Distribution by Scientific Domains
Distribution within Medical Sciences

Kinds of Emotional

  • children emotional
  • role emotional

  • Terms modified by Emotional

  • emotional abuse
  • emotional adjustment
  • emotional arousal
  • emotional aspect
  • emotional attachment
  • emotional availability
  • emotional awareness
  • emotional behavior
  • emotional bond
  • emotional challenge
  • emotional change
  • emotional climate
  • emotional competence
  • emotional connection
  • emotional consequence
  • emotional content
  • emotional control
  • emotional demand
  • emotional detachment
  • emotional development
  • emotional difficulty
  • emotional disorder
  • emotional disorders
  • emotional distress
  • emotional disturbance
  • emotional dysregulation
  • emotional eating
  • emotional effects
  • emotional engagement
  • emotional event
  • emotional exhaustion
  • emotional experience
  • emotional expression
  • emotional face
  • emotional facial expression
  • emotional factor
  • emotional function
  • emotional functioning
  • emotional health
  • emotional impact
  • emotional information
  • emotional intelligence
  • emotional intensity
  • emotional involvement
  • emotional issues
  • emotional lability
  • emotional labor
  • emotional labour
  • emotional learning
  • emotional life
  • emotional maturity
  • emotional memory
  • emotional need
  • emotional neglect
  • emotional outcome
  • emotional pain
  • emotional problem
  • emotional process
  • emotional processing
  • emotional reaction
  • emotional reactivity
  • emotional regulation
  • emotional relief
  • emotional resource
  • emotional response
  • emotional security
  • emotional situation
  • emotional stability
  • emotional state
  • emotional states
  • emotional status
  • emotional stimulus
  • emotional strain
  • emotional stress
  • emotional stroop task
  • emotional support
  • emotional symptom
  • emotional system
  • emotional tone
  • emotional vulnerability
  • emotional well-being
  • emotional wellbeing
  • emotional word

  • Selected Abstracts

    Technology Forecasting: From Emotional to Empirical

    Michael S. Slocum
    Technology Forecasting has evolved from being a methodology based on emotional responses to one predicated on data collection. The Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ) is a theory based on empirical data that relates technological evolution to the same stages of biological macro-evolution. This paper will explore the major emotional forecasting methods as well as discuss part of TRIZ Technology Forecasting called Maturity Mapping. The reader will briefly be introduced to eight evolutionary trends based on TRIZ. [source]

    Early predictors of antisocial developmental pathways among boys and girls

    M. Pitzer
    Objective:, We investigated in a high-risk sample the differential impact of biological and psychosocial risk factors on antisocial behaviour pathways. Method:, One hundred and thirty-eight boys and 155 girls born at differing degrees of obstetric and psychosocial risk were examined from birth until adolescence. Childhood temperament was assessed by a highly-structured parent-interview and standardized behavioural observations, adolescent temperament was measured by self-report. Neurodevelopmental variables were assessed by age-specific developmental tests. Emotional and behaviour problems were measured at the ages of 8 and 15 by the Achenbach scales. Results:, In both genders, psychosocial adversity and early self-control temperament were strongly associated with early-onset persistent (EOP) antisocial behaviour. Psychosocial adversity and more severe externalizing problems differentiated the EOP from childhood-limited (CL) pathway. In girls, adolescent-onset (AO) antisocial behaviour was strongly associated with novelty seeking at 15 years. Conclusion:, Our findings emphasize the need for early support and intervention in psychosocially disadvantaged families. [source]

    Memory, Emotional and Vocational Impairments before and after Anterior Temporal Lobectomy for Complex Partial Seizures

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 11 2006
    Mario F. Dulay
    Summary:,Purpose: To assess the pre- and postsurgical frequency of memory, emotional, and vocational impairments in patients who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy (ATL), and to assess the relationship between emotional disturbance and memory abilities after ATL. Methods: Retrospective analysis of data was performed on 90 patients with medically intractable complex partial seizures who underwent ATL between 1981 and 2003. Patients were evaluated an average of 5 months before surgery and 11.3 months after surgery. Results: A moderate to high frequency of memory impairment (44.4%; verbal or nonverbal), emotional disturbance (38.9%) and unemployment (27.8%) existed in the same individuals both before and after surgery. There were small to moderate rates of new onset memory (18.9%), emotional (11.1%), and vocational (7.8%) difficulties after surgery often regardless of seizure control outcome. Patients who underwent left-ATL and had emotional disturbance after surgery had the lowest verbal memory test scores. Conclusions: Results highlight the importance of taking into account emotional status when assessing memory abilities after ATL. Results replicate the finding of moderate to high frequencies of memory impairment, emotional disturbance, and unemployment both before and after ATL. Results provide support for the rationale that cognitive, psychiatric and vocational interventions are indicated to mitigate the problems that exist before and persist after ATL. [source]

