Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Life Sciences

Kinds of En

  • aves en
  • basado en
  • cambio en
  • dan la mise en
  • diferencia en
  • din en
  • especy en
  • importante en
  • incremento en
  • la mise en
  • la variación en
  • los cambio en
  • mayor en
  • mettre en
  • mis en
  • mise en
  • nido en
  • que en
  • reducción en
  • variación en
  • y en

  • Terms modified by En

  • en australia
  • en bloc
  • en bloc excision
  • en bloc resection
  • en ce
  • en ce qui
  • en charge
  • en comparación con
  • en compte
  • en conclusion
  • en culture
  • en danger
  • en deux groupe
  • en effet
  • en este estudio
  • en europe
  • en fait
  • en france
  • en general
  • en iso
  • en la
  • en las
  • en los
  • en mai
  • en moyenne
  • en méxico
  • en même temps
  • en ontario
  • en outre
  • en particular
  • en particulier
  • en place
  • en plaque
  • en pratique
  • en que
  • en question
  • en route
  • en tenant compte
  • en un
  • en utilisant
  • en voie de développement

  • Selected Abstracts

    Transformation of a zinc inclusion complex to wurtzite ZnS microflowers under solvothermal conditions

    Liwei Mi
    Abstract Wurtzite zinc sulfide (ZnS) microflowers were synthesized successfully by a convenient solvothermal route in ethylene glycol (EG) and ethylenediamine (EN) using thiourea and zinc inclusion complex as starting materials. The inclusion complex {[Zn(bipy)2(H2O)2](4-Cl-3-NH2 -C6H3SO3)2(bipy) (H2O)2}n was achieved by the reaction of zinc oxide (ZnO) and 4-Cl-3-NH2 -C6H3SO3 with the bridging ligand bipy under moderate conditions, in which bipy is 4,4,-bipyridine and 4-Cl-3-NH2C6H3SO3NH is 4-Chloro-3-aminobenzene sulfonic acid. The phase purity of bulk products was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction and element analysis. The factors that might affect the purity of the ZnS product during the synthesis were discussed in detail. It was found that the products were significantly affected by the mixed solvents and the starting materials. X-ray single crystal diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD) were used to characterize the products. (© 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim) [source]

    Erarbeitung von Anwendungskriterien für das vereinfachte Rechenverfahren (Zonenmethode) nach DIN EN 1992-1-2

    Article first published online: 2 JUN 2010
    Abstract Kurzbericht über das abgeschlossene Forschungsvorhaben im bauaufsichtlichen Bereich Forscher: Zilch + Müller Ingenieure GmbH, Dipl.-Ing. Reitmayer, Lindwurmstr. 129 A, 80337 München; Lfd. Nr.: 7.297 [source]

    Aktuelles aus dem Bereich Metallbau

    Karsten Kathage Dr.-Ing.
    Metallbau; Normung Abstract Der Beitrag enthält aktuelle Informationen zu neuen Bereichen für europäische technische Zulassungen, zu Stahlregalen sowie zur Normenreihe EN 1090. [source]

    Zum Stand der Einführung der Normenreihe EN 1337 sowie deren Auswirkung auf die allgemeinen bauaufsichtlichen Zulassungen und Prüfzeugnisse und die Normenreihe DIN 4141

    Heinrich Buche Dipl.-Ing.
    First page of article [source]

    Climatic stress, food availability and human activity as determinants of endemism patterns in the Mediterranean region: the case of dung beetles (Coleoptera, Scarabaeoidea) in the Iberian Peninsula

    José R. Verdú
    Abstract. A study to assess the influence of abiotic (climatic conditions) and biotic factors (food resources, habitat preference and human activity) on endemism patterns of dung beetles in the Mediterranean region was conducted in the Iberian Peninsula and the Balearic Islands. The Thermicity Index (It), the Mediterraneity Index (Im3) and the Aridity Index (Ia) were used to assess the influence of abiotic factors. Relative rabbit density (DR), the proportion of landscape used historically for grazing by sheep and goats and the nature of the food resource were used to assess the influence of biotic factors. Relative endemism (EN) of dung beetle assemblages was positively and significantly related with all of the factors considered. However, the Aridity and Mediterraneity Indices are the best predictors of EN. The predicted endemism (EN = 0.017 Ia + 0.004 Im3 + 0.422) was highly positively and significantly related with the observed endemism. Dung beetle assemblages with the highest relative endemism were observed in the south-eastern part of the Iberian Peninsula. This distribution corresponded to the highest Aridity and Mediterraneity. In contrast, dung beetle assemblages with lower endemism were located in more humid and temperate areas. Assemblages of dung beetles with the highest endemism comprise many species adapted to aridity and the exploitation of dry dung pellets. Conservation of traditional grazing activity by pellet-dropping sheep and goats might benefit the maintenance of dung beetle biodiversity in Mediterranean ecosystems. [source]

    SELDI-TOF as a method for biomarker discovery in the urine of aristolochic-acid-treated mice

