Embryonic CNS (embryonic + cns)

Distribution by Scientific Domains

Selected Abstracts

The commonly used marker ELAV is transiently expressed in neuroblasts and glial cells in the Drosophila embryonic CNS

Christian Berger
Abstract Glial cells in the Drosophila embryonic nervous system can be monitored with the marker Reversed-polarity (Repo), whereas neurons lack Repo and express the RNA-binding protein ELAV (Embryonic Lethal, Abnormal Vision). Since the first description of the ELAV protein distribution in 1991 (Robinow and White), it is believed that ELAV is an exclusive neuronal and postmitotic marker. Looking at ELAV expression, we unexpectedly observed that, in addition to neurons, ELAV is transiently expressed in embryonic glial cells. Furthermore, it is transiently present in the proliferating longitudinal glioblast, and it is transcribed in embryonic neuroblasts. Likewise, elav -Gal4 lines, which are generally used as postmitotic neuronal driver lines, show expression in neural progenitor cells and nearly all embryonic glial cells. Thus, in the embryo, elav can no longer be considered an exclusive marker or driver for postmitotic neurons. elav loss-of-function mutants show no obvious effects on the number and pattern of embryonic glia. Developmental Dynamics 236:3562,3568, 2007. 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Retinoic acid, a regeneration-inducing molecule

Malcolm Maden
Abstract Retinoic acid (RA) is the biologically active metabolite of vitamin A. It is a low molecular weight, lipophilic molecule that acts on the nucleus to induce gene transcription. In amphibians and mammals, it induces the regeneration of several tissues and organs and these examples are reviewed here. RA induces the "super-regeneration" of organs that can already regenerate such as the urodele amphibian limb by respecifying positional information in the limb. In organs that cannot normally regenerate such as the adult mammalian lung, RA induces the complete regeneration of alveoli that have been destroyed by various noxious treatments. In the mammalian central nervous system (CNS), which is another tissue that cannot regenerate, RA does not induce neurite outgrowth as it does in the embryonic CNS, because one of the retinoic acid receptors, RAR,2, is not up-regulated. When RAR,2 is transfected into the adult spinal cord in vitro, then neurite outgrowth is stimulated. In all these cases, RA is required for the development of the organ, in the first place suggesting that the same gene pathways are likely to be used for both development and regeneration. This suggestion, therefore, might serve as a strategy for identifying potential tissue or organ targets that have the capacity to be stimulated to regenerate. Developmental Dynamics 226:237,244, 2003. 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc. [source]

Nitric oxide regulates axonal regeneration in an insect embryonic CNS

Michael Stern
Abstract In higher vertebrates, the central nervous system (CNS) is unable to regenerate after injury, at least partially because of growth-inhibiting factors. Invertebrates lack many of these negative regulators, allowing us to study the positive factors in isolation. One possible molecular player in neuronal regeneration is the nitric oxide (NO),cyclic guanosine-monophosphate (cGMP) transduction pathway which is known to regulate axonal growth and neural migration. Here, we present an experimental model in which we study the effect of NO on CNS regeneration in flat-fillet locust embryo preparations in culture after crushing the connectives between abdominal ganglia. Using whole-mount immunofluorescence, we examine the morphology of identified serotonergic neurons, which send a total of four axons through these connectives. After injury, these axons grow out again and reach the neighboring ganglion within 4 days in culture. We quantify the number of regenerating axons within this period and test the effect of drugs that interfere with NO action. Application of exogenous NO or cGMP promotes axonal regeneration, whereas scavenging NO or inhibition of soluble guanylyl cyclase delays regeneration, an effect that can be rescued by application of external cGMP. NO-induced cGMP immunostaining confirms the serotonergic neurons as direct targets for NO. Putative sources of NO are resolved using the NADPH-diaphorase technique. We conclude that NO/cGMP promotes outgrowth of regenerating axons in an insect embryo, and that such embryo-culture systems are useful tools for studying CNS regeneration. 2007 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol, 2008 [source]

Identification of genes up-regulated by retinoic-acid-induced differentiation of the human neuronal precursor cell line NTERA-2 cl.D1

Frank Leypoldt
The human teratocarcinoma cell line NTERA-2 cl.D1 (NT2 cells) can be induced with retinoic acid and cell aggregation to yield postmitotic neurones. This seems to model the in vivo situation, as high concentrations of retinoic acid, retinoic acid binding proteins, and receptors have been detected in the embryonic CNS and the developing spinal cord suggesting a role for retinoic acid in neurogenesis. Suppression subtractive hybridization was used to detect genes up-regulated by this paradigm of neuronal differentiation. Microfibril-associated glycoprotein 2 was found to be drastically up-regulated and has not been implicated in neuronal differentiation before. Suppression subtractive hybridization also identified DYRK4, a homologue of the Drosophila gene minibrain. Minibrain mutations result in specific defects in the development of the fly central nervous system. In adult rats, DYRK4 is only expressed in testis, but our results suggest an additional role for DYRK4 in neuronal differentiation. We have shown that suppression subtractive hybridization in conjunction with an efficient screening procedure is a valuable tool to produce a repertoire of differentially expressed genes and propose a new physiological role for several identified genes and expressed sequence tags. [source]