    Depression and Altered Quality of Life in Women with Epilepsy of Childbearing Age

    EPILEPSIA, Issue 1 2004
    Ettore Beghi
    Summary: Purpose: To calculate the prevalence of depression in a referral population of women of childbearing age, to define the factors associated with depression, and to assess health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in the same population. Methods: The 642 consecutive women with epilepsy aged 18,55 years were enrolled by 40 neurologists over an 8-month period and asked to give details on selected demographic and clinical features regarding the disease, any associated clinical condition, and any drug treatment. Depression was diagnosed by using the Hamilton depression scale and HRQOL was measured through the SF-36 form. Demographic, clinical, and therapeutic risk factors for depression were searched for within the study population. Results: Depression (any severity) was present at interview in 242 women, giving a prevalence rate of 37.7%[95% confidence interval (CI), 33.9,41.6]. Mild depression was reported by 18.5% of women, moderate depression by 8.6%, major depression by 10.3%, and severe depression by 0.3%. Factors found to be independently associated with depression (any severity) included treatment of associated conditions [relative risk (RR), 1.5; 95% CI, 1.2,1.8), concurrent disability (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0,1.6), seizures in the preceding 6 months (RR, 1.4; 95% CI, 1.1,1.7), and being unemployed or a housewife (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 1.0,1.5). Factors associated with moderate to severe depression included treatment for associated conditions (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.4,2.7), seizures in the preceding 6 months (RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.2,2.5), and being unemployed or a housewife (RR, 1.6; 95% CI, 1.1,2.2). Compared with normal women of similar age, patients with epilepsy tended to present lower scores for each HRQOL domain (mostly Role Physical, General Health, Social Functioning, and Role Emotional). However, when the analysis was limited to nondepressed women with epilepsy, any difference disappeared. Conclusions: Women with epilepsy of childbearing age are at high risk of depression. Factors associated with depression include lack of occupation, the presence of an underlying disabling condition (with treatment), and the severity of epilepsy. Compared with the general population, depressed women have greater impairment of HRQOL with epilepsy, which reflects the physical, social, and emotional implications of the disease. [source]

    Cognitive,Emotional,Behavioural Therapy for the eating disorders: working with beliefs about emotions

    Emma Corstorphine
    Abstract A subgroup of eating-disordered patients have particular difficulty in tolerating negative mood states and existing interventions seem to be less effective when working with such cases. This clinical practice paper outlines a Cognitive,Emotional,Behavioural Therapy (CEBT). This intervention is aimed at enabling patients to challenge the basis of their emotional distress, and thus to reduce the need for the function of the associated eating behaviours. The intervention draws on range of models and techniques, including cognitive behavioural therapy, dialectical behavioural therapy, mindfulness training and experiential exercises. Copyright © 2006 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. [source]

    Before Emotional Intelligence: Research on Nonverbal, Emotional, and Social Competences

    First page of article [source]

    The Ages & Stages Questionnaire: Social,Emotional: A validation study of a mother-report questionnaire on a clinical mother,infant sample,