    ELECTROPHORESIS, Issue 7 2009
    Feilei Huang
    Abstract Aristolochic acids (AAs) present in Aristolochia plants are substances responsible for Chinese herbs nephropathy. Recently, strong indications have also been presented, which dietary poisoning with AA is responsible for endemic (Balkan) nephropathy (EN), an enigmatic renal disease that affects rural population living in some countries in Southeastern Europe. A mouse model was applied to follow the effects of two forms of AA, AAI and AAII. SDS-PAGE and SELDI-TOF mass spectrometry with normal phase chips were used to evaluate changes in the urine of treated animals. These two methods are demonstrated to be comparable. The use of SELDI-TOF MS for rapid analysis of a large number of samples and the combination of this method with nano-LC-ESI MS/MS for protein identification were demonstrated. Biomarker discovery after analysis of large cohort of EN patients will be the final aim of these investigations. [source]

    A method for the determination of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters in biodiesel: Results of an interlaboratory study

    Sigurd Schober
    Abstract A gas chromatographic method for the determination of fatty acid methyl esters with four or more double bonds in biodiesel was developed and tested. The method is based on gas chromatographic separation on a wax capillary column using methyl tricosanoate as internal standard. The performance of the method was proved with the participation of 11,European laboratories by a Round Robin test on six different biodiesel samples containing different amounts of polyunsaturated fatty acid methyl esters. The results showed that the precision is sufficient around the EN,14214 limit of 1,% (m/m). At lower concentrations the variation is too high. The scope of the application can be given between as 0.6 and 1.5%. [source]

    Local control of photovoltaic distributed generation for voltage regulation in LV distribution networks and simulation tools

    Stefania Conti
    Abstract The increasing connection of distributed generation (DG) in distribution networks may affect the quality of power offered to customers. One of the most relevant issues is the possibility to have unacceptable voltage rise at the point of common coupling (PCC). This work focuses on the problem of voltage control in LV distribution networks in the presence of photovoltaic (PV) DG. The paper presents a local voltage control method based on PV generation curtailment as an alternative to ,on/off' operation, typically required by distribution operators to prevent overvoltage at the PCCs by means of overvoltage protections embedded in the PV unit. To show the effect of the proposed local voltage control, a simulation tool, developed in MATLAB®,Simulink® environment, is presented. Appropriate numerical models for network components and PV generators are provided in order to describe computer simulation implementation of the test system. The final results show that the control system is able to adjust the active power output of local generators to keep the voltage profile of the feeder, in which DG is installed, within the range allowed by Norm EN 50160. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Tests and calculations of short-circuit forces and displacements in high-voltage substations with strained conductors and droppers

    N. Stein
    Forschungsgemeinschaft für Elektrische Anlagen und Stromwirtschaft FCH and DKE UK 121.2 have recently completed an extensive systematic programme of short-circuit tests on substation bus bars of stranded conductors with and without droppers. The present test series, in continuation of the former studies, comprises 100-kV and 400-kV arrangements, applying the relevant parameters of the former. Apart from other variations, different current paths were studied for the arrangements with droppers. The present paper is confined to giving a survey of the 100-kV arrangements, parameter variations, measurements and test results, as far as they presently relate to the calculation procedure oflEC, CENELEC and D/V/VDE. It is further reported on studies with the Finite-Element Method (FEM) which show a remarkable comparative accuracy. Finally, the standardized method of IEC 60865-1 and EN 60865-1 for the calculation of short-circuit tensile forces is extended onto arrangements with droppers. [source]

    European classes for the reaction to fire performance of wood-based panels

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 6 2010
    Birgit A.-L. Östman
    Abstract The classification system for the reaction to fire performance of building products in Europe has been applied to wood-based panels as being ,products with known and stable fire performance'. The European classification system includes two sub-systems, one main system for all construction products except floorings and the other for flooring products. Panel properties such as density, thickness, joints and types of end-use application including different substrates have been studied thoroughly and are included in the classification. Most wood-based panels fall in classes D-s2, d0 or Dfl -s1 (for floorings). Testing has been performed according to EN 13823 SBI-Single Burning Item test, EN ISO 9239-1 Radiant panel test, and EN ISO 11925-2 Small flame test. Clear relationships between the main Euroclass fire performance parameters and product parameters (such as density and thickness) have been demonstrated. Tables with reaction to fire classification of different wood-based panels and end-use applications have been developed in two steps, approved by the European Commission and published in their Official Journal. The table is also included in the harmonized product standard and may be used for CE-marking. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Effective thermal actions and thermal properties of timber members in natural fires

