonymity affect endorsement of eating-related thoughts and behaviors. Understanding response bias is critical to determining accurate rates of eating disordered thoughts and behaviors. 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Eat Disord 2006 [source]

Practical use of the International Olympic Committee Medical Commission position stand on the female athlete triad: A case example

Roberta Trattner Sherman PhD
Abstract The female athlete triad consists of the interrelated problems of disordered eating, amenorrhea, and osteoporosis, and it is believed to affect female athletes in all sports and at all levels of competition. Objective: The current article highlights the Position Stand on the Female Athlete Triad of the International Olympic Committee's Medical Commission (IOCMC). Method: The literature related to disordered eating, energy availability, amenorrhea, and bone loss in athletes is briefly reviewed. A hypothetical case is presented to illustrate some of the common issues and problems encountered when working with athletes affected by the triad, such as the effect of weight on performance in "thin" sports, coach involvement, sport participation by symptomatic athletes, and treatment resistance/motivation. Results: Strategies recommended by the position stand for managing those issues and problems are presented regarding the referral, evaluation, and treatment phases of the management process. Conclusion: Implications of the position stand are discussed in terms of the IOCMC's endorsement of the athlete's health being primary to her performance. 2006 by Wiley Periodicals, Inc., Int J Eat Disord, 2006 [source]

Depressive symptoms among poststroke patients in Japan: frequency distribution and factor structure of the GDS

Andrea S. Schreiner
Abstract Objective The present study examined the nature, prevalence, and covariates of depressive symptoms among home-dwelling poststroke patients in Japan using the Geriatric Depression Scale Short Form (GDS-1). Poststroke results were compared with those of elderly with affective disorders and with those of healthy nonstroke elderly. Methods Poststroke patients (n,=,101) who did not also have a diagnosis of Alzheimer's dementia, were identified from patient records at seven randomly selected hospitals with outpatient rehabilitation clinics in a metropolitan area in western Japan and invited to participate in the study. All instruments were interview-administered. Results GDS scores did not correlate with age, sex, education, functional dependence, aphasia, paralysis or presence of other chronic illnesses. However, GDS scores did correlate significantly with self-rated general health and poststroke duration. Compared with the frequency distribution in a psychiatric sample, poststroke patients had higher positive affect and lower depressed mood but similar social withdrawal scores. The factor structure of the poststroke sample differed from that of nonstroke elderly in that depressed mood items loaded with items for energy loss and memory problems. Conclusion Despite the fact that 62% of subjects scored ,,6 on the GDS, none were currently receiving assessment and/or treatment for their depressive symptoms. The frequency distribution and factor structure suggest that poststroke GDS scores reflect endorsement of functional losses such as decreased energy and impaired memory and subsequent feelings of helplessness, boredom and social withdrawal rather than decreased positive affect. Treatment should focus on dealing with these issues. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

Economic Nationalism as a Challenge to Economic Liberalism?

Lessons from the 19th Century
What kind of challenge does economic nationalism pose to economic liberalism in today's global political economy? Conventional wisdom holds that economic nationalism is an outdated ideology in this age of globalization and economic liberalization. But this argument rests on understandings of economic nationalism that are increasingly being called into question by recent scholarship. In this article, I show how the history of economic nationalism in the 19th century provides strong support for two important but potentially controversial arguments made in recent literature about the nature of economic nationalism: (1) that this ideology is most properly defined by its nationalist content (rather than as a variant of realism or as an ideology of protectionism), and (2) that it can be associated with a wide range of policy projects, including the endorsement of liberal economic policies. With these two points established through historical analysis, I conclude that economic nationalism should be seen still to be a powerful ideology in the current period, but that its relationship to the policy goals of economic liberals is an ambiguous one, just as it was in the 19th century. [source]

Financial Integration in the EU: the First Phase of EU Endorsement of International Accounting Standards,

In 2002 the EU adopted the Regulation which required European listed companies to prepare their consolidated accounts in accordance with international accounting standards from 2005 onwards. A novel set of structures for the endorsement of international accounting standards for use in the EU was put in place. This article examines the first phase of endorsement of international accounting standards in the context of the novel endorsement structures. The article concludes that problems over the endorsement of IAS 39 Financial Instruments: Recognition and Measurement reveals a number of significant policy implications for the EU including the difficulty of forming a European view, the role of private actors in EU regulation, and the issue that international standards largely reflect Anglo-Saxon accounting practices rather than continental European practices. [source]

Age Bias in the Workplace: The Impact of Ageism and Causal Attributions,

Deborah E. Rupp
This study considers the roles of managerial ageism and causal attributions in the age bias process. Specifically, we predicted that employee age and manager ageism would interact in predicting the severity of recommendations made about an employee's performance errors, such that ageist managers would be more likely to engage in age bias. Second, we proposed that age bias is caused partially by differential attributions made about the performance errors of older vs. younger workers. Results indicated that older employees received more severe recommendations for poor performance than did their younger counterparts. Also, some ageist attitudes moderated the relationship between age and performance recommendations. Stability attributions mediated the relationship of employee age on endorsement of the more punitive recommendations. [source]

Retrospective reports of college students' childhood problems

Kimberly Renk
College students and a subsample of their mothers and fathers participated in a study examining their retrospective reports of childhood emotional and behavioral problems experienced by college students. College students and their mothers and fathers exhibited moderate correspondence in their recollection of internalizing and externalizing problems that college students experienced during their childhood. In contrast, college students tended to endorse significantly greater levels of both internalizing and externalizing problems relative to their mothers and fathers. Current psychological symptoms predicted the greater endorsement of childhood internalizing and externalizing problems by college students and the greater endorsement of college students' childhood internalizing problems by their mothers. Further, college students' current perceptions of their parents predicted their endorsement of childhood internalizing problems, and college students' current masculinity and femininity predicted their endorsement of childhood externalizing problems. Results of this study emphasized the importance of noting factors that may be related to retrospective reports. 2004 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Psychol. [source]