    Björn Salomonsson
    Mother-report questionnaires of infant socioemotional functioning are increasingly used to screen for clinical referral to infant mental health services. The validity of the Ages & Stages Questionnaire: Social Emotional (ASQ:SE; J. Squires, D. Bricker, K. Heo, & E. Twombly, 2002) was investigated in a sample of help-seeking mothers with young infants. It was compared with independent observer-rated dyadic interactions, and the quality of dyadic relationships was rated by expert clinicians. The ASQ:SE ratings also were compared with questionnaires on maternal psychological stress and distress. The ASQ:SE did not correlate significantly with either external ratings of dyadic interaction or clinically assessed relationship qualities, though the latter two were strongly associated with each other. In contrast, ASQ:SE scores were associated with questionnaires relating to maternal psychological distress. This was especially true for mothers classified as depressed. Furthermore, reports on the ASQ:SE were strongly predicted by maternal stress. The study points to some problems with the concurrent validity of the ASQ:SE in clinical samples. It also demonstrates a close link between mothers' psychological distress and their ratings of infant social and emotional functioning. Further research should investigate the extent to which the ASQ:SE specifically measures infant functioning or maternal distress, and how it functions in clinical versus nonclinical samples. Los cuestionarios en que las madres reportan el funcionamiento socio-emocional del infante se están usando más para determinar la necesidad de referir a los servicios de salud mental infantil. Se investigó la validez del Cuestionario de Edades y Niveles: Socio-emocional (ASQ:SE) en un grupo muestra de madres con infantes pequeños las cuales buscaban ayuda. Al grupo se le comparó con las interacciones de las díadas evaluadas por un observador independiente, y con la calidad de las relaciones de las díadas evaluadas por clínicos expertos. Los puntajes del ASQ:SE también fueron comparados con cuestionarios sobre el estrés y la ansiedad maternales sicológicas. Resultados: el ASQ:SE no se correlacionó significativamente ni con los puntajes externos de la interacción de la díada ni con las cualidades de la relación evaluadas clínicamente, aunque ambas fueron asociadas fuertemente una con la otra. En contraste, los puntajes de ASQ:SE fueron asociados con cuestionarios que se referían a la ansiedad mental psicológica maternal. Esto resultó verdadero sobretodo en los casos de madres clasificadas como depresivas. Es más, el estrés maternal predijo fuertemente los reportes sobre el ASQ:SE. Este estudio apunta hacia ciertos problemas con la validez concurrente del ASQ:SE en muestras clínicas. El mismo demuestra una conexión cercana entre la ansiedad mental psicológica maternal y los puntajes que las madres les dan al funcionamiento social y emocional del infante. La investigación futura debe enfocarse en hasta qué punto el ASQ:SE mide específicamente el funcionamiento del infante o la ansiedad mental de la madre, y cómo el mismo funciona en muestras clínicas versus aquellas que no lo son. Les questionnaires "rapport de la mère" de fonctionnement social et émotionnel du nourrison sont de plus en plus utilisés pour tester les enfants afin de les envoyer consulter en services de santé mentale du nourrisson. La validité du questionnaire "âge et étapes: social et émotionnel" (en anglais Ages and Stages Questionnaire: Social et Emotionnel, abrégé ASQ:SE en anglais) a été examinée chez un échantillon de mères de jeunes bébés cherchant de l'aide. Elle a été comparée à des interactions dyadiques évaluées par un observateur indépendant, la qualité des relations dyadiques étant évaluée par des cliniciens experts. Les évaluations ASQ:SE ont aussi été comparées aux questionnaires sur la détresse et le stress psychologique maternel. Résultats: Le questionnaire ASQ:SE n'a pas été fortement mis en corrélation avec soit les évaluations externes d'interaction dyadique soit les qualités de la relation évaluées cliniquement, bien que ces deux dernières aient été fortement liées les unes aux autres. Par contre, les scores ASQ:SE étaient liés aux questionnaires qui portaient sur la détresse psychologique maternelle. Ceci s'est surtout avéré vrai pour les mères classifiées comme déprimées. De plus, les rapports sur le ASQ:SE étaient frotement prédits par le stress maternel. Cette étude met en lumière certains problèmes avec la validité simultanée du questionnaire ASQ:SE dans les échantillons cliniques. Elle démontre aussi un lien étroit entre la détresse psychologique des mères et leurs évaluations du fonctionnement social et émotionnel du nourrisson. Des recherches plus approfondies devraient porter sur la mesure dans laquelle le questionnaire ASQ:SE mesure spécifiquement le fonctionnement du nourrisson ou la détresse maternelle, et comment il fonctionne dans des échantillons cliniques par rapport à non-cliniques. Fragebögen der sozial-emotionalen Funktionsweisen, die auf Elternurteilen beruhen, werden zunehmend zur Klärung der Frage eingesetzt, ob eine ärztliche Überweisung im Rahmen von psychischer Gesundheit im Kleinkindalter induziert ist. Die Gültigkeit des Fragebogens zum Alter und zu den Entwicklungsstufen "Sozial Emotional" (ASQ: SE) wurde von einer Gruppe Hilfe-suchender Mütter mit Kleinkindern entwickelt. Die Fragebögen wurden von unabhängigern Beobachter innerhalb dyadischer Interaktionen validiert. Zusätzlich überprüften erfahrene Kliniker die Qualität der dyadischen Beziehungen. Die Bewertungen mittels ASQ: SE wurden darüber hinaus mit Fragebogen zu mütterlichen psychologischem Stress und Ängste verglichen. Ergebnisse: Die ASQ: SE zeigte keine signifikant Korrelation mit den externen Ergebnissen der dyadischen Interaktion oder den klinisch beurteilten Beziehungsqualitäten, obwohl die beiden letzteren trotzdem in Zusammenhang standen. Im Gegensatz dazu zeigten die Ergebnisse des ASQ: SE einen Zusammenhang mit den Fragebögen zur mütterlichen psychischen Belastung. Dies galt vor allem für Mütter die als depressiv eingestuft wurden. Außerdem machten die Ergebnisse des ASQ: SE eindeutige Vorhersagen was den mütterlicher Stress anbelangt. Die Studie weist auf einige Probleme der übereinstimmenden Gültigkeit des ASQ: SE in klinischen Stichproben hin. Es zeigt aber auch eine enge Verbindung zwischen mütterlicher psychischer Belastung und ihren Bewertungen der sozialen und emotionalen Funktionsfähigkeit ihrer Säuglinge hin. Weitere Forschung sollte untersuchen, inwieweit der ASQ: SE gezielt Maßnahmen zur Steigerung der Funktionalität von Säuglingen oder mütterliche Not misst und in wie weit der Fragebogen im klinischen bzw. nicht-klinischen Setting Gültigkeit behält. [source]