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 1 2006
    Jürgen KönigArticle first published online: 28 JUL 200
    Abstract For the thermal analysis of structural or non-structural timber members, using conventional simplified heat transfer models, thermal conductivity values of timber are normally calibrated to test results such that they implicitly take into account influences such as mass transport that are not included in the model. Various researchers and designers have used such effective thermal conductivity values, originally determined for standard fire exposure, to evaluate other fire scenarios such as natural fires. This paper discusses in qualitative terms some parameters that govern the burning of wood and their influence on effective conductivity values. Reviewing fire tests of timber slabs under natural fire conditions, the study explains why effective conductivity values, giving correct results for the ISO 834 standard fire scenario, should not be used in other fire scenarios. For this reason, the thermal properties of timber given in EN 1995-1-2 are limited to standard fire exposure. As shown by heat transfer calculations, the effective thermal conductivity of the char layer is strongly dependent on the charring rate and therefore varies during a natural fire scenario. It has also been shown that char oxidation during the decay phase in a natural fire has a significant influence on the temperature development in the timber member, since char surface temperatures exceed the gas temperature in the compartment or furnace. Using increased effective gas temperature as thermal action during the decay phase, and varying conductivity values for the char layer, fairly good agreement could be obtained regarding the temperature development in the timber member and the char depth. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Comparison of flame spread of textiles and burn injury prediction with a manikin

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 6 2005
    Rene M. Rossi
    Abstract The flame propagation rate of 94 different natural and synthetic fabrics and commercially available garments was assessed using the EN 1103 bench scale test apparatus. To further evaluate the potential burn hazard, the fabrics were then formed into upper garments, put on a full-scale manikin equipped with 122 heat flux sensors and ignited with a small flame. By using a burn prediction model, the time to feel pain on the human skin as well as the time to suffer second degree burns could be calculated. The bench scale and full-scale test data measurements show that the flame propagation rate is inversely proportional to the fabric weight for cellulose materials. The fabrics with the highest flame propagation rates were also the garments with the shortest times to pain and to second degree burns on the manikin. However, some blends of natural and synthetic fibres gave short pain and burn times on the manikin, even when the measured flame propagation rate using EN 1103 was low. Therefore, the flame propagation rate is a good means to predict the potential hazard of fabrics made of natural fibres; for synthetics and blends of natural and synthetic fibres, the heat transfer to the skin has to be considered as well. Copyright © 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Structural fire design according to Eurocode 5,design rules and their background

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 3 2005
    Jürgen KönigArticle first published online: 18 NOV 200
    Abstract This paper gives a review of the design rules of EN 1995-1-2, the future common code of practice for the fire design of timber structures in the Member States of the EU and EFTA, and makes reference to relevant research background. Compared with the European pre-standard ENV 1995-1-2, the new EN 1995-1-2 has undergone considerable changes. Charring is dealt with in a more systematic way and different stages of protection and charring rates are applied. For the determination of cross-sectional strength and stiffness properties, two alternative rules are given, either by implicitly taking into account their reduction due to elevated temperature by reducing the residual cross-section by a zero-strength zone, or by calculating modification factors for strength and stiffness parameters. Design rules for charring and modification factors are also given for timber frame members of wall and floor assemblies with cavities filled with insulation. A modified components additive method has been included for the verification of the separating function. The design rules for connections have been systemized by introducing simple relationships between the load-bearing capacity (mechanical resistance) and time. The code provides for advanced calculation methods for thermal and structural analysis by giving thermal and thermo-mechanical properties for FE analyses. The code also gives some limited design rules for natural fire scenarios using parametric fire curves. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    New data for sandwich panels on the correlation between the SBI test method and the room corner reference scenario

    FIRE AND MATERIALS, Issue 1 2005
    Jesper Axelsson
    Abstract Assessment of the fire behaviour of sandwich panels is continuously under discussion. The fire behaviour of these panels is a combination of material characteristics such as the core material and mechanical behaviour of the panels such as joints, dilations etc. The use of small or intermediate scale tests can be questioned for such types of products. Within the proposed European product standard for sandwich panels (prEN 14509) the intermediate scale test method SBI (EN 13823) has been suggested as the fire test method to certify panels. The standard does, however, use quite an artificial mounting procedure, which does not fully reflect the end-use conditions of the panels. In a previous research project conducted by Nordtest it was shown that the correlation between the SBI test method and both the ISO 9705 and ISO 13784 part 1 was insufficient. The test data produced for the SBI test method, however, did not use the above mentioned mounting technique. In this article new data for a number of products are added to the database using the mounting procedure of the product standard. The data are compared with the previous data and show that the mounting method of the product standard results in slightly more severe conditions but that there are still discrepancies with the full-scale test results. The data also show an unacceptable level of repeatability due to the fact that small dilations result in a wide variation of classification result. The new data together with the old data show once more that it is dangerous to make a fire safety assessment of a sandwich panel based on small or intermediate scale tests. Copyright © 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Virtual environments in machinery safety analysis and participatory ergonomics

    Timo J. Määttä
    The objective of this work was to evaluate the impact of Virtual Environments (VEs) on safety analysis and participatory ergonomics. The developed method Safety Analysis with Virtual Environments (SAVE) is based on Participatory Ergonomics (PE), Task Analysis (TA), Work Safety Analysis (WSA), the standard EN 1050, and three-dimensional (3-D) functional modeling of the objects being analyzed. The materials of this work comprised machinery systems of six plants in a steel factory, which were implementing ongoing modernization projects. The results indicate that the SAVE method was applicable for safety analysis in the machinery layout design phase. According to the results, 58% of all identified hazards in a steel factory could be identified with VEs. A common understanding of designs, possibilities of evaluating and developing the system by the workers, and of providing training for operators and maintenance persons were the major contribution when using VEs in a safety analysis and applying a participative ergonomics approach. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Hum Factors Man 17: 435,443, 2007. [source]