    Emotional and informational support for families during their child's illness

    A. Sarajärvi rn
    Purpose:, To describe and compare the support provided by nursing staff to families during their child's illness from the viewpoint of families and nurses. Method:, A survey method was used. Data were collected by questionnaires planned for families and staff separately. The study population consisted of families who visited paediatric outpatient clinics, families with hospitalized children (n = 344) and the paediatric nursing staff (n = 60). Findings:, Almost half of the families had received adequate emotional and informational support from the nursing staff for their physical and psychological reactions. One-fifth of the families reported that they had not been supported at all during the child's hospitalization. According to families and nurses, the support was provided in the forms of discussion, listening and giving time. Implications for practice:, Families' and nurses' suggestions for development of support were related to the time resources of the staff, to the flow of information, to more client-centred attitudes, to being appreciated and listened to and to home care guidance. However, the pervasiveness of this problem in the international literature suggests that deeper consideration of possible underlying reasons for this phenomenon is called for. [source]

    Development and Evaluation of a Measure of Dangerous, Aggressive, Negative Emotional, and Risky Driving,

    Chris S. Dula
    The Dula Dangerous Driving Index (DDDI) was created to measure drivers' self-reported likelihood to drive dangerously. Each DDDI scale (DDDI Total, Aggressive Driving, Negative Emotional Driving, and Risky Driving scales) had strong internal reliability and there was also evidence for the construct validity of the scales. The DDDI was used to examine the relation between dangerous and aggressive driving and dispositional aggression and anger among 119 college students. Males reported significantly more aggressive, risky, and angry driving than did females. Males and females reported similar levels of dangerous driving and negative emotions while driving. Dangerous driving was positively related to traffic citations and causing accidents. The DDDI will be useful as a research instrument to examine dangerous driving. [source]

    The impact of residential context on adolescents' Subjective Well being

    Elvira Cicognani
    Abstract The study investigates the impact of residential context on stressful events and Subjective Well being (Emotional and Psychological) in young people living in a deprived geographical area, and the mediating role of personal (Self-Efficacy) and social (Social Support, Sense of Community) variables. A questionnaire was submitted to 297 subjects (48.5% males): 203 adolescents (14,19 years old) and 94 young adults (20,27 years old), from different socio-economic (SES) levels. Results confirm the significant impact of the residential context on youngsters' perceived residential quality, Stress and Subjective Well being outcomes; such effect partly differs according to participants' gender and age. Adolescents are less satisfied of their living context and enjoy lower well being than young adults. Social resources (Friend and Family Support) significantly buffer the effect of a deprived residential context of youngsters' Well being, whereas personal resources (Self-Efficacy) directly increase Well being levels. Copyright © 2008 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Environmental enrichment stimulates progenitor cell proliferation in the amygdala

    Hiroaki Okuda
    Abstract Enriched environments enhance hippocampal neurogenesis, synaptic efficacy, and learning and memory functions. Recent studies have demonstrated that enriched environments can restore learning behavior and long-term memory after significant brain atrophy and neural loss. Emotional and anxiety-related behaviors were also improved by enriched stimuli, but the effect of enriched environments on the amygdala, one of the major emotion-related structures in the central nervous system, remains largely unknown. In this study, we have focused on the effects of an enriched environment on cell proliferation and differentiation in the murine amygdala. The enriched environment increased bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU)-positive (newborn) cell numbers in the amygdala, almost all of which, immediately after a 1-week period of enrichment, expressed the oligodendrocyte progenitor marker Olig2. Furthermore, enriched stimuli significantly suppressed cell death in the amygdala. Some of the BrdU-positive cells in mice exposed to the enriched environment, but none in animals housed in the standard environment, later differentiated into astrocytes. Our findings, taken together with previous behavioral studies, suggest that progenitor proliferation and differentiation in the amygdala may contribute to the beneficial aspects of environmental enrichment such as anxiolytic effects. © 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Party Identification in Emotional and Political Context: A Replication

    Francis Neely
    While testing an affective measure of party identification Burden and Klofstad (2005) found that using the phrase, "feel that you are," in place of, "think of yourself as," significantly shifted PID in a Republican direction. I adopt the theoretical framework of Affective Intelligence (Marcus, Neuman, & MacKuen, 2000) to specify how the timing of their question-wording experiment may have influenced the results. I suggest that the outcome was a function of (a) anxiety present during the survey, which ran just after 9/11 of 2001, coupled with (b) a political environment that favored Republicans. In a 2005 survey I replicate the experiment and collect new measures with which to test expectations. I find no significant shift in PID, and provisional support for the Affective Intelligence explanation. The results validate Burden and Klofstad's measure, qualify their findings, and test the application of the theory of Affective Intelligence to party dispositions. Alternative explanations and directions for further research are discussed. [source]

    Changes in Maltreated Children's Emotional,Behavioral Problems Following Typically Provided Mental Health Services

    Julie S. McCrae
    Child welfare agencies serve as gate keepers for children's mental health services (MHS). Yet, the impact of offered services on behavioral outcomes has not been well studied. Data from the National Survey of Child and Adolescent Well-Being (NSCAW) were examined to measure caregivers' reported change in children's emotional,behavioral problems. Over 600 children in three age groups were matched and problem levels compared across 3 years. Although behavioral problems for the total group improved across time, scores for children who received MHS slightly worsened. Children who received MHS scored 1.4,3.7 points worse than children who did not receive MHS. Additionally, young Black, Hispanic, and other racially identified children had more problems than young White children, regardless of service. Higher behavior problem scores were noted for school-age children and adolescents. Although child welfare appears to rely on a cluster of MHS, including school-based counseling and private practitioner services, future service delivery should expand from improving access to achieving outcomes. [source]

    Emotional and Behavioral Consequences of Bioterrorism: Planning a Public Health Response

    Millions of dollars have been spent improving the public health system's bioterrorism response capabilities. Yet relatively little attention has been paid to precisely how the public will respond to bioterrorism and how emotional and behavioral responses might complicate an otherwise successful response. This article synthesizes the available evidence about the likely emotional and behavioral consequences of bioterrorism to suggest what decision makers can do now to improve that response. It examines the emotional and behavioral impact of previous "bioterrorism-like" events and summarizes interviews with experts who have responded to such events or conducted research on the effects of communitywide disasters. The article concludes by reflecting on the evidence and experts' perspectives to suggest actions to be taken now and future policy and research priorities. [source]

    Emotional and self-esteem consequences of perceiving discrimination against a new identity group

    Cahal K. Meegan
    With a sample of Asian international students, the consequences of perceiving pervasive discrimination against one's in-group were examined by experimentally manipulating perceived discrimination (pervasive vs rare) and group identification (low vs high). We report evidence that supports and integrates aspects of two contrasted models; namely, the discounting model and the rejection,identification model. Consistent with both models, the effects of perceiving discrimination on one's psychological well-being depended on the level of group identification. Nevertheless, after reading about pervasive discrimination, low (vs high) identifiers reported less depressed affect, consistent with the discounting model. However, they also reported lower self-esteem, consistent with the rejection,identification model. [source]

    Insurance and quality of life in men with prostate cancer: data from the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urological Research Endeavor

    BJU INTERNATIONAL, Issue 6 2008
    Natalia Sadetsky
    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effect of medical insurance coverage on health-related quality of life (HRQoL) outcomes in men newly diagnosed with prostate cancer, as insurance status has been shown to be related to clinical presentation, and types of treatments received for localized prostate cancer, but the relationship of insurance and QoL has not been explored sufficiently. PATIENTS AND METHODS Data from the Cancer of the Prostate Strategic Urological Research Endeavor (CaPSURE), a national longitudinal database registry of men with prostate cancer, were used for this study. Men who were newly diagnosed at entry to CaPSURE and completed one questionnaire before treatment, and one or more afterwards, were included. Insurance groups specific to age distribution of the study population were assessed, i.e. Medicare, preferred provider organizations (PPOs), health maintenance organizations (HMOs), fee for service (FFS), and the Veterans Administration (VA) for the younger group, and Medicare only, Medicare plus supplement (+S), and HMO/PPO for the older group. Associations between patients' clinical and sociodemographic characteristics and insurance status were evaluated by chi-square and analysis of variance. Relationships between insurance status and HRQoL outcomes over time were evaluated by multivariate mixed model. RESULTS Of 2258 men who met the study criteria, 1259 were younger and 999 were older than 65 years. More than half of the younger patients belonged to an HMO or PPO (42.2% and 32.5%, respectively), with the remainder distributed between Medicare, FFS and VA. In the older group most men belonged to Medicare only and the Medicare +S groups (22.4% and 58.8%, respectively). There was greater variation in clinical risk categories at presentation by insurance groups in the younger group. In the multivariate analysis, insurance status was significantly associated with changes in most HRQoL outcomes over time in the younger group, while in the older patients the effect of insurance diminished. Men in the VA and Medicare systems had lower scores at baseline and a steeper decline in Physical Function, Role Physical, Role Emotional, Social Function, Bodily Pain, Vitality, and General Health domains over time, controlling for type of initial treatment received, timing of HRQoL assessment, number of comorbidities, clinical risk at presentation, and income. CONCLUSION Insurance was independently related to changes in a wide range of HRQoL outcomes in men aged <65 years treated for prostate cancer. With the latest advances in early diagnosis and treatment of prostate cancer, clinicians and researchers should be aware of the specific groups of patients who are more vulnerable to the adverse effects of treatment and subsequent decline in functioning. The present findings could provide important tools for understanding the process of recovery after treatment for prostate cancer, and identifying needs for specific services. [source]