    Mucocutaneous manifestations in inflammatory bowel disease

    lhami Yüksel MD
    Abstract Background: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence and features of the major cutaneous manifestations (erythema nodosum [EN] and pyoderma gangrenosum [PG]) and to determine the associations between cutaneous manifestations and other extraintestinal manifestations in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: The mucocutaneous manifestations of patients with IBD were studied between December 2002 and June 2007. All patients underwent a detailed whole body examination by a gastroenterologist and dermatologist. Results: In all, 352 patients were included in this study; 34 patients (9.3%) presented with at least 1 major cutaneous manifestation. The prevalence of EN (26 patients) and PG (8 patients) in IBD was 7.4% and 2.3%, respectively. EN was more common in Crohn's disease (16/118) than ulcerative colitis (10/234) (P = 0.002). EN was found to be related to disease activity of the bowel (P = 0.026). The prevalence of arthritis was significantly higher in the IBD patients with EN (11/26) than in IBD patients without EN (53/326) (P = 0.006). Arthritis was more common in IBD patients with PG (7/8) than in IBD patients without PG (57/344) (P = 0.00). IBD patients with PG were significantly more likely to have uveitis (1/8) compared with IBD patients without PG (5/344) (P = 0.017). Conclusions: We found the prevalence of 2 important cutaneous manifestations to be 9.3% in IBD in Turkish patients. EN was found to be more common in Crohn's disease and is associated with an active episode of bowel disease and peripheral arthritis. In addition, PG was connected with uveitis and peripheral arthritis. (Inflamm Bowel Dis 2009) [source]

    Patterns of convection in the tropical pacific and their influence on New Zealand weather

    John W. Kidson
    Abstract Characteristic patterns of convection in the tropical Pacific Ocean have previously been inferred from analysis of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR), and associated with year-to-year variations in El Niño (EN),Southern Oscillation events. This study examines both the effects of these convection patterns on the New Zealand climate, and the more general influence of tropical convection on the New Zealand sector of the Southern Hemisphere. The Southern Hemisphere circulation, as a whole, is found to be most strongly influenced by equatorial convection near the Philippines, and in a broad band over the central Pacific. Where increased convection occurs west of 160°E, La Niña-like (LN) conditions prevail. When the anomalous convective activity is located near the dateline, in ,moderate' EN conditions, SW flow prevails over New Zealand. This gives way to stronger WSW anomalies as the centre of convection is displaced further eastwards and a second centre of reduced convection becomes prominent west of the dateline in strong EN (EN+) events. The changes in wind regimes over the New Zealand region implied by the hemispheric 1000 hPa height fields are supported by mean sea-level pressure differences between a number of New Zealand and adjacent island stations. Indices of the zonal flow show a weak reduction in strength of the westerlies for LN OLR composites, and no apparent effects for EN composites, whereas EN+ conditions strongly favour above-normal westerlies. The meridional flow over New Zealand is skewed towards more frequent southerlies in both the EN and EN+ composites, whereas LN conditions favour northerly flow anomalies. A change is also observed in the frequency of New Zealand-area ,weather regimes'. Enhanced convection centred on 5°S and east of the dateline, as found in the EN+ composites, leads to an increase in zonal regimes and a corresponding decrease in blocking regimes. The direct influence of tropical OLR variations on New Zealand temperature and precipitation has also been assessed. These indicate that the response is not simply one of degree. Different spatial anomaly patterns in the climatic elements result from the varying regional circulation patterns, and these need to be considered if present climate-forecasting schemes are to be improved. Copyright © 2002 Royal Meteorological Society. [source]

    Research use in the care of older people: a survey among healthcare staff

    Anne-Marie Boström MSc
    Background., Sweden has one of the largest proportions of older people in the world. To manage the healthcare needs of an aging population, there has been an alteration from hospital care to community-based care. In these settings, the majority of staff is enrolled nurses (EN) and nurse aides (NA) without university education. Aim and design., The overall aim of this cross-sectional survey was to explore staff perceptions of factors related to research utilization in the care of older people. Method., Questionnaires covering research utilization and demographics were sent to all staff (n = 132) working in seven units in older people care. The response rate was 67% (n = 89). The respondents consisted of ENs/NAs (n = 63), Registered Nurses (RN) and rehabilitation professionals (RP) as physiotherapists and occupational therapists (RN/RP n = 26). Results., Most of staff reported positive attitudes towards research. The RNs/RPs stated more often than the ENs/NAs that they wanted to base their practice on research (81% vs. 25%; P = 0.001). The RNs/RPs also reported a greater extent of research use in daily practice (54% vs. 17%; P = 0.001). Support from colleagues (77% vs. 22%; P < 0.001) and unit managers (73% vs. 10%; P < 0.001) for implementing research findings was also more frequently reported by the RNs/RPs compared with the ENs/NAs. The majority of the ENs/NAs stated Do not know on many items concerning attitudes towards research, support for research utilization and actual use of research. Conclusions., Despite overall positive attitudes towards research, the majority of staff did not use research findings in daily practice. This was particularly valid for the EN/NA group. Relevance to clinical practice., There is an urgent need for managers and others in the care of older people to develop strategies for implementing evidence-based practice that involves the EN/NA group. [source]