    Handbook of Emotional and Behavioural Difficulties

    CHILD & FAMILY SOCIAL WORK, Issue 3 2005
    Ann Buchanan
    No abstract is available for this article. [source]

    Substance misuse amongst young people in non-school settings: challenges to practitioners and policy makers

    CHILD ABUSE REVIEW, Issue 4 2009
    Patrick McCrystal
    Abstract Over the past two decades the levels of substance misuse amongst children and young people have increased at a global level generally and within the UK in particular. Some school aged young people are considered to be at an increased risk to substance misuse, particularly those outside mainstream school. However, the literature on substance use by these young people remains comparatively limited. This paper explores this issue through an investigation of cannabis use trends amongst the High Risk Booster Sample of the Belfast Youth Development Study, a longitudinal study of adolescent substance use. It focuses upon the cannabis use patterns of young people excluded from school and those attending Emotional and Behavioural Difficulty units from the age of 11,16 years, groups who are historically categorised as vulnerable to substance misuse. The experience of these young people provides evidence to highlight the contemporary challenges facing policy makers and practitioners when addressing substance use and misuse use amongst these young people. Copyright © 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. [source]

    Young Children's Reasoning About the Effects of Emotional and Physiological States on Academic Performance

    CHILD DEVELOPMENT, Issue 1 2009
    Jennifer Amsterlaw
    This study assessed young children's understanding of the effects of emotional and physiological states on cognitive performance. Five, 6-, 7-year-olds, and adults (N= 96) predicted and explained how children experiencing a variety of physiological and emotional states would perform on academic tasks. Scenarios included: (a) negative and positive emotions, (b) negative and positive physiological states, and (c) control conditions. All age groups understood the impairing effects of negative emotions and physiological states. Only 7-year-olds, however, showed adult-like reasoning about the potential enhancing effects of positive internal states and routinely cited cognitive mechanisms to explain how internal states affect performance. These results shed light on theory-of-mind development and also have significance for children's everyday school success. [source]

    Emotional and behavioural problems in subgroups of children with chronic illness: results from a large-scale population study

    M. Hysing
    Abstract Background Children with chronic illness are known to have an increased risk of emotional and behavioural problems. In the present population-based study children with asthma, neurological disorders and other chronic illnesses were compared with children without chronic illnesses to assess differences in psychological presentation across illness groups. Methods A total of 537 children with parent-reported chronic illness in the Bergen Child Study were categorized into three groups: asthma, neurological disorders and other chronic illnesses. Emotional and behavioural problems were assessed by the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire. Results All three illness groups had an increased rate of emotional and behavioural problems, as well as increased probability of a psychiatric disorder compared with children without a chronic illness. Most children with asthma and other chronic illnesses did not have emotional and behavioural problems, and effect sizes were small in both groups. In children with neurological disorders the effect sizes ranged from moderate to large, with emotional problems, inattention hyperactivity and peer problems being the most frequent problems. Conclusions The increased rate of emotional and behavioural problems in children with chronic illness, especially neurological disorders, emphasizes the importance of early detection of mental health problems in these children. [source]