    Quantum chemical metabolism-based simulation of carcinogenic potency of benzene derivatives

    Pavel N. D'Yachkov
    Abstract Using an oxenoid model, we investigated dependences of carcinogenic potency of the benzenes C6H5 -X on a nature of substituents X. According to the model, a P450 enzyme breaks a dioxygen molecule and generates the oxens, which readily react with substrates. We suggest that a stability of the intermediate OC6H6 -X with tetrahedrally coordinated C atom relative to the molecule C6H5 -X determines a rate of substrate biotransformation. Using MO LCAO MNDO approach, we calculated the total energies of molecules C6H6 -X and arene oxides OC6H6 -X. A difference ,Emin of these values determines activation energy of oxidation reaction. The compounds with the low ,Emin values are noncarcinogenic. Benzene derivatives with high ,Emin values belong to carcinogenic compounds series. The carcinogenicity of amino- and nitro-substituted benzenes is also determined by N-oxidation of amino and reduction of the nitro group. As the phenylhydroxylamines XC6H4NHOH and nitrenium ions XC6OH4NH+ are the common metabolites of the nitro- and amino-substituted benzenes and nitrenium ions XC6H4NH+ are the ultimate carcinogens, we use the differences ,EN = E(XC6H4NH+) , E(XC6H4NHOH) as the second parameter characterizing the carcinogenic activity of amino- and nitro-substituted benzenes. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Int J Quantum Chem, 2010 [source]

    Chinese Immigrants in Canada: Their Changing Composition and Economic Performance1

    Shuguang Wang
    ABSTRACT Using landing records and tax data, this paper examines both the changing composition of the Chinese immigrants in Canada in the past two decades and their levels of economic performance. Our research found that, in addition to a shift in origin, economic immigrants have been on the rise and other classes of immigrants have declined. This has been accompanied by a significant increase in their educational qualifications and proficiency in a Canadian official language. Yet, despite their increased human capital, Chinese immigrants still experience very different economic outcomes in the Canadian labour market compared to members of the general population of Canada. For one thing, they have much lower employment and self-employment income than the general population. Moreover, these earning differentials hold true for all age groups, both genders, and Chinese immigrants from all origins. While their levels of economic performance increases with length of residency in Canada, this study suggests that it would take more than 20 years for Chinese immigrants to close the earning gaps with the general population. Evidence also suggests that Canadian-specific educational credentials are indeed worth more than those acquired in the immigrants' country of origin, and are much better remunerated by Canadian employers. IMMIGRÉS CHINOIS AU CANADA: ÉVOLUTION DE LEURS COMMUNAUTÉS ET DE LEUR RÉUSSITE ÉCONOMIQUE En s'appuyant sur les relevés d'embarquement et les données des services fiscaux, les auteurs examinent à la fois l'évolution de la composition des com-munautés chinoises immigrées au Canada au cours des deux dernières décennies et le niveau de leur réussite économique. Ils constatent que, outre un glissement au niveau des régions d'origine, les immigrés économiques sont de plus en plus nombreux, tandis que d'autres catégories d'immigrés sont en recul. Cette évolution s'accompagne d'un relèvement significatif du niveau d'instruction et de la connaissance des langues officielles du Canada. Cependant, malgré l'accroissement de leur capital humain, les immigrés chinois connaissent tou-jours des fortunes très différentes sur le marché du travail canadien, si on les compare avec la population canadienne en général. D'une part, leurs revenus en qualité de salariés ou d'indépendants sont nettement inférieurs à ceux de la population générale. D'autre part, les écarts de revenus se vérifient pour toutes les tranches d'âge et pour les deux sexes, et la région d'origine ne change rien à la donne. Alors que le niveau de réussite économique s'améliore au fil des ans, cette étude montre qu'il faudrait plus de 20 ans aux immigrés chinois pour se hisser au niveau de revenu de la population générale. Elle démontre également que les diplômes acquis au Canada sont nettement plus valorisés que ceux acquis dans le pays d'origine des migrants et que leurs titulaires sont nettement mieux rémunérés par les employeurs canadiens. INMIGRANTES CHINOS EN EL CANADÁ: CAMBIOS EN SU COMPOSICIÓN Y RENDIMIENTO ECONÓMICO Gracias a los registros de entrada en el país y de pago de impuestos a la renta, en este documento se examina la variación de las últimas dos décadas en la composición de los inmigrantes chinos en el Canadá y en su rendimiento económico. En este estudio se determina que, además de provenir ahora de distintos lugares de origen, los inmigrantes económicos no dejan de aumentar mientras que las demás categorías de inmigrantes disminuyen. Ello se acompaña de un considerable incremento en sus calificaciones educativas y del conocimiento de uno de los idiomas oficiales del Canadá. Sin embargo, a pesar del creciente capital humano, los inmigrantes chinos siguen experimentando, en general, resultados económicos sumamente diferentes en el mercado laboral canadiense en comparación al resto de la población del Canadá. Por una parte, tienen tasas de ingresos muy inferiores en empleo y autoempleo que el resto de la población. Por otra, la diferencia de ingresos es válida para todos los grupos de edad, para ambos géneros, y para los inmigrantes chinos de cualquier parte. Si bien el nivel de rendimiento económico aumenta con la duración de la residencia en el Canadá, este estudio apunta a que los inmigrantes chinos tardarían más de 20 años en colmar las brechas salariales con el resto de la población. También se demuestra que las credenciales educativas específicas canadienses valen mucho más que aquéllas adquiridas por los inmigrantes en su país de origen y, por ende, son mejor remuneradas por los empleadores canadienses. [source]

    The influence of the impregnating chemicals on the bonding strength of impregnated wood materials

    Ayhan Özçifçi
    Abstract In this study, it is aimed to determine the bonding strength of white oak (Quercus petreae L.) and chestnut (Castanea sativa Mill.) woods impregnated with borax and zinc chloride. Within this purpose, the experimental samples were bonded with Polyvinyl-acetate and polyurethane based Desmodur-VTKA (D-VTKA) adhesives according to BS EN 205 standards after they had been prevacuumed with a pressure equal to 760 mmHg,1 with impregnating at 2 atm pressures for 60 min according to ASTM-D 1413 standards and applied vacuum-impregne-vacuum method. During the experiments, the retention amount, the retention proportion, and the bonding strength values of the samples were determined. According to the test results, the highest values of retention amount, and bonding strength were obtained from the wood material impregnated with zinc chloride. The impregnating materials had a negative effect on bonding strength. © 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Appl Polym Sci, 2008 [source]

    Distribution, endemism and threat status of freshwater fishes in the Western Ghats of India

    Neelesh Dahanukar
    Abstract Aim, To study (1) the large-scale distribution patterns of freshwater fishes in the Western Ghats of India; (2) the endemism and uniqueness of the fishes in various zones; and (3) the threat status of fishes by categorizing them under low risk (LR), vulnerable (VU), endangered (EN) and critically endangered (CR). Location, The Western Ghats of India. Methods, The scientific literature describing the freshwater fishes of the Western Ghats was reviewed. Data describing the lists of the species were extracted and complied. The species accumulation curve was plotted using Michaelis,Menten-like equation. The Western Ghats was divided into six zones and similarity of the species was calculated using Jacquard's index. Results, Literature to date records 288 species belonging to 12 orders, 41 families and 109 genera, of which 118 species are endemic and 51 are unique. However, the species accumulation curve shows that there might be 345 species in this region, indicating that 16% species have not been recorded to date. An analysis of the distribution pattern of fishes in the Western Ghats suggests that the southern region is more diverse than the northern and central regions. The southern region shows high endemism and high uniqueness while the northern region shows high endemism but less uniqueness. The similarity index between the zones indicates that as the distance between the zones increases similarity decreases. The status of 105 of 288 species was not known due to data deficiency but among the remaining 183 species, 58 species were categorized as LR, 41 as VU, 54 as EN, 24 as CR while the remaining six species were introduced. Conclusions, The distribution patterns of fishes in the Western Ghats are discussed in accordance with the geography of Western Ghats, its climatic conditions and ,Satpura Hypothesis'. The threat status of fishes found in Western Ghats suggests that at least 41% of fish fauna is threatened by either being VU, EN or CR. Implication of potent conservation measures is necessary to conserve the fish fauna of Western Ghats. [source]