    Lionel Tate was 12 years old when he killed 6-year-old Tiffany Eunick. Tiffany had been staying at the Tate home and, by all accounts, got along well with Lionel. The two were playing at "wrestling" when Lionel decided to try out some moves that he had seen on television. He threw Tiffany across the room, inflicting fatal injuries. Despite the boy's tender age, the prosecutor transferred Lionel to criminal court on a charge of first-degree murder, an offense carrying a mandatory penalty of life without parole. The boy was given an opportunity to plead guilty to second-degree murder in return for a sentence of three years incarceration, but he rejected the offer. A jury subsequently convicted him of first-degree murder. At sentencing, the prosecution recommended leniency, which drew an angry response from the judge: If the state believed the boy did not deserve to be sent to prison for life, why hadn't it charged him with a lesser offense? Without any inquiry into the boy's cognitive, emotional, or moral maturity, the judge imposed the mandatory sentence.1 Raymond Gardner was 16 years old when he shot and killed 20-year-old Mack Robinson.2 Raymond lived in a violent urban neighborhood with his mother, who kept close watch over him. He had no prior record. He was an A student and worked part-time in a clothing store to earn money for college. On the day of the shooting, a friend came into the store to tell Raymond that Mack had a beef with him about talking to a girl, and was "looking to get him." The victim was known on the street as "Mack the Knife" because he always carried a small machete and was believed to have stabbed several people. To protect himself on the way home, Raymond took the gun kept under the counter of the shop where he worked. As he neared home, Mack and two other men approached and blocked his path. According to eyewitness testimony, Raymond began shaking, then pulled out the gun and fired. Mack ran into the street and fell. Raymond followed and fired five more shots into the victim's back as he lay dying on the ground. Raymond did not run. He just stood there crying. The prosecutor filed a motion in juvenile court to transfer Raymond on a charge of first-degree murder. The judge ordered a psychological evaluation, which addressed the boy's family and social background, medical and behavioral history, intelligence, maturity, potential for future violence and prospects for treatment. The judge subsequently denied the transfer motion. He found Raymond delinquent and committed him to a private psychiatric treatment facility.3 [source]

    A randomised controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis in a routine clinical service

    E. Peters
    Peters E, Landau S, McCrone P, Cooke M, Fisher P, Steel C, Evans R, Carswell K, Dawson K, Williams S, Howard A, Kuipers E. A randomised controlled trial of cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis in a routine clinical service. Objective:, To evaluate cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis (CBTp) delivered by non-expert therapists, using CBT relevant measures. Method:, Participants (N = 74) were randomised into immediate therapy or waiting list control groups. The therapy group was offered 6 months of therapy and followed up 3 months later. The waiting list group received therapy after waiting 9 months (becoming the delayed therapy group). Results:, Depression improved in the combined therapy group at both the end of therapy and follow-up. Other significant effects were found in only one of the two therapy groups (positive symptoms; cognitive flexibility; uncontrollability of thoughts) or one of the two time points (end of therapy: general symptoms, anxiety, suicidal ideation, social functioning, resistance to voices; follow-up: power beliefs about voices, negative symptoms). There was no difference in costs between the groups. Conclusion:, The only robust improvement was in depression. Nevertheless, there were further encouraging but modest improvements in both emotional and cognitive variables, in addition to psychotic symptoms. [source]

    Brain mechanisms underlying emotional alterations in the peripartum period in rats

    Inga D. Neumann
    Abstract In the period before and after parturition, i.e., in pregnancy and lactation, a variety of neuroendocrine alterations occur that are accompanied by marked behavioral changes, including emotional responsiveness to external challenging situations. On the one hand, activation of neuroendocrine systems (oxytocin, prolactin) ensures reproduction-related physiological processes, but in a synergistic manner also ensures accompanying behaviors necessary for the survival of the offspring. On the other hand, there is a dramatic reduction in the responsiveness of neuroendocrine systems to stimuli not relevant for reproduction, such as the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis responses to physical or emotional stimuli in both pregnant and lactating rats. With CRH being the main regulator of the HPA axis, downregulation of the brain CRH system may result in various behavioral, in particular emotional, adaptations of the maternal organisms, including changes in anxiety-related behavior. In support of this, the lactating rat becomes less emotionally responsive to novel situations, demonstrating reduced anxiety, and shows a higher degree of aggressive behavior in the test for agonistic behavior as well as in the maternal defense test. These changes in emotionality are independent of the innate (pre-lactation) level of anxiety and are seen in both rats bred for high as well as low levels of anxiety. Both brain oxytocin and prolactin, highly activated at this time, play a significant role in these behavioral and possibly also neuroendocrine adaptations in the peripartum period. Depression and Anxiety 17:111,121, 2003. © 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Childhood trauma in obsessive-compulsive disorder, trichotillomania, and controls

    Christine Lochner M.A.
    Abstract There is relatively little data on the link between childhood trauma and obsessive-compulsive/putative obsessive-compulsive spectrum disorders. The revised Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ), which assesses physical, emotional, and sexual abuse as well as physical and emotional neglect, was administered to female patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD; n = 74; age: 36.1 ± 16.3), TTM (n = 36; age: 31.8 ± 12.3), and a group of normal controls (n = 31; age: 21.5 ± 1.0). The findings showed a significantly greater severity of childhood trauma in general, and emotional neglect specifically, in the patient groups compared to the controls. Although various factors may play a role in the etiology of both OCD and trichotillomania (TTM), this study is consistent with some evidence from previous studies suggesting that childhood trauma may play a role in the development of these disorders. Depression and Anxiety 15:66,68, 2002. © 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

    Esthetic treatment modalities in men: psychologic aspects of male cosmetic patients