    Counting elephants in Montane forests: some sources of error

    Hilde Vanleeuwe
    Abstract The dung count method is widely used to estimate elephant numbers in forests. It was developed in the lowland forests of Central Africa but it is also used in Montane forests in eastern Africa. Using data collected on Mount Kenya and computer simulations, this paper explores the following issues associated with dung surveys in Montane forests: ,,High rainfall at 3000 m altitude on Mount Kenya was expected to accelerate dung pile decay but no significant difference was found between 3000 and 2500 m where less rain falls, possibly because high rainfall at 3000 m is counteracted by lower temperatures; ,,Physical obstacles make it difficult to walk long, straight transects in Montane forests. Deviating from a straight line pushes the distribution of distance measurements from dung piles to the transect centre line (pdist) towards a negative exponential (NE), which complicates data analysis and may give inaccurate estimates. Using short transects largely alleviate this problem; ,,Analysis of dung count simulations shows that the expected sightability curve of pdist pushes towards a NE with increasing numbers of obstacles blocking the view, even along perfectly straight transects; ,,Extrapolating measured dung density to map area on Mount Kenya resulted in an underestimate of c. 13%. An unstratified correction of map area to ground area for Montane areas would be biased because of the strong tendency for elephants to avoid steeply sloping areas. Résumé La méthode par comptage des crottes est largement utilisée pour estimer le nombre des éléphants en forêt. Elle a été mise au point dans les forêts de basse altitude d'Afrique centrale, mais elle est aussi employée dans les forêts de montagne d'Afrique de l'Est. Utilisant les données collectées sur le Mont Kenya et des simulations informatiques, cet article explore les questions suivantes liées au comptage des crottes dans les forêts de montagne: ,,Les fortes chutes de pluies à 3 000 mètres d'altitude sur le Mont Kenya étaient censées accélérer la décomposition des tas de crottes, mais on n'a pas trouvé de différence significative entre 3 000 et 2 500 mètres où il tombe moins de pluie, peut-être parce que les fortes pluies à 3 000 mètres sont compensées par de plus basses températures; ,,Les obstacles physiques rendent plus difficiles de marcher le long de transects rectilignes dans les forêts de montagne. Le fait de dévier de la ligne droite pousse la distribution des mesures des distances entre les tas de crottes et la ligne droite du transect (pdist) vers un modèle exponentiel négatif (EN) qui complique l'analyse des données et peut donner des estimations inexactes. Le fait de recourir à des transects courts réduit considérablement ce problème; ,,L'analyse des simulations de comptages de crottes montre que la courbe de visibilité attendue de pdist pousse vers un EN lorsque le nombre d'obstacles bloquant la vue augmente, même le long de transects parfaitement rectilignes; ,,L'extrapolation de la densité mesurée des crottes sur une carte du Mont Kenya a abouti à une sous-estimation d'environ 13%. Une correction non stratifiée de la surface cartographiée des zones montagneuses vers une surface plane serait biaisée étant donné que les éléphants ont fortement tendance àéviter les zones escarpées et glissantes. [source]

    Clinical group supervision in an intensive care unit: a space for relief, and for sharing emotions and experiences of care

    Berit Lindahl MSc
    Summary , ,Much has been written about models, aims and the concept of clinical group supervisional, although few studies are empirical or focus on intensive care. , ,The aim of the study was to illuminate the process and describe, using qualitative content analysis, the content of conversations carried out during the course of clinical group supervision sessions among Registered Nurses (RN) and enrolled nurses (EN) working in an intensive care unit (ICU). , ,During the supervision sessions, ENs talked about their life-world from a caring perspective, while RNs focused on their professional development. Both ENs and RNs regarded the supervision sessions as a space for relief and for sharing emotions and caring experiences, which helped to manage complex nursing care. , ,The findings are viewed in the light of Roach's theoretical framework describing the attributes of professional care as five Cs. Clinical group supervision is interpreted as supportive in developing interpersonal skills and a sensitive nursing practice. [source]

    Frequency of under- and overfeeding in mechanically ventilated ICU patients: causes and possible consequences

    C. Reid
    Abstract Introduction, In critically ill patients enteral nutrition (EN) is frequently associated with underfeeding and intolerance, whilst parenteral nutrition (PN) has been associated with a greater risk of infectious complications and overfeeding. Materials and methods The adequacy of nutritional support provided to critically ill patients was prospectively recorded and compared with estimated requirements. The incidence of, and practices contributing to, under- (<80% of energy requirements) and overfeeding (>110% of energy requirements) were identified. Results, Overall patients received approximately 81% and 76% of prescribed energy and protein intakes respectively. Underfeeding occurred on 50.3% of days. Reasons for patients failing to achieve adequate intakes included, fasting for airway management procedures (21%) and gastrointestinal intolerance (14%). Overfeeding, although less common (18.6% of days), was more likely to occur in patients with a tracheostomy requiring prolonged mechanical ventilation (>16 days). The combination of oral and nasogastric feeding or use of nutrient-dense feeds were most frequently associated with overfeeding. Discussion, The overall adequacy of nutritional intakes in the present study was similar to those reported elsewhere. However, the incidence of overfeeding was greater than anticipated and occurred in patients already experiencing delayed weaning from mechanical ventilation. [source]

    The European standard for sun-protective clothing: EN 13758

    T Gambichler
    Abstract Clothing is considered one of the most important tools for sun protection. Contrary to popular opinion, however, some summer fabrics provide insufficient ultraviolet (UV) protection. The European Committee for Standardization (CEN), has developed a new standard on requirements for test methods and labelling of sun-protective garments. This document has now been completed and is published. Within CEN, a working group, CEN/TC 248 WG14 ,UV protective clothing', was set up with the mission to produce standards on the UV-protective properties of textile materials. This working group started its activities in 1998 and included 30 experts (dermatologists, physicists, textile technologists, fabric manufacturers and retailers of apparel textiles) from 11 European member states. Within this working group, all medical, ethical, technical and economical aspects of standardization of UV-protective clothing were discussed on the basis of the expertise of each member and in consideration of the relevant literature in this field. Decisions were made in consensus. The first part of the standard (EN 13758-1) deals with all details of test methods (e.g. spectrophotometric measurements) for textile materials and part 2 (EN 13758-2) covers classification and marking of apparel textiles. UV-protective cloths for which compliance with this standard is claimed must fulfill all stringent instructions of testing, classification and marking, including a UV protection factor (UPF) larger than 40 (UPF 40+), average UVA transmission lower than 5%, and design requirements as specified in part 2 of the standard. A pictogram, which is marked with the number of the standard EN 13758-2 and the UPF of 40+, shall be attached to the garment if it is in compliance with the standard. The dermatology community should take cognizance of this new standard document. Garment manufacturers and retailers may now follow these official guidelines for testing and labelling of UV-protective summer clothes, and the sun-aware consumer can easily recognize garments that definitely provide sufficient UV protection. [source]