    Richard G Fried
    ABSTRACT:, Male cosmetic patients represent a growing population of individuals who can substantially benefit from well-chosen esthetic interventions. Understanding some of the unique aspects of the male psyche can result in more effective recruitment of male cosmetic patients and aid the clinician in helping these patients to choose appropriate interventions. Specific recommendations for the physician, staff, and office environment are provided. Illustrations of emotional and functional benefits are provided that can be shared with patients to enhance expectations and satisfaction with outcomes. [source]

    The psychosocial burden of childhood atopic dermatitis

    Sarah L. Chamlin
    ABSTRACT:, Atopic dermatitis is an extremely common childhood disease of increasing prevalence that greatly affects the quality of life of afflicted children and of their families. The disease alters the emotional and social functioning of the affected child and their family. The complex multidimensional effects of atopic dermatitis in children and families have been described qualitatively and measured quantitatively with quality of life instruments. Emotional effects on both the child and parents are predominant. The burden of atopic dermatitis can be improved by targeting parents and caregivers with education, psychosocial support, and specialty care. [source]

    Escaping Violence, Seeking Freedom: Why Children in Bangladesh Migrate to the Street

    Alessandro Conticini
    ABSTRACT In Bangladesh, as in many developing countries, there is a widespread belief amongst the public, policy makers and social workers that children ,abandon' their families and migrate to the street because of economic poverty. Ignoring and avoiding mounting evidence to the contrary, this dominant narrative posits that children whose basic material needs cannot be met within the household move to the street. This article explores this narrative through the analysis of detailed empirical research with children in Bangladesh. It finds that social factors lie behind most street migration and, in particular, that moves to the street are closely associated with violence towards and abuse of children within the household and local community. These findings are consistent with the wider literature on street migration from other countries. In Bangladesh, those who seek to reduce the flow of children to the streets need to focus on social policy, especially on how to reduce the excessive control and emotional, physical and sexual violence that occur in some households. Economic growth and reductions in income poverty will be helpful, but they will not be sufficient to reduce street migration by children. [source]

    Child to adult continuities of psychopathology: a 24-year follow-up

    J. Reef
    Objective:, To determine continuities of mental health problems of children across a 24-year follow-up period. Method:, In 1983, parent ratings of emotional and behavioral problems were collected with the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) in a general population sample of 2076 children. Twenty-four years later, 1365 participants completed Adult Self-Reports (ASR) to assess emotional and behavioral problems. Results:, Of the participants who were classified as deviant in childhood, 22.2% were also classified as deviant in adulthood. Both homotypic and heterotypic continuity was found. Childhood aggressive, delinquent, and anxious/depressed problems were associated with most adult psychopathology. Attention problems did not predict later problems independently. Conclusion:, Even though assessed with parent-reports in childhood and analogous self-reports in adulthood, and over a large period of 24 years, continuity of psychopathology was found from childhood into adulthood. Anxious/depressed problems, delinquent behavior and aggressive behavior in childhood are core predictors for adult psychopathology. [source]

    General measures of cognition for the preschool child

    Elizabeth O. LichtenbergerArticle first published online: 13 SEP 200
    Abstract Preschool-age children who are experiencing delays in physical, cognitive, communication, social, emotional, or adaptive development are often referred for a comprehensive assessment to make diagnostic determinations and to help develop appropriate interventions. Typically cognitive assessment has a key role in a comprehensive evaluation of a young child. In this article, five individually administered tests of cognitive ability, normed for the preschool-age child, are reviewed. These specific tests include the Bayley Scales of Infant Development, 2nd edition, the Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children, 2nd edition, the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence, 3rd edition, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale, 5th edition, and the Differential Abilities Scales. The following is provided for these cognitive instruments: a description of the test procedures, information on scoring systems, highlights of the technical qualities, and a summary of the general meaning of test results. The article concludes with strengths and limitations of the instruments. © 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc. MRDD Research Reviews 2005;11:197,208. [source]

    Sexuality in children and adolescents with disabilities

    Nancy Murphy MD
    This review presents a discussion of the sexual development of children and adolescents with disabilities, described in the framework of body structure and function, individual activities, and societal perspectives presented in the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health. Issues of sexual development, gynecological care and contraception, sexual functioning, societal barriers, sexual victimization, and sexuality education are presented. Overall, adolescents with disabilities seem to be participating in sexual relationships without adequate knowledge and skills to keep them healthy, safe, and satisfied. Although their sexual development may be hindered both by functional limitations and by intentional or unintentional societal barriers, the formal and informal opportunities for teenagers with disabilities to develop into sexually expressive and fulfilled persons do exist. Health care providers are urged to increase their awareness of this unmet need and to implement strategies that promote the physical, emotional, social, and psychosexual independence of children, teenagers, and young adults with disabilities. [source]