    Initial physiological responses and perceived hyperarousal predict subsequent emotional numbing in pediatric injury patients

    Nicole R. Nugent
    The present study tested the hypothesis that acute posttraumatic hyperarousal would lead to the development of emotional numbing (EN) symptoms in a pediatric injury population. Eighty-two youths aged 8,18 years were recruited from the emergency department of a Midwestern children's hospital. Heart rate was recorded from emergency medical services reports and a 12-hour urine collection was initiated upon admission. Six weeks and 6 months later, depression and PTSD symptoms were assessed. Initial heart rate and urinary cortisol levels predicted 6-week and 6-month EN after controlling for concurrent depression, avoidance, and reexperiencing symptoms and 6-week hyperarousal symptoms. These findings provide empirical support for prior hypotheses concerning the development of PTSD symptoms over time. [source]

    Predictors of emotional numbing, revisited: A replication and extension

    William F. Flack Jr.
    Abstract Litz et al. (1997), theorizing that emotional numbing (EN) is the result of emotional depletion caused by chronic hyperarousal, demonstrated that a cluster of hyperarousal symptoms was a robust predictor of EN symptoms. In the present study, these findings were replicated and extended in two multiple regression analyses of data from a large, multisite investigation (T. M. Keane et al., 1998) of psychophysiological responding by male combat veterans. The arousal (D) cluster of symptoms was again the most robust predictor of EN symptoms, whereas physiological indices of arousal and reactivity accounted for negligible amounts of variance in both regression equations. These findings underscore the possible link between disturbances related to arousal and the capacity of traumatized individuals to express and experience pleasant feelings. [source]

    Intermittent and Continuous Enteral Nutrition in Critically Ill Dogs: A Prospective Randomized Trial

    M. Holahan
    Background: Malnutrition is a common problem in critically ill dogs and is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in human medicine. Enteral nutrition (EN) delivery methods have been evaluated in humans to determine which is most effective in achieving caloric goals. Objectives: To compare continuous infusion and intermittent bolus feeding of EN in dogs admitted to a critical care unit. Animals: Fifty-four dogs admitted to the critical care unit and requiring nutritional support with a nasoenteric feeding tube. Methods: Prospective randomized clinical trial. Dogs were randomized to receive either continuous infusion (Group C) or intermittent bolus feeding (Group I) of liquid EN. The percentage of prescribed nutrition delivered (PPND) was calculated every 24 hours. Frequencies of gastrointestinal (GI), mechanical, and technical complications were recorded and gastric residual volumes (GRVs) were measured. Results: PPND was significantly lower in Group C (98.4%) than Group I (100%). There was no significant difference in GI or mechanical complications, although Group C had a significantly higher rate of technical complications. GRVs did not differ significantly between Group C (3.1 mL/kg) and Group I (6.3 mL/kg) and were not correlated with the incidence of vomiting or regurgitation. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: There was a statistically significant difference in the PPND between continuously and intermittently fed dogs, but this difference is unlikely to be clinically relevant. Critically ill dogs can be successfully supported with either continuous infusion or intermittent bolus feeding of EN with few complications. Increased GRVs may not warrant termination of enteral feeding. [source]

    Presence of Listeria and Salmonella spp. in retail chicken in Northern Ireland

    N. Soultos
    Abstract Aims: Retail packs of fresh chicken in Northern Ireland were sampled to determine the frequency with which they were contaminated with Salmonella and Listeria spp. Methods: Packs of chicken were chosen from supermarkets ensuring a diverse range of EU producer codes were sampled. Salmonellas were isolated using BS EN 12824: 1998 methodology, biotyped and serotyped whilst Listeria spp. were isolated based on EN ISO 11290-1: 1996 procedures and identified using a multiplex PCR system utilizing genus and species specific primers. Significance and Impact of the Study: Only three of 205 samples yielded Salmonella spp. indicating that measures undertaken by the poultry industry to control this pathogen have apparently been successful. However, Listeria spp. were present in 38 of 80 samples tested (48%) and 14 (18%) yielded Listeria monocytogenes. Thus Salmonella controls do not markedly affect this pathogen and retail packs of raw chicken must be considered a potential source of L. monocytogenes, and appropriate precautions taken to prevent infection. [source]